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ly that the native population of the island has increased fourfold in the past century. The important question arises: How has she achieved her success?
The Malay of Java is by no means either so devoid of energy or so tame that he will bear lasting injustice or mismanagement. Severity, violence even, he will endure if they are conditioned by tradition and custom. But he will not stand a palpable injustice. For the time he appears perfectly impassive, but he secretly sharpens his kris or dagger and attacks the unjust overseer by night or in some lonely spot. The familiar phenomenon, too, in the Sunda Islands of running amuck must "give us pause." The Dutch system of government, then, has these features:
To be regardful of the feudal conditions which prevailed at the conquest of the country, modifying them only as self-interest demands. The old princes and nobles have remained; the honorary service which they regard as the essence of their dignity has been maintained. The Dutch of ficials, termed Residents, were co-ordinated with the native rulers in such a way that a native prince of the same district was to be treated as on an equal social plane, though as a younger brother, a minor.
The princes are in receipt of a large income, now paid by the Dutch Government, the greatest of them obtaining $360,000 or over, while the Governor-General receives but $108,000 and the Residents about $14,
The government is administered by natives as far as possible. Only the higher functions fall everywhere into the hands of the conquerors. To the lower grades of service in every department, as clerical employees, as surveyors, even physicians, the natives are admitted, and are prepared for these vocations in special schools.
The Dutch officials must master the language of the island completely. They are prepared in this in special schools in Delft and Leyden, where they likewise acquire a knowledge of East Indian institutions.
greater, indeed proverbial, energy, and the greatness and power of his motherland.
A Nation's Duty to Its Colonies. During a recent after-dinner speech at the Colonial Congress, held in Paris recently, M. G. Leygues, French Minister of Colonies (as reported in the Journal de St. Petersburg), said:
Colonial work is rough and hard, but for the normal man no work can be more ennobling. To colonize is to go forward in our might to meet and to civilize races that need our protection and our instruction, to bend our wills to the exigencies of new conditions and new climates, to exercise our mental strength on the complex problems of the infinite diversity and the infinite possibilities of unknown life and unknown ground. To colonize means to call to being by new birth. It means creation. The material result is to increase the national capital and the capital of the universe, by lighting fires on untried hearthstones, and to make a dwelling place for hope and courage in a far-off land. Colonization is the highest work of man's fraternity, because the human good is the real reason,-the only reason,-for colonization. Colonization that aims at any object lower than the human good.-man's moral education and his physical well-being, is a low, degrading, and brutal work, a work unworthy of the strong
It never can be anything but dangerous, M. Leygues continued, to hold possession of a suffering or a weak colony. No country can hold colonies with any credit,—or with any benefit to itself,-unless it can assure its possessions of peace, order, and comfort.
France keeps peace in her domains beyond the seas because her policy is broad and generous. We have proved to our colonists that we are true. They know that we are acting for the common interests, theirs and ours. We have taught them that the real meaning of our liberty is brotherhood. This talk of "assimilation" is all wrong. There is no such thing possible. The idea is an error, and we must renounce it now and forever. No one has ever "assimilated" the races. In the diverse forms racial genius, racial morals, racial intellect, the essenFor outsiders the question is, indeed, not how tial racial qualities, there are equivalencies or the system could be improved, but, rather, what correspondencies, but there can be no identity. they may learn from Dutch colonial administra- Why should we impose our mental habits, our tion. We may learn something from every one, tastes, our manners, customs, and laws on people -and Holland, eminently practical to start with, for whom the words "family," 'society," and and rich with the experience of time, teaches us property" hold a meaning diametrically oppothat she has achieved her great successes by site to the meaning that they, hold for us? striving to adapt herself as closely and as wisely France knows better than to force her colonists as possible to foreign conditions, not in accord- to the impossible. We do not attempt such an ance with a scheme concocted at the council- imposition.-first, because the national nature is table, but in touch with actual life. The Dutch- broad; next, because the barest philosophy man seeks to know the real soul of the people, would teach us better; and, last of all, because and treats them in accordance with that knowl- we know that to exploit such a policy would be edge; he is, in spite of his northern nature, remarkably adaptable; he conforms to the strangers' ways, their dress, and so on, in contrast to the Englishman, who drags his country with him everywhere. If the latter is, in spite of this, a good colonist, it is owing to his still
to play with fire. Such play would be dangerous; it would breed suspicion and defiance in our colonists. The fundamental principle of colonial policy should be unquestioning respect for the beliefs, the customs, the traditions of the subjugated or the protected people.
A NEGLECTED HERO, THE RUSSIAN ZEMSTVO
ALTHOUGH the word zemstvo has
loomed big in press dispatches during the past two years, and although this somewhat characteristic Russian institution has been freely discussed in magazines and general literature, the physician of the zemstvo has been only briefly mentioned when he was mentioned at all. In order to do tardy justice to a neglected hero, Dr. Wigdortschik gives a sketch (in the Russische Medicinische Rundschau, of Berlin) of the work of the zemstvo physician.
Dr. Wigdortschik first calls attention to the generally known fact that Russia is divided into governments and districts. But it is not so generally known that every district is divided into several medical districts, the number varying from three to ten, according to the size of the district and the development which the practice of medicine enjoys in the locality. In those governments, however, which are thickly populated, and in which the zemstvo organization is in the hands of progressive men, the size of the medical districts is reduced to a minimum. This is the case with the Moscow government, where the average radius of the medical district is only about nine kilometers, although the contrary is true for the Vologda government, which is thinly populated, where the medical districts have a radius of sixty or more kilometers. Likewise, the number of people in a single district varies widely; we have a minimum of 13,500 in the Petersburg government, and a maximum, 60,000, in the Ufa government.
These medical districts are the workrooms of the zemstvo physician, and this man is the guiding mind in the vast system of free medical assistance which is given the people by the zemstvo bodies. In choosing a place for the residence of the physician, density of population and means of communication are the deciding factors, since the residence of the physician is the central point in the development of the entire medical work of the district. Consequently we find grouped around the physician's residence the different buildings which are included in the scheme of free medical assistance: hospital, pharmacy, lying-in pavilion, and so forth, although it must be understood that the completeness of the installation is not the same for all districts.
The zemstvo physician is assisted in his work by men and women physicians and by. midwives, and "thanks to the development of schools and colleges during the last decade, an army of devoted and unselfish workers has been brought into the field. These men and women stick to the head physician to the last breath."
The physician of the large city who thinks that he is overworked will do well to consider the prodigies accomplished by his Russian colleague. There is no doubt that only a man devoted to the cause and totally forgetful of self would ever enter this exacting field.
hospital work, but he is obliged to make periodiNot only must the physician take care of his cal trips through his entire district. Every day hundreds of sick persons come to the hospital from all parts of the country, and it frequently happens that a zemstvo physician sees and prescribes for from 100 to 200 patients a day. Naturally it is impossible for the physician to make anything like a complete investigation under these circumstances, but the unavoidable also by the reception of a large number of the neglect is balanced by later examinations and patients in the hospital. The evil is also mitigated in many governments by increasing the number of medical districts, in that of Moscow, to forty per physician and per day. The great for example, the number of patients is limited names which glorify Russian medical annals are nearly all of men who have served their time in the zemstvo work. In many an outlying district one frequently finds a medicament in application or a surgical procedure in use which has just been described in some international medical journal. Many of the zemstvo physicians also become extremely skillful surgeons, and it is by no means rare for one of the men to be called from the field to some great university.
The salary which the zemstvo physician receives in no sense compensates for the value given, although this is somewhat due to the nature of the work. Thus, the physician is paid by the zemstvo and nothing is received from the patients themselves.
The patient in the majority of cases is in no position to pay for medical advice nor does he feel an obligation to do so, as the physician is paid by the taxes collected from the peasants. It happens, however, that the peasant at times does offer the physician an honorarium, but in almost any case the proffered fee is refused, because the physician is unwilling to create the impression among the other patients that he gives greater care to those who can pay than to those who cannot. As a rule, the salary of the physician ranges from $600 to $750 a year, the ex
tremes being $500 and $1000, and in several peasant. These men come in vital touch zemstvos the salary increases with the time of with Russian misery, they see before their service. It rarely happens, however that even
after twenty years' service the physician receives very eyes all the reality of Russian poverty, more than $1000, although a house, rent free, is ignorance and wrong, and their one thought frequently included. Especially worthy of men- is to rouse the people from their lethargy. tion is the vacation time alloted the physician by The erection of schools, libraries, and asylums many zemstvos,-yearly one month, and after three or four years a vacation of several months. This vacation time is always utilized by the men in special work in foreign centers.
is almost invariably due to the initiative of zemstvo physicians, and these men not only unfold an activity in this direction, but they also deliver lectures to the peasants, lend The zemstvo physician truly loves the them books, and do all in their power to make starving, crushed peasant; he is intensely in the serf a man. "Naturally the Russian. sympathy with the poor, stupid Russian serf, Government is constantly working to stifle and he considers his work a moral duty to his the liberalizing propaganda, but the men in fellows. Under these circumstances it is not the field present a solid front, and they are surprising that in spite of his onerous work in many respects the soul of democratic the physician still finds time to enlighten the
THE THERAPEUTIC VALUE OF THE AIR-BATH.
ANY one who notes carefully the advertising signs of the large German towns and also those of German Switzerland will be struck with the frequent recurrence of the words "Licht-Luftbad Anstalt." A little further investigation will show that the building on which this sign is placed is surrounded by a high fence, and if one goes in side numbers of men and women will be found disporting themselves in the open air. These people are clothed sufficiently, but the clothing they wear is light to a degree and it admits all of the air and sun possible. A little more inquiry and the stranger will find that this establishment is but one of a large number scattered throughout the whole of Germany, and that it stands for a new method of returning to nature. There is nothing of the fad about the method, however, and close investigation will show that the results obtained are excellent and permanent.
Professor Schneider, in the Centralblatt für Allgemeine Gesundheitspflege (Bonn), discusses the new treatment in enthusiastic terms, telling us that, if there is one thing man has remained behind in during the great progress of the last fifty years, it is the care of the body. And, with all the unreason of the situation, we consider disease the curse of God instead of looking the matter clearly in the face and recognizing that our physical failings are, in the great majority of cases, caused by violation of the laws of health or the satisfaction of abnormal appetites. With the increase of disease, however, great efforts have been made to get rid of it, and among
these efforts that of physical culture is the most pronounced to-day.
Man is not a water animal, but an air animal. Air is his element and this element is vital in health and disease. Therefore, we find the air-bath highly recommended by experienced physicians; we are told to live in the air, sleep in the air, and bathe in the air. And the salutary effects of this advice are not slow in appearing. Diseased and nervous persons grow stronger and, in the majority of cases, well under this régime, and the constant movement and gymnastic exercises which are incident to the treatment are valuable auxiliaries in the curative process."
At first the air-baths were used only by sanitariums, but later they were developed by associations, and now the initiative is being taken by municipalities. Professor Schneider advises all cities and towns to acquire as soon as possible a parcel of ground and turn it into an air and sun bathing place for the people.
It will be found that this returns as much interest in health on the investment as hospitals be chosen at a point which is not exposed to the and tuberculosis solariums. The ground should wind, but it must be in the open and isolated from dwelling houses as much as possible in order that purity of air and freedom from observation may be assured. A three-meter fence sodded if it is not already covered with grass. is also indispensable, and the earth must be Ir. one portion of the plot a pile of sand should be placed as a lounging place on warm days, and ample douching facilities should be provided. Gymnastic apparatus must also be a part of the establishment, as this is an important feature of the treatment.
Professor Schneider quotes Dr. Kochsch, of Leipzig, in reference to the effects of the régime. First, it should be observed that the fear of taking cold is entirely unjustified, and that even persons with weak nerves, taking a little exercise during the treatment, are able to make the cure during the coldest winter months, as the body quickly adjusts itself to the difference in temperature.'
Even with constant and extreme use of the air bath it is rare that any disease of the respiratory
HOW ITALY KEEPS HER ART TREASURES AT HOME.
known and successful devices of smugglers are brought into use. The feeling that an edict totally prohibiting the sale and export of private property is unjust is so universal that no one's conscience is hurt by evading the law.
More than this, the forced secrecy of these sales when clandestine has a very bad effect from a commercial point of view. The original owners, dealing with men more or less dishonest, and running large personal risks of discovery, are forced to accept prices which would make the final purchasers gasp. The fabulous prices paid for great masterpieces are paid in London or Paris or New York, and usually pass almost wholly into the hands of unscrupulous dealers.
MOST Americans know vaguely that there is a strong feeling and certain legal restrictions against the export, sale, or destruction of Italy's priceless treasures of art, but few realize the almost insoluble problems which confront patriotic Italians wishing to keep art treasures in their own country. Signor Ghino Valenti, professor in the University of Padua, writes learnedly and with much feeling on "The Imminent Peril to Our Historic and Artistic Patrimony," in the Nuova Antologia. He takes up in too detailed a manner to reproduce in full here the history of the attempts to regulate the disposition of these objects, but a few of the difficulties he points out may be cited as typical.
organs results. This is also the case when the bath is taken during the most unfavorable sealife changes for the air bather, and his habits sons of the year. Moreover, the entire course of become more natural and simple. In place of the desire for meats, highly spiced foods, and and a healthy thirst for the things that nature alcoholic drinks, there appears a natural appetite offers us. During a period of twenty years I have only seen good results from the cure, and many nervous persons who cannot tolerate cold douches at first are able to do so after a sufficient use of the air bath. Indeed, the light and air bath combines everything that is necessary.
First is the legal and economic question as to how much right the government has in objects or monuments which are the private property of its subjects. Just when an object, canvas, cameo, statue, building or archæological find, is sufficiently pre-eminent in artistic value to warrant the government in forbidding its departure from Italy, is, as any one can see, productive of infinite possibilities in the way of injustice to owners and of bad judgment on the part of government officials. A system of complete repression of exportation is wholly inadvisable. In a country surrounded by the sea on all sides, as Italy is, it is quite impossible to guard the frontier adequately. The very portable nature of the valuable objects makes it easy to smuggle. A priceless canvas can be (and has been, more than once) wrapped around an umbrella and taken across the frontier, unsuspected. A Roman half-column, of great value, was sent to a northern museum, hidden in a plaster of paris model for a funeral monument. Trunks with double bottoms and all the other well
The opposite method, namely, total liberty of export and sale of art treasures,—is one which no patriotic Italian can contemplate without horror, so instant would be the swooping and harpie-like descent of wealthy. connoisseurs upon his country. Hence some method of compromise must be adopted. But the question of how to regulate the traffic is fraught with disheartening difficulties.
If the government refuses to allow an impoverished subject to replenish his coffers with the sale of a valuable tapestry which he has inherited, in common justice the government itself ought to buy it from him. But Italy is a poor country, with more than use enough for every penny of its income. The amount available for this purpose from the ordinary means of support (such as the prices of admission to muscums, galleries, and monuments) is quite out of proportion to the immense sums needed to bid for Titians, Gorgiones, and Correggios against a world determined at all costs to possess them. The administration has done wonders with the small sums at hand, but infinitely more is needed.
Another difficulty is the question of articles found in Italian soil, some of the won
derful archæological finds. To whom do
rangement of the matter, for so much of value to Italy depends upon its success. Not only the artistic future of the country is concerned, but the unique assemblage of historic and artistic surroundings which bring to Italy the many thousands of tourists who
THE SUBTLETIES OF PAN-AMERICANISM AS SEEN BY A FRENCH EDITOR.
MANY of our European friends and critics ness and accuracy the history of American see in the so-called doctrine of pan- foreign relations during the administrations Americanism the outlines of a coherent, de- of Presidents McKinley and Roosevelt to liberate, and subtle continental policy of pro- the present day, M. Goblet quotes copiously portions which will be surprising to most from the latter's various utterances on the Americans. From time to time this REVIEW Scope and force of the Monroe Doctrine, as has published quotations and condensations " an active principle of our general politics." of various European opinions on the subject. It is generally admitted in Europe, says this A slightly new view is presented in a recently French writer, that "the doctrine of Monissued pamphlet, entitled "Pan-American- roe, for many years passive, became active ism," by M. Y. M. Goblet, a member of the under McKinley and aggressive under Commercial Institute of Paris and foreign Roosevelt." The writer regards the Calvoeditor of the influential journal Politique Drago pronouncements as legitimate and inColoniale, also published in the French evitable developments of the Monroe Doccapital. trine. He then proceeds to discuss the three pan-American conferences. The latest one, he insists, was held in Rio Janeiro principal-! ly with the idea of affirming the importance in the pan-American concert of the only Latin-American republic where Portuguese is spoken.
He leads off his argument with a quotation from an editorial in the Temps expressing cordial Franco-American sympathy, written during the ceremonies attending the removal to America of the remains of John Paul Jones. M. Goblet then passes to a consideration of the Monroe Doctrine, outlining the historical, political reasons for its enunciation, and pointing out how its scope has been extended during the past few years. Up to the administration of President McKinley, says this French observer, that is, for three-quarters of a century,-the Monroe Doctrine was little more than an abstraction, a high political conception. For threequarters of a century it remained a precious theory, piously adhered to. To-day it has acquired an economic significance, and it is about to receive a number of eminently practical applications. It has become definitive, has enlarged its scope, has given birth to new doctrines, and is about to become a reality." Reviewing rapidly and with great clear
Pan-Americanism, M. Goblet believes, is regarded in Europe with increasing distrust. This distrust, he believes, is due to the fact that the Americans, with their clever political ideas, have steadfastly refused to extend their political sway, but are constantly and irresistibly extending their commercial supremacy.
tude of the Americans toward Venezuela has
The policy of the American Republic in Cuba has abundantly proved that pan-Americanism does not aim at territorial conquest. The attishown that pan-Americanism has not for its aim to injure the interests of Europe. The words of the diplomats, and their acts in addition, indicate to us that it is a commercial movement which is afoot. . . Pan-Americanism is a
doctrine of strenuous life and intelligent economic movement.