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MENDELEYEV, ONE OF THE WORLD'S GREAT
CHEMISTS.

HE greatest of Russian chemists, and

THE

[graphic]

one of the most eminent of any nationality, Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleyev, died in St. Petersburg, on February 2. Mendeleyev was one of the few great scientists who have given Russia the right to rank with the civilized nations of the world. In the estimation of the noted English chemist, Thorpe, Mendeleyev was for Russia what Berzelius was for Sweden, Liebig for Germany, and Dumas for France.

In view of the world influence of Mendeleyev on the development of chemistry, Thorpe's statement is not at all exaggerated. Chemical science owes to Mendeleyev a new conception and philosophy, for before his day chemistry was a collection of facts rather than a clear exposition of the laws concerning the transformation of

matter.

Mendeleyev was born on February 7, 1834, at Tobolsk, Siberia, where his father was director of the classical gymnasium. Soon after Mendeleyev's birth his father lost his eyesight, and the care of the large family fell to his mother, a woman of marked ability and energy. She opened a glass factory in Tobolsk, and her young son learned there his first lessons in chemistry, and developed the love for it which influenced the rest of his life. After completing his studies at the gymnasium Mendeleyev went to St. Petersburg and enrolled as a student at the Pedagogical Institute, then the highest institution of learning in Russia. He received instruction in chemistry under Professor Voskresinski, and was sent soon after graduation to Odessa, and thence to the Crimea, in the capacity of high-school instructor. At the conclusion of the Crimean War in 1856 Mendeleyev became a privat-docent at the University of St. Petersburg, and from 1859. to 1861 he carried on advanced studies at Heidelberg. He was appointed professor of chemistry at the Technological Institute in 1863, and became professor at the University of St. Petersburg in 1866.

Mendeleyev's labors at Heidelberg concerned various investigations in organic, mineralogical, physical, and industrial chemistry, which, while not of great moment in themselves, were important in broadening his chemical knowledge and in developing his analytical skill, an acquisition which served him well in the pursuit of his subsequent investigations. His doctor's thesis was on mixtures of alcohol and water, and was characterized by the extreme exactness of his measurements. His work on the expansion of liquids and on the liquefaction of

DMITRI IVANOVICH MENDELEYEV.

gases is of a high order. He was the first to point out why some gases failed to follow exactly the law of Boyle-Mariotte, and in his studies of permanent gases he discovered the critical temperature of gases, which explained why their liquefaction had not hitherto been accomplished.

But the greatest service of Mendeleyev to the science of chemistry was his discovery of the periodic system of chemical elements, a discovery with which his name will forever remain indissolubly linked. His "Principles of Chemistry" (1869) the first textbook on chemistry based on the periodic law, is called by Thorpe a system of chemical philosophy. The periodic system gave philosophy access to chemistry, and to Mendeleyev belongs the credit of having made such access possible, an achievement which he owed to his remarkable mental make-up, uniting the ability of mathematical abstraction to a purely poetical imagination.

Modern chemistry, which found its beginnings in the conception of the indestructibility of matter, was at first inclined to study chemical phenomena almost exclusively from the material standpoint.

The chemists had discovered about sixty ele

ments, whose properties and combination were made the subject of extensive study. They studied the color, odor, taste, solubility, optical properties, and crystal systems of substances, as well as their ability to react upon other substances. No attempt was made to find a systematic numerical expression for the properties noted. Some of the empirical laws which were discovered seemed to have no connection with

one another. There was no systematic arrangement of the chemical elements then known, and the conceptions of atomic weights in their relation to one another were rather indefinite. While it was known that such elements as sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium had properties in common, as was true likewise of the group of elements including calcium, strontium, and barium, or of the group including phosphorus, arsenic, and silicon,-no one was apparently struck with the great similarity of properties of the elements in each group and the relations of one group to another.

The periodic law as conceived by Mendeleyev may be described briefly in the statement that "the properties of elements are the periodical functions of their atomic weights." Arranging the elements in the order of their atomic weights, we find at certain intervals the repetition of the same properties. The fruitfulness of Mendeleyev's conception was soon demonstrated in chemical investigation. The atomic weights of some of the rarer elements, which had been determined only ap

proximately, were corrected. Furthermore, accord with the periodic law were actually new elements predicted by Mendeleyev in discovered. A few years after Mendeleyev's framing of his system the element gallium was discovered, and its properties were found to agree exactly with those predicted by Mendeleyev. The discovery of the elements scandium, germanium and of others followed that of gallium, and all found a place in Mendeleyev's system. The great service rendered by the periodic law to chemistry consists, among other things, in its having made possible the discovery of analogies and properties where no one had hitherto suspected them.

Mendeleyev also performed important service in the employ of the Russian Government. In 1893 he was appointed director of the Bureau of Standards, and took a prominent part in the investigation of the Russian oil fields. The Russian press is practically unanimous in its praise of his services to science and to his country. A complete bibliography of his scientific writings, numbering about 150 books, pamphlets and periodical articles, is to be found in the bibliographical dictionary of the University of St. Petersburg.

ALFRED DEAKIN, THE BAYARD OF AUSTRALIAN
POLITICS.

THE Australian commonwealth held a conditions, Mr. Maxwell H. H. Macartney,
series of important elections in Decem- contributes to the National Review a sketch
ber. The general result, while not making of Mr. Deakin in which he claims that this
any marked difference in the complexion of tribute is amply justified by the past quarter
the federal Parliament, shows an increased of a century of Australian politics.
Labor vote. The Deakin ministry has appar-
ently neither lost nor gained ground. Mr.
Deakin was the first Prime Minister of the
commonwealth. Then his party split and he
was succeeded by Mr. Watson, with the first
Labor party ministry in the commonwealth.
Mr. Watson was succeeded by Mr. Reid,
and the latter gave way before the last ses-
sion to Mr. Deakin. On the issue of tariff
the new House stands 40 Protectionists to
26 Free-Traders. Railroad legislation and
the question of Chinese and Japanese coolie
labor are among the problems which will
press for settlement before the present Parlia-
ment of the commonwealth.

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alities, like Sir Wilfrid Laurier or Mr. Balfour, Mr. Deakin is one of those charming personwho counts as many warm personal friends amongst his political opponents as he does amongst his own partisans. "He can throw a halo of attraction around the orifice of Hades has expressed Mr. Deakin's superlative powers is the phrase in which one of his contemporaries as an orator, and to these powers of speech he joins a literary ability, a spirit of idealism, and a readiness for self-effacement which make him

a

unique figure among present-day politicians of

the commonwealth.

In

The subject of the sketch is Australian, born and bred. He is now in his fifty-first year and the plenitude of his powers. According to an epigram current in the the Victorian Parliament, which he entered antipodes, Alfred Deakin is the Bayard of in 1879, he has a distinguished career upon Australian politics. A student of South Sea which to look back. He has been Solicitor

MENDELEYEV, ONE OF THE WORLD'S GREAT
CHEMISTS.

THE greatest of Russian chemists, and

one of the most eminent of any nationality, Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleyev, died in St. Petersburg, on February 2. Mendeleyev was one of the few great scientists who have given Russia the right to rank with the civilized nations of the world. In the estimation of the noted English chemist, Thorpe, Mendeleyev was for Russia what Berzelius was for Sweden, Liebig for Germany, and Dumas for France.

In view of the world influence of Mendeleyev on the development of chemistry, Thorpe's statement 1S not at all exaggerated. Chemical science owes to Mendeleyev a new conception and philosophy, for before his day chemistry was a collection of facts rather than a clear exposition of the laws concerning the transformation of matter.

Mendeleyev was born on February 7, 1834, at Tobolsk, Siberia, where his father was director of the classical gymnasium. Soon after Mendeleyev's birth his father lost his eyesight, and the care of the large family fell to his mother, a woman of marked ability and energy. She opened a glass factory in Tobolsk, and her

[graphic]

DMITRI IVANOVICH MENDELEYEV.

young son learned there his first lessons in chem- gases is of a high order. He was the first istry, and developed the love for it which influ- to point out why some gases failed to follow exactly the law of Boyle-Mariotte, and in his studies of permanent gases he discovered the critical temperature of gases, which explained why their liquefaction had not hith

enced the rest of his life. After completing his studies at the gymnasium Mendeleyev went to St. Petersburg and enrolled as a student at the Pedagogical Institute, then the highest institution of learning in Russia. He received instruc

tion in chemistry under Professor Voskresinski, and was sent soon after graduation to Odessa, and thence to the Crimea, in the capacity of high-school instructor. At the conclusion of the Crimean War in 1856 Mendeleyev became a privat-docent at the University of St. Petersburg, and from 1859. to 1861 he carried on advanced studies at Heidelberg. He was appointed professor of chemistry at the Technological Institute in 1863, and became professor at the Uni

versity of St. Petersburg in 1866.

erto been accomplished.

the science of chemistry was his discovery of But the greatest service of Mendeleyev to the periodic system of chemical elements, a discovery with which his name will forever remain indissolubly linked. His "Principles of Chemistry" (1869) the first textbook on chemistry based on the periodic law, is called Mendeleyev's labors at Heidelberg con- The periodic system gave philosophy access by Thorpe a system of chemical philosophy. cerned various investigations in organic, to chemistry, and to Mendeleyev belongs the mineralogical, physical, and industrial chem- credit of having made such access possible, istry, which, while not of great moment in an achievement which he owed to his rethemselves, were important in broadening markable mental make-up, uniting the abilihis chemical knowledge and in developing ty of mathematical abstraction to a purely his analytical skill, an acquisition which poetical imagination. served him well in the pursuit of his subsequent investigations. His doctor's thesis was on mixtures of alcohol and water, and was characterized by the extreme exactness of his measurements. His work on the expansion of liquids and on the liquefaction of

Modern chemistry, which found its beginnings in the conception of the indestructibility of matter, was at first inclined to study chemical phenomena almost exclusively from the material standpoint.

The chemists had discovered about sixty ele

ments, whose properties and combination were proximately, were corrected. Furthermore, made the subject of extensive study. They new elements predicted by Mendeleyev in studied the color, odor, taste, solubility, optical accord with the periodic law were actually properties, and crystal systems of substances, as well as their ability to react upon other sub- discovered. A few years after Mendeleyev's stances. No attempt was made to find a sys- framing of his system the element gallium tematic numerical expression for the properties was discovered, and its properties were found noted. Some of the empirical laws which were discovered seemed to have no connection with to agree exactly with those predicted by one another. There was no systematic arrange- Mendeleyev. The discovery of the elements ment of the chemical elements then known, and scandium, germanium and of others followed the conceptions of atomic weights in their rela- that of gallium, and all found a place in tion to one another were rather indefinite. While it was known that such elements as so- Mendeleyev's system. The great service dium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium had prop- rendered by the periodic law to chemistry erties in common, as was true likewise of the consists, among other things, in its having group of elements including calcium, strontium, made possible the discovery of analogies and and barium, or of the group including phosphorus, arsenic, and silicon,-no one was appar- properties where no one had hitherto susently struck with the great similarity of prop- pected them. erties of the elements in each group and the relations of one group to another.

The periodic law as conceived by Mendeleyev may be described briefly in the statement that "the properties of elements are the periodical functions of their atomic weights." Arranging the elements in the order of their atomic weights, we find at certain intervals the repetition of the same properties. The fruitfulness of Mendeleyev's conception was soon demonstrated in chemical investigation. The atomic weights of some of the rarer elements, which had been determined only ap

Mendeleyev also performed important service in the employ of the Russian Government. In 1893 he was appointed director of the Bureau of Standards, and took a prominent part in the investigation of the Russian oil fields. The Russian press is practically unanimous in its praise of his services to science and to his country. A complete bibliography of his scientific writings, numbering about 150 books, pamphlets and periodical articles, is to be found in the bibliographical dictionary of the University of St. Petersburg.

ALFRED DEAKIN, THE BAYARD OF AUSTRALIAN
POLITICS.

THE Australian commonwealth held a conditions, Mr. Maxwell H. H. Macartney,

series of important elections in Decem- contributes to the National Review a sketch ber. The general result, while not making of Mr. Deakin in which he claims that this any marked difference in the complexion of tribute is amply justified by the past quarter the federal Parliament, shows an increased of a century of Australian politics. Labor vote. The Deakin ministry has apparently neither lost nor gained ground. Mr. Deakin was the first Prime Minister of the commonwealth. Then his party split and he was succeeded by Mr. Watson, with the first Labor party ministry in the commonwealth. Mr. Watson was succeeded by Mr. Reid, and the latter gave way before the last session to Mr. Deakin. On the issue of tariff the new House stands 40 Protectionists to 26 Free-Traders. Railroad legislation and the question of Chinese and Japanese coolie labor are among the problems which will press for settlement before the present Parliament of the commonwealth.

According to an epigram current in the antipodes, Alfred Deakin is the Bayard of Australian politics. A student of South Sea

alities, like Sir Wilfrid Laurier or Mr. Balfour,
Mr. Deakin is one of those charming person-
who counts as many warm personal friends
amongst his political opponents as he does
amongst his own partisans. "He can throw a
halo of attraction around the orifice of Hades"
is the phrase in which one of his contemporaries
has expressed Mr. Deakin's superlative powers
as an orator, and to these powers of speech he
joins a literary ability, a spirit of idealism, and a
readiness for self-effacement which make him
the commonwealth.
a unique figure among present-day politicians of

In

The subject of the sketch is Australian, born and bred. He is now in his fifty-first year and the plenitude of his powers. the Victorian Parliament, which he entered in 1879, he has a distinguished career upon which to look back. He has been Solicitor

!

MENDELEYEV, ONE OF THE WORLD'S GREAT
CHEMISTS.

THE greatest of Russian chemists, and

one of the most eminent of any na-
tionality, Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleyev,
died in St. Petersburg, on February 2.
Mendeleyev was one of the few great sci-
entists who have given Russia the right to
rank with the civilized nations of the world.
In the estimation of the noted English
chemist, Thorpe, Mendeleyev was for Rus-
sia what Berzelius was for Sweden, Liebig
for Germany, and Dumas for France.

In view of the world influence of Men-
deleyev on the development of chemistry,
Thorpe's statement is not at all
gerated. Chemical science owes to Men-
exag-
deleyev a new conception and philosophy,
for before his day chemistry was a collection
of facts rather than a clear exposition of
the laws concerning the transformation of

[graphic]

matter.

DMITRI IVANOVICH MENDELEYEV.

Mendeleyev was born on February 7, 1834, at Tobolsk, Siberia, where his father was director of the classical gymnasium. Soon after Mendeleyev's birth his father lost his eyesight, and the care of the large family fell to his mother, a woman of marked ability and energy. She opened a glass factory in Tobolsk, and her young son learned there his first lessons in chem- gases is of a high order. istry, and developed the love for it which influ- to point out why some gases failed to follow He was the first enced the rest of his life. After completing his studies at the gymnasium Mendeleyev went to exactly the law of Boyle-Mariotte, and in St. Petersburg and enrolled as a student at the his studies of permanent gases he discovered Pedagogical Institute, then the highest institu- the critical temperature of gases, which extion of learning in Russia. He received instruc- plained why their liquefaction had not hith

tion in chemistry under Professor Voskresinski,
and was sent soon after graduation to Odessa,
and thence to the Crimea, in the capacity of

high-school instructor. At the conclusion of the
Crimean War in 1856 Mendeleyev became a
privat-docent at the University of St. Peters-

burg, and from 1859 to 1861 he carried on ad

vanced studies at Heidelberg. He was appointed
professor of chemistry at the Technological In-
stitute in 1863, and became professor at the Uni-

versity of St. Petersburg in 1866.

erto been accomplished.

the science of chemistry was his discovery of But the greatest service of Mendeleyev to the periodic system of chemical elements, a discovery with which his name will forever remain indissolubly linked. His "Principles of Chemistry" (1869) the first textbook on chemistry based on the periodic law, is called Mendeleyev's labors at Heidelberg con- The periodic system gave philosophy access by Thorpe a system of chemical philosophy. cerned various investigations in organic, to chemistry, and to Mendeleyev belongs the mineralogical, physical, and industrial chem- credit of having made such access possible, istry, which, while not of great moment in themselves, were important in broadening markable mental make-up, uniting the abilian achievement which he owed to his rehis chemical knowledge and in developing ty of mathematical abstraction to a purely his analytical skill, an acquisition which poetical imagination. served him well in the pursuit of his subsequent investigations.

Modern chemistry, which found its beHis doctor's thesis ginnings in the conception of the indestructibility of matter, was at first inclined to study chemical phenomena almost exclusively from the material standpoint.

was on mixtures of alcohol and water, and
was characterized by the extreme exactness
of his measurements. His work on the ex-
pansion of liquids and on the liquefaction of

The chemists had discovered about sixty ele

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