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as it is not driven to shut up the churches or to imprison the clergy, it will not be halted by the electorate. Hence, the struggle, so far as it is intelligible to outside observers, is like a game in which the object of the church is to compel the state to make martyrs, and the object of the state is to evade that undesirable consummation. France is more than 95 per cent. Catholic, nominally, and yet the voters have time and again supported the government in its separation campaign, which the authorities at Rome call sacrilege and profanation. The significant happening of the month in this struggle was the admission, by Pope Pius, in an interview with a visiting American prelate, that the French. clergy have been largely to blame for the present trouble, they having "meddled in politics," contrary to the explicit advice of Pope Leo and himself.
ADMIRAL DE RUYTER, AFTER FRANZ HALS.
(The famous Dutch admiral, the three hundredth anniversary of whose birth all Holland celebrated last month. The painting is now in the collection of Lord Spencer.)
drawn the attention of the world to the defeated the combined fleets of France and Low Countries,-Holland and Belgium, Britain, and "swept the Channel of Englishduring recent weeks. Before long the sec- men," is known to the world by his name de ond International Peace Conference will Ruyter, "the rider." The legend is that his father and mother, because of parental opposition to their marriage, fled many miles astride of the same horse to be united; hence the name of their eldest son. The Dutch have always made heroes of men of strong physical courage. They have been almost won over by the hitherto unpopular Prince Consort, Henry of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, who acquitted himself so gallantly in helping to rescue the survivors of the ill-fated Great Eastern Railway steamship Berlin, which went ashore on February 21, off the Hook of Holland 128 persons losing their lives.
at The Hague. Meanwhile, the Carnegie Palace of Peace is being erected from a new modified design by the French architect, L. M. Cordonnier. Almost before the Hollanders have forgotten the ceremonies and elation of the Rembrandt tercentenary of last year they find themselves in the midst of celebrating another three-hundredth anniversary, that of the birth (March 24, 1607) of their great Admiral Michael Adrianson. This great seaman, one of the greatest of all history, who saved the Dutch commonwealth, crushed the naval power of Spain,
Recent Progress in Belgium.
More than once after the Dutch of a quarter of a million. Struggles with Holland, however, brought about its decline. The new canal, which is 8 miles long, 220 feet wide, and 26 feet deep, will no doubt stir into new life the old home of Caxton and John van Eyck, and restore some of its former greatness.
had won their independence from Spain did the Southern Netherlanders, now known as the Belgians, petition the Dutch States-General to be admitted into the commonwealth. Their only reply was the enactment of commercial regulations which practically destroyed the trade pre
QUEEN WILHELMINA, OF HOLLAND, AND HER
(From a photograph taken soon after the Prince's efforts to rescue the passengers of the wrecked steamship Berlin)
Señor Ramon Piña y Millet, the Spanish new Spanish Minister to the Minister. United States, who was officially presented to President Roosevelt last month, declares that his country has prospered greatly since the war over Cuba. The Spanish people feel that in every way they have actually entered upon a new era of progress. Liberalism has come to stay in Spain, although particular Liberal ministries may be defeated. Señor Maura, the present Premier, who is a Conservative, believes that the late Liberal ministry erred in pushing its anti-clerical program so far. He has announced that he and his party will endeavor to carry out a number of Liberal, even radical, reforms. Temporarily, however, the church question is to be relegated to the rear. The general elections, held during the first week of last month, were generally favorable to the candidates of the party in power. This has been taken by King Alfonso to indicate a popular disapproval of the lengths to which the anti-clerical campaign of the Liberals had gone. Accordingly, he has, by royal decree, abrogated the former decree (of August, 1906), which permitted Catholics to contract civil marriages, a pronunciamento which aroused the most bitter opposition of the Catholic Church.
A good deal of real progress in Campaign for the cause of woman suffrage has Woman Suffrage "been recorded during the weeks just passed. In King Edward's speech from eminence of a number of Belgian cities. the throne upon the reassembling of the Now, through fear of Germany, we are told British Parliament, his Majesty promised to that a Belgian-Dutch alliance has practically introduce a bill authorizing women to sit on been concluded. The commission of fifty, local governing bodies in England. On the representing both countries, which has been 8th of last month the bill granting parliasitting in Brussels during the past two mentary suffrage to women on the same months, early in March concluded their ne- terms as now possessed by men came up for gotiations and came to an understanding second reading in the House of Commons upon postal, telegraph, telephone, and rail- and was hotly debated. The close of the way rates, and identical labor legislation, session found it still under debate. copyright laws, and customs tariff. The this progress, however, is regarded in the same dispatches bring the news of the formal light of a victory by the British "suffragopening of the Bruges Canal. During the ettes," and they are continuing their agitafourteenth century Bruges was the commer- tion. It is not likely that if the bill had been cial center of Europe, and had a population sent to the Lords it would have secured their
approval, since the upper house in the British Parliament is strongly opposed to woman suffrage. The Premier, however, has publicly repudiated "the long prevalent idea that woman should be treated as a Uitlander in the British community." In the rest of the world solid progress has been made. On March 15, as we tell on another page this month, the women of Finland exercised the full franchise rights in an election. Finland is the first European country to grant unlimited suffrage rights to its women. In Italy the Chamber of Deputies spent the week ending March 1 in hot debate on the question, adjourning, however, before any definite legislation had been enacted. Even in Russia the peasant woman is an actual claimant for the suffrage right. Elsewhere we reproduce a remarkable petition sent to the Duma by a number of these peasant
The New German Reichstag.
As might have been expected, the proceedings of the new German Reichstag, which began its sessions on February 19, were marked by a sharp debate between Chancellor von Bülow and Herr Bebel, the Socialist leader. The latter openly accused the government of exerting unfair and improper influence during the elections. Herr Bebel added that, despite these unfair methods and in the face of the fact that it took 70,000 electors to return a Socialist member and only 50,000 or less to seat one of the government supporters, the Socialist vote had increased until every third man in Germany over twenty-five years of age was a Social-Democrat. Let those who regard the election as a brilliant government victory, concluded Herr Bebel, remember the fact that 6,000,000 votes were registered against the government and only 5,000,000 for it. In reply, the Chancellor ascribed the defeat of the socialists "not so much to economic doctrines as to their policy of terrorism."
COUNT UDO VON STOLBERG-WERNIGERODE, PRESIDENT OF THE NEWLY ELECTED GERMAN REICHSTAG.
In the Kaiser's speech his Majesty announced his intention to respect conscientiously all constitutional rights and privileges." regarded the results of the elections as indicating that "the German people desire the honor and welfare of the nation to be firmly and faithfully guarded without petty party spirit." The new president of the Reichstag, Count Udo von Stolberg-Wernigerode, is a member of one of the oldest families of the empire and has served in Parliament for thirty continuous years. He is sixty-seven years of age, and one of the Privy Councillors of State. The supplementary budget for the South-African colonial expenses, which, it will be remembered, was the cause of the dissolution of the former Reichstag, was passed in the first days of the session.
Russia's Second Duma.
In the Russian Duma, as in other Continental European parliaments, the president sits at the center of a semi-circle of seats, those on his right being occupied by the Conservatives, those on his left by the Radicals, and those immediately in front by the Moderates, or Independents. Hence, the origin of the terms, "the Right," "the Left," and "the Center," meaning Conservative," "Radical," and "Moderate." President Feodor Golovin, of the new Duma, finds at his right
town wage-earners, and some few professional men. President Golovin, who has been at the head of the Moscow zemstvo, or provincial council, for years, and has acquired a good deal of parliamentary experience, is a member of one of the oldest Russian families. He is a man of independent means, and one of the foremost Russian Liberals, respected by men of all parties.
The first sessions of the new Them Any Duma, which opened on March More Money!" 5, were marked by dignity, re
straint, and a sober attention to the business of legislation, which augur well for the future. The Russian people, says Dr. Dillon, demand that Russia shall cease to be a constitutional realm governed by an autocrat whose power is unlimited. The nation's chosen representatives, however, have learned by the stern lesson of the first Duma, and they will not demand the impossible. It now seems probable that because of their high intelligence and training, as well as the mod
hand two groups of Conservatives, the Reactionaries (standing for the official classes) and the Moderates or Octobrists (named from their adherence to the Czar's freedom manifesto of October, 1905). This class consists of nobles, land-owners, and peasant money-lenders. With the Reactionaries, they occupy 100 seats. Next to them are the forty-three Polish Nationalists. Next are the Constitutional Democrats, with their Mohammedan and other allies, the whole group known as the Center, Poles included, numbering 170. This group is made up of the professional classes, many land-owners, and most of the merchants. To the left of the President sit the Radical group, numbering 192 in all and including the Social Revolutionists, the Social-Democrats, and the Group of Toil, made up of peasants, city and
Democrats will be able to form a political combination by which they will again control the Parliament. The secretary of the Duma, indeed, by far the most important individual after the president, is Ivan Chelnikov, a Constitutional Democrat from Moscow. The spirit of the new body was shown by the shouts of the peasant members as they marched to the Tauride Palace for the opening session. Recognizing some representatives of foreign nations, including our own Ambassador, in the spectators, they shouted: "Don't lend them any more money!" This is the keynote, also, of the campaign being carried on in this country by a number of prominent revolutionists, whose labors and careers are referred to on another page this month. Premier Stolypin read before the Duma (on March 19) the ministerial program of legislation. The government, he declared, is creating such standards of life as will change Russia into a legally constitutional state, the chief task of the ministry being to co-ordinate the old and new principles of government. The assembled members listened to the speech of the Premier with respect and attention. They hope much, but will await actualities. Liberty promised is not liberty secured, as the Russian nation has learned on more than one occasion in the past. The rest of the world sincerely hopes that these are not simply more promises made to be broken.
"Trouble in the
The ways of the Russian reactionaries are devious and dark. Balkans. One of their methods, however, is now very well known. It is a favorite trick to attempt to discredit the Liberal movement in Russia by stirring up disorder and inciting pogroms, or massacres of Jews, both at home and in the neighboring Balkan states. In Roumania, where the Jew is even more cordially hated than he is in Russia, the so-called Union of Russian People has secret agents at work. It is now a pretty well established fact that the terrible massacres of Jews at Padihilo (only thirty miles from the famous, or infamous, Kishinev) and Elizabethgrad, on March 17, were deliberately instigated by Muscovite reactionaries. Outbreaks of this sort are most liable to happen at this season, near Easter, when the ignorant Russian muzhik is accustomed to celebrate the ascension of Christ by murdering the Jews. Signs of more than usual unrest come from the Balkans this spring. The assassination of the Bulgarian Premier Petkov at Sofia (on March 11) and the reports of unremitting persecution by the Turks of their subject Christian peoples may portend the early outbreak of the longheralded Balkan war. The Austrian frontier guards have been doubled in anticipation of serious developments.
India and "Pan
Every once in a while the western world receives an inkling Aryanism." that all is not well with British rule in India. One of those incidents, apparently unimportant, but of vast significance in a country like India, was the recent sentence to long imprisonment and heavy fine of the proprietor and editor of the Punjabi, a native journal, "for exciting hatred against the government and the European community." This took place at Lahore and precipitated a riot of dangerous proportions. Just how far the economic exploitation of India by British capital and trade has aroused the natives and solidified their patriotism it would not be easy to say. Prominent Hindus in New York, however, believe that an independent India is not such a chimera as one might imagine. In order to make known to the western world, particularly America, the trials and aspirations of the Indian peoples, there has been established in New York the Pan-Aryan Association. Persia also comes within the scope of this
society's activity. Lectures on Oriental topics will form its chief work, but it will also be the endeavor of the Pan-Aryan Association to afford to students coming here from India and Persia every possible facility for learning the various arts and industries of the United States. Persistent reports from Persia that the new Shah is having trouble with his Parliament and that Russian intrigue is being renewed at the Persian capital may portend significant international development in the near east with which Americans will want to be familiar.
Russia, Japan, and Manchuria.
Japan's pressing national problems arise from the purely eco
nomic movement of her people. Eastward and westward her overcrowded regions spread their population; eastward and westward she looks toward her points of perplexity. With the proclamation of President Roosevelt, on March 14, announcing that he refused admission to Japanese immigrants who, our authorities had reason to believe, were attempting to use their Filipino and Hawaiian passports to enter the continental territory of the United States, our relations with Japan entered upon a new phase. Meanwhile, to the westward, the status of Manchuria remains unsettled. According to the terms of the treaty of Portsmouth, both Russia and Japan must complete the withdrawal of their troops from Manchuria before the end of the present month. There has been some movement of the troops of both nations, but shrewd observers of Oriental conditions are contending that neither power actually intends to carry out the spirit of the treaty. Mr. Thomas F. Millard, a newspaper correspondent, who is a recognized authority on Manchurian conditions before and after the war, observes (in the March Scribner's Magazine) that, while the Japanese Government may honestly intend to evacuate the Chinese mainland, there are internal political conditions and combinations which may prevent the fulfillment of her word pledged to the world. As far as Russia is concerned, he declares, her attitude will not differ materially from what it has been in the past, except to be more amenable to outside opinion and influence." Russia will "watch Japan, and as Japan is forced to leave she will reluctantly follow. Should Japan retain her hold, Russia will also."