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ceived from a keen student of politics and tion, therefore, must largely depend for reform economics, of long residence in Cuba in

on one-sided statements, because of the lack of capacity which has afforded him, during the any representative party to set forth the other

side in an organized manner. past ten years, excellent opportunity for observing actualities. There are two main rea

Recognizing that a prolonged occupation sons, he declares, for the depression in Cuba. by the American authorities is necessary, the One is the lack of personal rights on the part Provisional Government has begun to bestir of the inhabitants of the island, and the itself about material reforms. Says this obother the commercial unrest which is evi- server: dent in the want of confidence on the part The conclusion of the sugar harvest has left of both labor and capital. The moneyed many laborers idle. A phenomenal dry season man has, says the writer of this letter, no has so far made new planting impossible, and adequate security that he will ever get his advantage is being taken of these conditions to

push forward many public works of utility with money back. · He therefore charges inordi- the greatest economy possible. Among these is nate interest and demands inordinate secu- a well-considered plan for a great central highrity. Usury is, accordingly, one of the curses way which shall. tap all the rich agricultural

of the island with an artery of communiof present-day Cuba. On the other hand, cation by which products can reach their marlabor is almost absolutely unprotected. kets. This will necessitate the disbursement of There is no such thing as the mechanic's some $4,000,000, chiefly for materials and labor, lien or its equivalent. In Cuba the laborer among the very classes now out of employment. is considered last. "" Not until farmers and It will also relieve the industrial situation tem

porarily, permanently benefit the farmers of the laborers are reasonably sure of the fruits of island, and help to put into circulation the miltheir labor will there be indụstrial tranquil- lions of surplus which the bankers refused to lity in Cuba, and commercial tranquillity will accept at 2 per cent. as a loan. The smaller How at once from industrial tranquillity.” Sanitary conditions under the direction of Amer

towns are also being assisted to improve their The principal difficulty in the way of secur- ican army officers, with further disbursement of ing these reforms, we are told, is the apathy public funds for works of general utility. of the conservative elements.

The personalities and careers of They are relying upon the strony arm of the United States to maintain law and order, and are

Delegates at our American delegates to the therefore quietly abstaining from taking any

The Hague. Hague Peace Conference are so effective part in public affairs. Thus the very interesting and significant that in this conelements that must eventually govern Cuba, as nection we offer no apology for calling the every other nation, are contributing to delay the hour when the American troops can evacuate the reader's attention to our contributed article island.

on page 673 this month.

Before the con

ference meets the interest is largely in perThe writer of this letter insists sonalities, and the governments of the world Reforms in that it is already recognized by have in almost all cases appointed delegates

all intelligent Cubans that the whose names stand for dignity and progress. island, being the key to the Panama Canal, By the middle of May these appointments

can never be permitted by the Government had been announced: The British delegates of the United States to pass into hostile are Sir Edward Fry, a member of the permahands, or, by incompetent administration, to nent Court of Appeals at The Hague ; Sir become a source of international peril.” Ernest Satow', British Minister to China;

This being recognized, the conservative ele- Lord Reay, the president of the Royal Asiatic ments of Cuban society, without much regard to Society; Sir Henry Howard, British Minparty, smile at the prospect of an end to the ister to The Hague, besides military, naval,

Intervention.” They declare that no end is pos- and international law experts. France sends sible and that, after all, it is not the form of intervention but the fact of American control of the M. Léon Bourgeois, former Premier of the situation which interests them. Hence these ele- Republic; Baron d'Estournelles de Constant, ments have thus far failed to perfect any organi- Senator and well-known advocate of internazation to succeed the now defunct “ Moderato

tional arbitration; and M. Louis Renault, party, leaving the “Liberales," so badly divided among themselves over the candidacy of various France's permanent representative at the generals, to control the situation so far as per- Hague Tribunal. Italy will be represented mitted by the Provisional Government. These by Count Tornielli, Ambassador to France; having no organization and exhibiting considera- Signor Guido Pompili

, Under-Secretary of ble apathy about organizing, there remains only Foreign Affairs, and Signor Fusinato, memthe late insurgent element to be heard from in any truly representative way. The Administra- ber of the House of Deputies and authority


the Island.

on international law. The Russian delegates will be: Count Nelidoff, Prof. Theodore Martens, international law expert, and Dr. Charikov, Russian Minister at The Hague. Austria sends Privy Councillor Merey von Kaposmere, Baron von Maccio, of the Department of Foreign Affairs, and Prof. Heinrich Lammasch, expert on international law. Dr. F. Hagerup, Norwegian Minister to Denmark, will represent his country at The Hague. Japan sends an impressive delegation, which includes Mr. K. T. Sutsuki, of the Foreign Office; Dr. Aimana Sato, Japanese Minister at The Hague; Rear-Admiral Shimamura, Major-General Akiyama, and Mr. H. W. Dennison, the American advisor to the Japanese Foreign Office.


'The British

Colonial Conference.


The conspicuous result of the
British Colonial Conference,

which met in London in late April and early May, was the refusal of the imperial government to accede to the scheme for colonial trade preference, a policy which was favored by all the assembled premiers,

A snap shop of M. Viviani, the out-and-out Socialist with the exception of Sir Wilfrid Laurier:

of the Clémenceau cabinet. All attempts to commit the federal government to the policy of protection, under the in order to favor the United States. In a name of preference, were defeated, the Cana- dramatic speech he announced that Newdian Premier always voting with the govern- foundland denies the right of the home govment, and General Botha, of the Transvaal, ernment to permit what Newfoundland's being on most occasions his supporter. The laws forbid. It is to be hoped and confidentsensational events of the sessions were the ly expected that under the broad, progressive, speeches by Mr. Alfred Deakin, Premier of and conciliatory methods of Ambassador Australia, and Sir Robert Bond, of New- Bryce speedy progress will be made in the foundland. Mr. Deakin, speaking at a din- settlement of this long-standing difference ner of the Pilgrim Society of London, pre- with Newfoundland. dicted in the near future a tremendous struggle for the control of the Pacific. The Brit

As a direct result of the May ish Colonial Office, declared Mr. Deakin, is

Day labor demonstrations in

Victory. farther from the colonies than the colonies

France, the position of the Cléare from the Colonial Office. He wished it menceau ministry is stronger than ever in the to be noted, however, as unalterable Austra- republic. On the first day of last month lian sentiment, that "England had not al- some minor demonstrations occurred, ending lowed a rival European nation (referring to with the arrest of several of the labor leaders the German occupation of the New Heb- in Paris for disorder. The crux of the siturides), to get a foothold close to Australia ation, however, was reached when M. Jaurés, without a warning from the colony.” Dur- the Socialist deputy in Parliament, followed ing the last century the British Government by MM. Deschanel and Ribot, almost blunthad not been called on for a test of sea su- ly asked the government to disclose its labor premacy, but in a few years, Mr. Deakin con- policy. The attack of the extreme Socialists, tinued, without mentioning nations by name, led by Jaurés, turned upon the refusal of England would have to fight for the suprem- Minister Briand to authorize the formation acy of the Pacific with Germany, Japan, and of labor unions by the school teachers and perhaps the United States of America. Sir other state officials. The Premier denied Robert Bond presented the Canadian fisheries being antagonistic to the principles of laborargument, claiming that the imperial govern- unionism, but strongly opposed what he

Premier Clé-

of the Confederation Générale du Travail objections advanced by German exporters. (General Confederation of Labor). After Certain reductions, also, are made upon heated debate the chamber expressed confi- goods imported from Germany as permitted dence in the government by a vote of 343 to under the provisions of the Dingley tariff act. 210. M. Clémenceau's vigorous and fair- In German home politics the passage of the minded attitude has received the support of Colonial Ministry bill, early in May, was moderate people throughout the republic. one of the chief happenings of interest. The While the sympathies of his ministry are with attitude of the empire on the advisability of the labor movement in general,-as testified discussing at the Hague Conference the quesby the presence in his cabinet of Ministers tion of disarmament continues to provide a Briand and Viviani, the latter an out-and-out subject for discussion in the European press. Socialist, the moderate ground invariably The formal utterances of the Kaiser's repretaken by him in the suppression of disorder sentatives at the Dutch capital will be looked has won him the confidence, not only of his forward to with interest and concern by the own countrymen, but of Europe in general. entire world. It is a rather significant fact

that, during the past few months, according Economic and

By the approval in the Reichstag, to a statement made by Count von PosadowIndustrial early last month, of the tariff sky-Wehner, Secretary of the Interior, emiGermany.

modus vivendi between Germany gration from Germany has practically ceased. and the United States, the trade interests of The Minister is reported to have said: both countries have their relations fixed for another year at least and probably for an in- porter of men. She has become an importer and

Germany has definitely ceased to be an exdefinite period in the future. This " Project on an increasingly large scale. Not only our of Commercial Agreement," as it is termed, manufacturers, but also our farmers, are now extends to this country the benefit of the wrestling with the problem of where to find sufmost-favored-nation clauses of the German foreign labor is obtainable, Russian, Polish, Hun

ficient hands. They are compelled to hire what tariff, in return for which certain concessions garian, and Italian, while we have lately witin the method of levying duties are made by nessed the strange spectacle of even England the United States customs authorities to meet being drawn upon to ameliorate the abnormal

conditions in our dock, arms, and ammunition 'trades.

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Political Move

Important elections under new ments in franchise law's occurred in May Central Europe.

throughout the Austrian Empire which will result in a Reichsrath of many widely different groups. Especially noteworthy has been the gains of the Socialists. In the last Parliament they had eleven seats; in the next one they will control more than seventy. The new Swedish Franchise Reform bill, which is now before the King for his signature, will largely extend the suffrage. It will also make a reduction of the property qualification for eligibility to election to the upper house. In Belgium the disagreement continues between the Parliament and the King over labor questions and the future of the Congo. The Smet de Naeyer ministry, after being in power for eight years, was forced out of office early in April because of the Premier's inability to reconcile the interests of the King and Parliament. It would appear that a crisis in the affairs of the Congo were near, and the world will

await with interest the decision of the BelLeopold : “My Congo!"

gian people as represented in their Parliament Belgium : “No, not your Congo. My handmaid regarding the future administration of this she shall be."

From the Amsterdammer (Amsterdam). great Central African domain.



Birth of the

A general Spanish election in Heir.

Spain is of no importance whatsoever compared with the birth of an heir to the Spanish throne. The youthful Spanish monarchs have, by their independence and the human interest attaching to their real romance, won a place for themselves in the affections of the entire world. King Alfonso defied century-old etiquette in his search for a bride, and interested the whole world last year in his courtship. On May 31, 1906, it will be remembered, he married the lady of his choice, Princess Ena of Battenberg, niece of King Edward of England. As far as the outside world can know, it has been an unusually happy royal marriage and has received its culminating joy in the birth of an heir, on the roth of last month. All the ceremony required by Spanish royal etiquette was rigorously adhered to upon this great occasion. To the company of royalists, grandees, ambassadors, and high officials assembled

The elections, which were held

An Angloin an adjoining room of the palace, the Spanish on April 21, resulted in a subyoung King presented the royal infant on a


stantial government majority and golden tray, exclaiming in the traditional a Socialist loss, the new Cortes beginning its formula: "Gentlemen, I present to you my sessions on May 13. No governmental event, beloved son, Prince of the Asturias, successor however, could serve to unite political Spain to the throne of Spain, to whom my dear so much as the birth of an heir. Even the wife, her Majesty the Queen, has just given Carlists and the Republicans appear to have birth.” All the solemn dignitaries assembled succumbed to the grace, beauty, and demothen forgot their etiquette and cheered heart- cratic character of the popular young Queen. ily. To celebrate the occasion King Alfonso Spain is a country particularly exposed to distributed a large sum of money among the anti-dynastic movements, but these will all poor of his capital, proclaimed a three-days receive a setback by the birth of a prince holiday throughout the kingdom, and decreed royal. The little boy was christened on the the pardon of thousands of prisoners. The 18th, with Pope Pius, King Edward, and child is reported to be a healthy, robust lad. Emperor William as sponsors, receiving the He will have an English governess, as well names Alfonso Pio Christino Eduardo Fran










tion had been made out and all but signed. The Constitutional Democrats and their moderate allies in the Duma had managed to so conciliate the administration as to bring about the enactment of some necessary legislation. Several of the Radical groups, however, realizing the impossibility of conducting their deliberations in Russia, left the country to hold a secret congress abroad. They were not permitted to assemble in Finland or Sweden, but finally succeeded in holding their meetings in London. It was realized by the British authorities and by the delegates themselves that upon their conduct largely depended the fate of the Russian Parliament at St. Petersburg. The result of their deliberations has not been made public, but it is reported to have been a declaration for armed resistance. At the same time, good authority has it that the British King and his ministers intimated to the Russian Ambassador at London that the pending AngloRussian treaty, so much desired in Russia for political as well as financial reasons, would not be negotiated if the Russian Government broke its promise to the Russian people by dissolving the Duma. According to an article in the dignified and well-informed Journal de Genéve, no British cabinet whose existence depended on the Mother of Parliaments could afford to sign a treaty

with a government which almost immediately nando Antonio. He is, moreover, Prince of after accepting the principle of parliamentary the Asturias, a title given to the first-born representation should give the lie to its proson of a King of Spain. This title resembles fessions and openly flout a system to which it that of the Prince of Wales in England, since had not given a fair trial.” Therefore, the both Wales and the Asturias are principali- Duma was not dissolved. ties, the refuge of aboriginal inhabitants who have long remained unconquered. It is re

While the rest of the empire is

The Triumph ported that, on his recent visit to the Spanish of the still convulsed by the revolutionKingdom, King Edward succeeded in bring

Finnish Women.

ary movement, Finland has reing about an understanding amounting to a cently accomplished a triumph of peace and friendly alliance between the two countries. order. By the provisions of its new consti

This understanding will be made clearer and tution (already referred to more than once the tie drawn closer by the advent of the new in these pages) the Finnish women have not baby, who is a great-grandson of Queen Vic- only voted but have been elected to serve as toria of England.

legislators on equal terms with men.

exact results of the elections held on March It was a strange turn of the 15 are now known, and it is found that șineEngland and the Russian wheel of fortune which virtually teen women have been returned to sit in the

put into the hands of the British Finnish Landdag, the entire membership of Government and the British people, during which is 200. It is also stated that a larger April and May, the fate of representative proportion of the registered women than of government in Russia. During the last days the registered men actually went to the balof April a number of violent speeches by lot boxes. In the capital, Helsingfors, 16,Radicals and Socialists in the Duma had so 900 women voted, as against 12,600 men. angered Czar and his Premier that it was Those actually elected to Parliament inconfidently asserted that a decree of dissolu- cluded a minister's wife, several professional

Photograph by Underwood & Underwood.


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