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ments, whose properties and combination were made the subject of extensive study. They studied the color, odor, taste, solubility, optical properties, and crystal systems of substances, as well as their ability to react upon other subNo attempt was made to find a systematic numerical expression for the properties noted. Some of the empirical laws which were discovered seemed to have no connection with one another. There was no systematic arrangement of the chemical elements then known, and the conceptions of atomic weights in their relation to one another were rather indefinite. While it was known that such elements as so

dium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium had properties in common, as was true likewise of the group of elements including calcium, strontium, and barium, or of the group including phosphorus, arsenic, and silicon,-no one was apparently struck with the great similarity of properties of the elements in each group and the relations of one group to another.

The periodic law as conceived by Mendeleyev may be described briefly in the statement that "the properties of elements are the periodical functions of their atomic weights." Arranging the elements in the order of their atomic weights, we find at certain intervals the repetition of the same properties. The fruitfulness of Mendeleyev's conception was soon demonstrated in chemical investigation. The atomic weights of some of the rarer elements, which had been determined only ap

proximately, were corrected. Furthermore, new elements predicted by Mendeleyev in accord with the periodic law were actually discovered. A few years after Mendeleyev's framing of his system the element gallium was discovered, and its properties were found to agree exactly with those predicted by Mendeleyev. The discovery of the elements scandium, germanium and of others followed that of gallium, and all found a place in Mendeleyev's system. The great service rendered by the periodic law to chemistry consists, among other things, in its having made possible the discovery of analogies and properties where no one had hitherto suspected them.

Mendeleyev also performed important service in the employ of the Russian Government. In 1893 he was appointed director of the Bureau of Standards, and took a prominent part in the investigation of the Russian oil fields. The Russian press is practically unanimous in its praise of his services to science and to his country. A complete bibliography of his scientific writings, numbering about 150 books, pamphlets and periodical articles, is to be found in the bibliographical dictionary of the University of St. Petersburg.

THE

ALFRED DEAKIN, THE BAYARD OF AUSTRALIAN
POLITICS.

HE Australian commonwealth held a conditions, Mr. Maxwell H. H. Macartney, series of important elections in Decem- contributes to the National Review a sketch ber. The general result, while not making of Mr. Deakin in which he claims that this any marked difference in the complexion of tribute is amply justified by the past quarter the federal Parliament, shows an increased of a century of Australian politics. Labor vote. The Deakin ministry has apparently neither lost nor gained ground. Mr. Deakin was the first Prime Minister of the commonwealth. Then his party split and he was succeeded by Mr. Watson, with the first Labor party ministry in the commonwealth. Mr. Watson was succeeded by Mr. Reid, and the latter gave way before the last session to Mr. Deakin. Ón the issue of tariff the new House stands 40 Protectionists to 26 Free-Traders. Railroad legislation and the question of Chinese and Japanese coolie labor are among the problems which will press for settlement before the present Parliament of the commonwealth.

According to an epigram current in the antipodes, Alfred Deakin is the Bayard of Australian politics. A student of South Sea

alities, like Sir Wilfrid Laurier or Mr. Balfour,
Mr. Deakin is one of those charming person-
who counts as many warm personal friends
amongst his political opponents as he does
amongst his own partisans. "He can throw a
is the phrase in which one of his contemporaries
halo of attraction around the orifice of Hades
has expressed Mr. Deakin's superlative powers
as an orator, and to these powers of speech he
joins a literary ability, a spirit of idealism, and a
readiness for self-effacement which make him
the commonwealth.
a unique figure among present-day politicians of

In

The subject of the sketch is Australian, born and bred. He is now in his fifty-first year and the plenitude of his powers. the Victorian Parliament, which he entered in 1879, he has a distinguished career upon which to look back. He has been Solicitor

MENDELEYEV, ONE OF THE WORLD'S GREAT
CHEMISTS.

THE greatest of Russian chemists, and

one of the most eminent of any nationality, Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleyev, died in St. Petersburg, on February 2. Mendeleyev was one of the few great scientists who have given Russia the right to rank with the civilized nations of the world. In the estimation of the noted English chemist, Thorpe, Mendeleyev was for Russia what Berzelius was for Sweden, Liebig for Germany, and Dumas for France.

In view of the world influence of Mendeleyev on the development of chemistry, Thorpe's statement is not at all exaggerated. Chemical science owes to Mendeleyev a new conception and philosophy, for before his day chemistry was a collection of facts rather than a clear exposition of the laws concerning the transformation of

[graphic]

matter.

Mendeleyev was born on February 7, 1834, at Tobolsk, Siberia, where his father was director of the classical gymnasium. Soon after Mendeleyev's birth his father lost his eyesight, and the care of the large family fell to his mother, a woman of marked ability and energy. She opened a glass factory in Tobolsk, and her

DMITRI IVANOVICH MENDELEYEV.

young son learned there his first lessons in chem- gases is of a high order. He was the first istry, and developed the love for it which influ- to point out why some gases failed to follow

enced the rest of his life. After completing his studies at the gymnasium Mendeleyev went to St. Petersburg and enrolled as a student at the Pedagogical Institute, then the highest institution of learning in Russia. He received instruc

tion in chemistry under Professor Voskresinski, and was sent soon after graduation to Odessa, and thence to the Crimea, in the capacity of high-school instructor. At the conclusion of the Crimean War in 1856 Mendeleyev became a privat-docent at the University of St. Petersburg, and from 1859. to 1861 he carried on advanced studies at Heidelberg. He was appointed stitute in 1863, and became professor at the Uniprofessor of chemistry at the Technological In

versity of St. Petersburg in 1866.

exactly the law of Boyle-Mariotte, and in his studies of permanent gases he discovered the critical temperature of gases, which explained why their liquefaction had not hith

erto been accomplished.

the science of chemistry was his discovery of But the greatest service of Mendeleyev to the periodic system of chemical elements, a discovery with which his name will forever remain indissolubly linked. His "Principles chemistry based on the periodic law, is called of Chemistry" (1869) the first textbook on The periodic system gave philosophy access by Thorpe a system of chemical philosophy. to chemistry, and to Mendeleyev belongs the credit of having made such access possible,

an achievement which he owed to his re

Mendeleyev's labors at Heidelberg concerned various investigations in organic, mineralogical, physical, and industrial chemistry, which, while not of great moment in themselves, were important in broadening markable mental make-up, uniting the abilihis chemical knowledge and in developing ty of mathematical abstraction to a purely his analytical skill, an acquisition which poetical imagination. served him well in the pursuit of his subsequent investigations. His doctor's thesis was on mixtures of alcohol and water, and was characterized by the extreme exactness of his measurements. His work on the expansion of liquids and on the liquefaction of

Modern chemistry, which found its beginnings in the conception of the indestructibility of matter, was at first inclined to study chemical phenomena almost exclusively from the material standpoint.

The chemists had discovered about sixty ele

ments, whose properties and combination were proximately, were corrected. Furthermore,
made the subject of extensive study. They
studied the color, odor, taste, solubility, optical accord with the periodic law were actually
They new elements predicted by Mendeleyev in
properties, and crystal systems of substances, as
well as their ability to react upon other sub- discovered. A few years after Mendeleyev's
stances. No attempt was made to find a sys- framing of his system the element gallium
tematic numerical expression for the properties was discovered, and its properties were found
noted. Some of the empirical laws which were
discovered seemed to have no connection with to agree exactly with those predicted by
one another. There was no systematic arrange- Mendeleyev. The discovery of the elements
ment of the chemical elements then known, and scandium, germanium and of others followed
the conceptions of atomic weights in their rela- that of gallium, and all found a place in
tion to one another were rather indefinite.
While it was known that such elements as so-
Mendeleyev's system. The great service
dium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium had prop- rendered by the periodic law to chemistry
erties in common, as was true likewise of the consists, among other things, in its having
group of elements including calcium, strontium, made possible the discovery of analogies and
and barium, or of the group including phos-
phorus, arsenic, and silicon,-no one was appar- properties where no one had hitherto sus-
ently struck with the great similarity of prop- pected them.
erties of the elements in each group and the
relations of one group to another.

The periodic law as conceived by Mendeleyev may be described briefly in the statement that "the properties of elements are the periodical functions of their atomic weights." Arranging the elements in the order of their atomic weights, we find at certain intervals the repetition of the same properties. The fruitfulness of Mendeleyev's conception was soon demonstrated in chemical investigation. The atomic weights of some of the rarer elements, which had been determined only ap

Mendeleyev also performed important
service in the employ of the Russian Gov-
ernment. In 1893 he was appointed direc-
tor of the Bureau of Standards, and took a
prominent part in the investigation of the
Russian oil fields.
The Russian press is

practically unanimous in its praise of his
services to science and to his country. A
complete bibliography of his scientific writ-
ings, numbering about 150 books, pamphlets
and periodical articles, is to be found in the
bibliographical dictionary of the University
of St. Petersburg.

ALFRED DEAKIN, THE BAYARD OF AUSTRALIAN
POLITICS.

THE Australian commonwealth held a conditions, Mr. Maxwell H. H. Macartney,
series of important elections in Decem- contributes to the National Review a sketch
ber. The general result, while not making of Mr. Deakin in which he claims that this
any marked difference in the complexion of tribute is amply justified by the past quarter
the federal Parliament, shows an increased of a century of Australian politics.
Labor vote. The Deakin ministry has appar-
ently neither lost nor gained ground. Mr.
Deakin was the first Prime Minister of the
commonwealth. Then his party split and he
was succeeded by Mr. Watson, with the first
Labor party ministry in the commonwealth.
Mr. Watson was succeeded by Mr. Reid,
and the latter gave way before the last ses-
sion to Mr. Deakin. On the issue of tariff
the new House stands 40 Protectionists to
26 Free-Traders. Railroad legislation and
the question of Chinese and Japanese coolie
labor are among the problems which will
press for settlement before the present Parlia-
ment of the commonwealth.

According to an epigram current in the antipodes, Alfred Deakin is the Bayard of Australian politics. A student of South Sea

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alities, like Sir Wilfrid Laurier or Mr. Balfour,
Mr. Deakin is one of those charming person-
who counts as many warm personal friends
amongst his political opponents as he does
amongst his own partisans. "He can throw a
halo of attraction around the orifice of Hades
has expressed Mr. Deakin's superlative powers
is the phrase in which one of his contemporaries
as an orator, and to these powers of speech he
joins a literary ability, a spirit of idealism, and a
readiness for self-effacement which make him
a unique figure among present-day politicians of
the commonwealth.

In

The subject of the sketch is Australian,
born and bred. He is now in his fifty-first
year and the plenitude of his powers.
the Victorian Parliament, which he entered
in 1879, he has a distinguished career upon
which to look back. He has been Solicitor-

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MENDELEYEV, ONE OF THE WORLD'S GREAT
CHEMISTS.

THE greatest of Russian chemists, and

one of the most eminent of any nationality, Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleyev. died in St. Petersburg, on February 2. Mendeleyev was one of the few great scientists who have given Russia the right to rank with the civilized nations of the world. In the estimation of the noted English chemist, Thorpe, Mendeleyev was for Russia what Berzelius was for Sweden, Liebig for Germany, and Dumas for France.

In view of the world influence of Mendeleyev on the development of chemistry, Thorpe's statement is not at all exaggerated. Chemical science owes to Mendeleyev a new conception and philosophy, for before his day chemistry was a collection of facts rather than a clear exposition of the laws concerning the transformation of

[graphic]

matter.

Mendeleyev was born on February 7, 1834, at Tobolsk, Siberia, where his father was director of the classical gymnasium. Soon after Mendeleyev's birth his father lost his eyesight, and the care of the large family fell to his mother, a woman of marked ability and energy. She opened a glass factory in Tobolsk, and her young son learned there his first lessons in chemistry, and developed the love for it which influenced the rest of his life. After completing his studies at the gymnasium Mendeleyev went to St. Petersburg and enrolled as a student at the Pedagogical Institute, then the highest institution of learning in Russia. He received instruction in chemistry under Professor Voskresinski, and was sent soon after graduation to Odessa, and thence to the Crimea, in the capacity of high-school instructor. At the conclusion of the Crimean War in 1856 Mendeleyev became a privat-docent at the University of St. Petersburg, and from 1859 to 1861 he carried on advanced studies at Heidelberg. He was appointed professor of chemistry at the Technological Institute in 1863, and became professor at the University of St. Petersburg in 1866.

Mendeleyev's labors at Heidelberg concerned various investigations in organic, mineralogical, physical, and industrial chemistry, which, while not of great moment in themselves, were important in broadening his chemical knowledge and in developing his analytical skill, an acquisition which served him well in the pursuit of his subsequent investigations. His doctor's thesis was on mixtures of alcohol and water, and was characterized by the extreme exactness of his measurements. His work on the expansion of liquids and on the liquefaction of

DMITRI IVANOVICH MENDELEYEV.

gases is of a high order. He was the first to point out why some gases failed to follow exactly the law of Boyle-Mariotte, and in his studies of permanent gases he discovered the critical temperature of gases, which explained why their liquefaction had not hitherto been accomplished.

But the greatest service of Mendeleyev to the science of chemistry was his discovery of the periodic system of chemical elements, a discovery with which his name will forever remain indissolubly linked. His "Principles of Chemistry" (1869) the first textbook on chemistry based on the periodic law, is called by Thorpe a system of chemical philosophy. The periodic system gave philosophy access to chemistry, and to Mendeleyev belongs the credit of having made such access possible, an achievement which he owed to his remarkable mental make-up, uniting the ability of mathematical abstraction to a purely poetical imagination.

Modern chemistry, which found its beginnings in the conception of the indestructibility of matter, was at first inclined to study chemical phenomena almost exclusively from the material standpoint.

The chemists had discovered about sixty ele

ments, whose properties and combination were proximately, were corrected. Furthermore, made the subject of extensive study. They new elements predicted by Mendeleyev in studied the color, odor, taste, solubility, optical accord with the periodic law were actually properties, and crystal systems of substances, as well as their ability to react upon other sub- discovered. A few years after Mendeleyev's stances. No attempt was made to find a sys- framing of his system the element gallium tematic numerical expression for the properties was discovered, and its properties were found noted. Some of the empirical laws which were to agree exactly with those predicted by discovered seemed to have no connection with Mendeleyev. The discovery of the elements scandium, germanium and of others followed that of gallium, and all found a place in Mendeleyev's system. The great service rendered by the periodic law to chemistry consists, among other things, in its having made possible the discovery of analogies and properties where no one had hitherto suspected them.

one another. There was no systematic arrangement of the chemical elements then known, and the conceptions of atomic weights in their relation to one another were rather indefinite. While it was known that such elements as so

dium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium had properties in common, as was true likewise of the group of elements including calcium, strontium, and barium, or of the group including phosphorus, arsenic, and silicon.-no one was apparently struck with the great similarity of properties of the elements in each group and the relations of one group to another.

The periodic law as conceived by Mendeleyev may be described briefly in the statement that "the properties of elements are the periodical functions of their atomic weights." Arranging the elements in the order of their atomic weights, we find at certain intervals the repetition of the same properties. The fruitfulness of Mendeleyev's conception was soon demonstrated in chemical investigation. The atomic weights of some of the rarer elements, which had been determined only ap

According to an epigram current in the antipodes, Alfred Deakin is the Bayard of Australian politics. A student of South Sea

Mendeleyev also performed important service in the employ of the Russian Government. In 1893 he was appointed director of the Bureau of Standards, and took a prominent part in the investigation of the Russian oil fields. The Russian press is practically unanimous in its praise of his services to science and to his country. A complete bibliography of his scientific writings, numbering about 150 books, pamphlets and periodical articles, is to be found in the bibliographical dictionary of the University of St. Petersburg.

ALFRED DEAKIN, THE BAYARD OF AUSTRALIAN

POLITICS.

THE Australian commonwealth held a conditions, Mr. Maxwell H. H. Macartney, series of important elections in Decem- contributes to the National Review a sketch ber. The general result, while not making of Mr. Deakin in which he claims that this any marked difference in the complexion of tribute is amply justified by the past quarter the federal Parliament, shows an increased of a century of Australian politics. Labor vote. The Deakin ministry has apparently neither lost nor gained ground. Mr. Deakin was the first Prime Minister of the commonwealth. Then his party split and he was succeeded by Mr. Watson, with the first Labor party ministry in the commonwealth. Mr. Watson was succeeded by Mr. Reid, and the latter gave way before the last session to Mr. Deakin. Ón the issue of tariff the new House stands 40 Protectionists to 26 Free-Traders. Railroad legislation and the question of Chinese and Japanese coolie labor are among the problems which will press for settlement before the present Parliament of the commonwealth.

Mr. Deakin is one of those charming personalities, like Sir Wilfrid Laurier or Mr. Balfour, who counts as many warm personal friends amongst his political opponents as he does amongst his own partisans. "He can throw a

halo of attraction around the orifice of Hades" is the phrase in which one of his contemporaries has expressed Mr. Deakin's superlative powers as an orator, and to these powers of speech he joins a literary ability, a spirit of idealism, and a readiness for self-effacement which make him

a unique figure among present-day politicians of

the

The subject of the sketch is Australian, born and bred. He is now in his fifty-first year and the plenitude of his powers. In the Victorian Parliament, which he entered in 1879, he has a distinguished career upon which to look back. He has been Solicitor

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