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thoroughly debated a number of "modern" and "radical" ideas,-there was a strong radical element in the convention, thanks to ex-Mayor Dunne,-and finally elaborated a compromise charter that seemed satisfactory to all groups and interests. The charter was submitted to the State Legislature in the form of a bill and was the feature of the recent session. For weeks its fate was in doubt, for many of the "country legislators" feared Chicago was practically about to secede from the State and set up a rival Legislature. But all obstacles and difficulties,-many of them serious, were finally overcome, and in the last hours of the session the charter bill was passed by a very narrow margin.


Chicago is rejoicing and enthusiand Economic astically congratulating herself Benefits on the result, and she is certainly entitled to gratulation. Her new charter is not a model in any sense and will not contribute anything to the science or art of municipal government. The Legislature missed its opportunity and failed to profit by the thought and experience of municipal reformers. It rejected several significant and advanced provisions that the Chicago convention had inserted after much reflection and full consideration. It refused to make the slightest concession to independent voting, to popular control of party by means of direct primaries, and to the demand for local option in Sunday observance. But it has at least freed Chicago from galling fetters and given her what may be called the necessaries of municipal life and growth. The new charter enables her to consolidate her taxing and administrative bodies, to place her park systems under one management instead of three, to improve and extend her revenue system so as to raise more money by reasonable taxation, to increase her bonded indebtedness fivefold for permanent improvements, and to control more effectually, or even municipalize, such public utilities as telephones, tunnels, gas, and electric plants. Further, the new charter provides for a referendum on any important franchise at the request of 10 per cent. of the registered voters. Chicago is given the authority to amend her own charter in certain specified directions and is made more independent of the Legislature. The number of aldermen is reduced from seventy to fifty, and the aldermanic term is raised to four years. The benefits from the charter, which has to be referred to the people of Chicago,-will be chiefly material

and economic. Cleaner streets, better bridges, better pavements, a more efficient police, should result from it. Had the Legislature been more progressive Chicago would have obtained much more, but she is thankful for the favors received and has every reason to be so, considering the "remarkable unresponsiveness of the Legislature to really progressive propositions," in the words of the vigilant Legislative Voters' League.

The Idaho Murder Cases.

The country's attention was centered in a remarkable way, last month, on a murder trial conducted at Boise City, the capital of the State of Idaho. On December 30, 1905, ex-Governor Frank Steunenberg was assassinated by means of a bomb planted at the gate in front of his house at Caldwell, Idaho. Six years before, his official actions as Governor at the time of the labor riots in the Coeur d'Alene mining district, in obtaining the aid of federal troops, had been bitterly resented by the Western Federation of Miners. On the person of Harry Orchard, who was arrested on suspicion of complicity in the murder, were found papers which were believed to establish a connection with William D. Haywood, secretary and treasurer of the miners' union; · Charles H. Moyer, its president, and George A. Pettibone, a member of its executive committee. The trials of these men for conspiracy to commit murder, beginning with that of Haywood, are now in progress. It was alleged many months ago that a confession had been procured from Orchard implicating the union officials in many other murders committed in the mining districts of Idaho and Colorado, as well as in the killing of Steunenberg. The interest of organized labor in the case became acute and widespread when the Governor of Colorado honored a requisition for Moyer, Haywood, and Pettibone, and the men were arrested and taken, without the privilege of consulting counsel or seeing members of their families, by special train to Idaho. The United States. Supreme Court later sustained the validity of this procedure, but an unusually virulent agitation in behalf of the prisoners has spread throughout the labor-unions of the country. President Roosevelt's characterization of them as "undesirable citizens," while it had no reference to the crime for which they had been placed on trial, was taken up by the Socialist, agitators, who sought to have it appear as an attempt to prejudice the case. A large fund was raised for the defense of the


accused men, and eminent counsel were engaged. After the first few days at Boise City even the irreconcilables among the Socialist leaders in attendance seemed ready to admit that the Idaho authorities were disposed to grant the accused a fair and impartial trial. The process of selecting a jury occupied many wearisome days.


This month of June will witness Philippine the first general election of dele

Election. gates to a popular assembly in the Philippine Islands. The steps by which this important event in the political history of the Philippines has been brought about have been hardly noticed by the American public. Five years ago Congress passed a law which provided that whenever a condition of general and complete peace shall have been established," and the fact of its establishment certified by the president of the Philippine Commission, "the President upon being satisfied thereof shall order a census." It is further provided by the law that if the

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peaceful conditions should continue for two Copyright, 1907, by I. Benjamin, Cincinnati. years after the completion and publication of the census an election for the choice of delegates to the popular assembly shall be called by the direction of the president. The census was completed and published on March 28, 1905, and, two years having passed without

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fixed by the commission for the election, which is to be held in all of the territory not inhabited by Moros or other non-Christian tribes. While at least one of the political parties in the islands has declared for immediate independence, it is impossible to say whether any considerable number of delegates will be elected upon that platform. The National Progressive party, successor of the Federals, has adopted a platform looking to ultimate independence, but proposing no radical steps at present. Parties in the Philippines have always resembled personal factions or juntas, rather than bodies of voters united on particular policies or principles.



and Senatorial.

The date of the assembling of Presidential, the Philippine Legislature has been fixed for the latter part of October, to suit the convenience of Secretary Taft, who will visit the archipelago at that time. The Secretary will return to Washington before the holidays, and will probably make such recommendations to Congress as may have been suggested by his observations on the trip. Mr. Taft's candidacy for the Presidency has steadily developed in strength. There was every indication last month that he would receive the practically unanimous support of his State,

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and the Foraker leaders seemed eager to an- Mississippi and the Great Lakes, and will nounce their indorsement of his candidacy, consider all general subjects connected with irrespective of the contest for Mr. Foraker's the inland water system of the country along seat in the Senate. After a month's deadlock the broadest lines. The Administration at the Republicans of the Wisconsin Legislature Washington attaches great importance to the succeeded in nominating the Hon. Isaac work of this commission, believing that as Stephenson to succeed Senator Spooner. Mr. one result of its labors the "log-rolling Stephenson, whose election promptly fol- schemes of river improvement that have prelowed his nomination, is a millionaire lumberman and banker, an ardent supporter of Senator La Follette in his policies, and a man of considerable experience in public life, having been a member of the lower house of Congress for six years in the '80's. The Rhode Island Legislature, after a long session spent in deadlock, was compelled to adjourn without having chosen a Senator. The election of members of the next Rhode Island Legislature will be fought out on the basis of votes for the various senatorial candidates.

Our Inland.

vailed in the past will be superseded by an orderly, definite policy of improvement and control. The commission owes its existence largely to the activity of certain commercial organizations of the Mississippi Valley, which had in view the attainment of lower freight rates through the construction of a deep waterway from the Lakes to the Gulf, and this aspect of the waterways problem will doubtless receive the commission's earnest attention. But its investigations will cover a much broader field, as was indicated by the President's letter of March 14 last to Chairman Burton, summarized in the April number of this magazine.

The last Congress provided for
Immigration the creation of an immigration
commission, with authority to

The new Inland Waterways Commission, appointed by PresiWaterways. dent Roosevelt to investigate the improvement of rivers and harbors, the utilization of streams for irrigation, and the reclamation of swamp lands, has been organized with Representative Burton, of Ohio, as chair- visit foreign countries, there to ascertain the man; Senator Newlands as vice-chairman, conditions affecting immigration. At the and Dr. W J McGee as secretary. The com- same time, the Immigration bill, passed at mission will make visits of inspection of the the last session, authorized the President to

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Reading from left to right: Senator A. C. Latimer, South Carolina; Mr. W. R. Wheeler, California; Senator H. C. Lodge, Massachusetts; Prof. J. W. Jenks, Cornell University; Senator W. B. Dillingham, Vermont, chairman; Mr. Morton E. Crane, Massachusetts, secretary; Representative Wm. S. Bennet, New York; Mr. Walter W. Husband, clerk Senate Committee; Representative B. F. Howell, New Jersey; Representative J. L. Burnett, Alabama; Commissioner of Labor Charles P. Neill.

country all persons having criminal records in the countries of their birth.


enter into agreements with foreign nations will visit Italy, Austria-Hungary, Russia, for the purpose of preventing immigration Poland, the Netherlands, Belgium, France, into the United States of aliens who were and possibly England. An earnest effort will not entitled under the restrictions imposed be made by the commission to devise some by our laws to enter our ports. President method by which the history of intending Roosevelt appointed the following gentle- immigrants from foreign countries may be men as members of this important commis- ascertained, as it has always been the policy sion: Senator Dillingham, of Vermont, of our Government to exclude from this chairman; Senators Latimer, of South Carolina, and Lodge, of Massachusetts; Representatives Howell, of New Jersey; Bennet, of New York, and Burnett, of Alabama; Commissioner of Labor Neill, Prof. J. W. Jenks, of Cornell University, and W. R. Wheeler, of California. The members of the commission, with the exception of Senator Lodge, Professor Jenks, and Commissioner Neill, will spend the greater part of the summer in Europe, while Messrs. Neill and Jenks will remain in this country, devoting themselves to the collection and preparation of statistics regarding immigration, the disposition of immigrants, and so forth, which it is desired to incorporate in the final report. The members of the commission who will go abroad

The spring of 1907 is likely to Exceptionally be remembered for many years Cold Spring. for the severity of its weather conditions. Hardly any part of the United States was exempt from continued cold and unprecedented snowfall. March and April weather continued until mid-May. The effect of these unusual conditions on the wheat crop of the Middle West was watched with anxiety in all the centers of the world's grain trade. Alarming reports of injury to the Western grain fields were spread broadcast in the interest of speculators. Doubtless these exaggerated the damage greatly. The

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