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account of the hostile tone adopted by the Bulgarian Press. Servian organs of some standing are discussing the probabilities of a war with Bulgaria, declaring that such a
war would be disastrous to both countries, and would only benefit a third Power to whose interest it is that the two nations should be on bad terms.
SCHOOL ORGANIZATION AND INSTRUCTION.
TWENTY-FIVE years ago education was forced upon a pupil by a breathingin process that crammed and expanded him; to-day it is urged that the school should be a social institution, and should unfold from within the spiritual life of the pupil. This, of course, would revolutionize the present system of school organization. Education is still individualistic. The class is an aggregate individual, and teachers aim to bring together children as nearly alike as possible. No helpful relations are established among pupils or between them and the teacher; mutual assistance is prohibited, and the teacher is a sentinel to prevent it. This, according to enlightened opinion, is wrong. The greatest need in life to-day is a spirit of helpfulness, and in the schoolroom should it first find root. The child is by nature a helper and a help-seeker, and the tendency should be unfolded, not pruned. The kindergarten illustrates this; every other department of education, from the elementary school to the university, denies it and so subordinates the social qualities of pupils.
In a paper read before the Social Education Congress in Boston last November, and published in the February Popular Science Monthly, the late Prof. Wilbur S. Jackınan advocated the reorganization of our school system as a social institution. Our student bodies show no disposition to organize for any public end or for any great purpose. This is an enormous moral loss to society," for the forces of youth are not engaged in upbuilding our social and national life. "An educational activity," said he, " is one which expresses itself through some helpful work. It is rooted in the fact that every child is a born worker and a lover of work. To work, to do things, to bring about results, usefur and beautiful, is just as natural as it is for him to breathe the air. There are no lazy children, naturally." Nevertheless, education is not entirely a matter of tasks. This social idea rejects arbitrary imposition and would establish new conditions by challenging "personal initiative." The present system looks to " attainment," and mistakes for
"training and discipline" a so-called voluntary attention to stare ox-like at matters disagreeable, uninteresting, or unintelligible. The new idea would discipline the mind of the pupil to follow up from premise to conclusion something which mightily interests him, and so stimulate inquiry. The present system is satisfied with a state of mind that is quietly receptive" and offers no scope for creative intelligence, in either thought or deed, because it is modeled on a belief that pupils are imitators and not creators. This the new idea would revolutionize. To be educative the dominant note of a school must be creative, is the essence of its teaching.
Art is born in a new creation and every creative activity will have its artistic aspect.' Such teaching transforms the individual and gives him a developed personality. Imitation is a training in conformity and holds the creative instincts in abeyance. "To sum up, therefore," said Professor Jackman, "the resources of the school which the teacher may utilize in the development of a social organism, we have, on the part of the pupils, (1) a natural spirit of helpfulness; (2) an inborn love of work; (3) a desire to take the initiative; (4) an ambition for creative work, and (5) an alertness of mind toward public needs. Upon these foundation-stones the social structure must be reared." To develop these qualities, class exercises must keep in the forefront matters of public interest and give freedom to each individual who thinks and works for the common welfare. The present system of grading "aims at a certain dead level of uniformity in three things,namely, age, knowledge, and skill." This retards progress and fosters selfishness. Under it pupils exert themselves to excel; under the new method, to help each other! In school, as well as out, the principle should be established that no one can live unto himself alone. Work that demands co-operation should be permitted, for "that is the supreme fact in democracy."
Schools based on this community life require teachers of a new type. "The greatest need of the schools is teachers who have the
power to reach the public mind. The power ing for the task of teaching people's children. to teach the children will be taken for The article concludes: granted." "Field work" in the community at large, study of its daily needs, and actual participation therein are the equipments of the new teacher. The school must serve the community more directly, and the community must more freely open up to the school. Training schools of the "cloister' type must yield to those based on the "social settlement," and the ideas of the teacher must resemble those of the settlement worker. The school should attract all classes for study as the library does all for reading, and should be kept open to suit the public convenience. Teachers should be trained "in the science and art of working with people," and should lead in debating questions relating to human welfare, so that, by active participation in public affairs, they can keep in proper train
The coming era of education will be marked, not by its material resources, but by its teachers. Our schoolhouses are good enough; now let there be trained teachers; then we shall have schools. Such teachers will be equipped, of course, with knowledge, but above all they will be trained in discernment,-in the power to see and appreciate the fundamental things of human growth and in its output of character. They too must work with the children, not alone for them, and be creative; to create they too must be free. The present system that grinds and chafes at every move was developed under archaic ideals; it has become antiquated and in large measure useless. The organization of the schools must grow out of the professional necessities of the teachers, the greatest of which is that even the poorest shall be free to put the best of himself into his work. Under such conditions every teacher and every child will become a positive creative moral force in the upbuilding of the social structure.
TEACHING IDEALS IN THE SCHOOLS.
Allen Harmon Carpenter (writing in the Bookman), says:
Less than twenty-five years have passed since Mark Hopkins, Thomas Arnold, Louis Agassiz, Benjamin Jowett, and James McCosh were prominent before the world, not merely as teachers, but as men of influence and power. Despite the preparation and specialization of the instructor of to-day there seems to be a singular scarcity of such names. Connecting with this fact the wide separation of student and teacher, we may well feel that present-day ideals are far different from the past. These conditions lead us to question the character of our teachers and to ask if they have retrograded or advanced; if their influence approaches or equals that of the
Mr. Carpenter deals largely in his article. with institutions devoted to the higher learning and emphasizes the apparent and actual lack of human sympathy to-day between university and college students and those to
whom they should and do look for guidance and instruction. It is pointed out that, formerly, the teacher and the preacher were closely allied "and, in fact, were often one and the same." Thus students not only learned Greek and Latin but moral truths, inculcating the code of a noble manhood. Notwithstanding the fact that dogma sometimes interfered with a broad Christian view, the heads of universities and colleges, as clergymen, won the reverence and regard "so sadly lacking in most modern classrooms."
However narrow and dogmatic the early teacher may have been, he possessed great He apwealth of knowledge as regards men. preciated the questionings of the boy's heart, the desire for sympathy, the need for encouragement, and the longing for companionship with those of greater knowledge. Truly did the instructor of old respond to these wants, and nobly did he endeavor to satisfy them. He drew his students about him and gave freely of the humble hospitality of his home. The result has been that the world has looked up to and admired these men for their nobility of character and their great sympathy with the student class. It is said that Jowett habitually gathered at his home for Sunday tea a group of his students, who spent the evening in friendly discourse.
Referring to the present and growing tendency toward employment of specialists at our seats of learning, the writer regrets that men now seek deeply into the minutiæ of some limited field "and all too often lose
sight of outside interests, save as they touch their one'ism.'" Loss of influence among their pupils is assumed to be the net result of this too close concentration on a certain subject or group of subjects. The question of pay for instructors is touched upon.
Has not this intense devotion to purely scientific problems been accompanied oftentimes by a selfishness and commercialism that is deplorable? It is only too true that the teaching profession is underpaid in proportion to the training required in preparation. There seems to be a constant attempt to get a decrease of teaching hours with an increase of salary, in order that a man may devote himself to research, while the classroom work is in many instances piled upon the younger instructors, who often do the hardest work and receive the least pay. The result
is that the overworked instructor has no time to give to the care of the student beyond the confines of the classroom, while the professor is too deeply engrossed in his individual work to pay any attention to him. Research may win the seeker great renown and may thoroughly demonstrate his title as scholar; but in the meantime the student is left to his own devices, and the separation between the two becomes complete. The student finds ready consolation among his mates, and together they blame the professor as a narrow-minded person.
"Education and the Larger Life."
Another phase of the educational-reform movement is treated of in C. Hanford Henderson's new book, "Education and the Larger Life," recently reviewed in the Craftsman. Mr. Henderson, the editor points out, has a theory as to the manner in which education can be so applied in America as best to further the progress of civilization.
The writer, in the excerpt given above, lays stress on the necessity for closer contact between scholar and teacher, the greater "humanizing" of the teacher's occupation. Mr. Henderson would have yet another attribute placed to the instructor's credit.
To be a
To be an educator is not, then, to be a man merely conversant with the customs and conventionalities of the schoolroom. It is to be a practical educator, a teacher, is to add to this man with a defensible social creed. the power to carry such a social creed into effect. Unless we are courageous enough and skillful enough to work back to this firm ground, the philosophic idea, we can have no assured position on any question of human import, and surely nothing to say about education that will be at all worth saying.
The teaching of poetry is like any other gift, music, painting, poetry itself; it has in it the seminal genius of life. The true lover or the true teacher of poetry possesses in the main the same qualities of heart and mind that the poet has, without his power of poetical expression; he has an appreciation of the musical qualities of poetry, a love of sound for sound's sake; he and re-create for himself the poet's picture or has imagination with the power to supply detail conception,-no person with imagination at a minimum can hope to teach poetry; he has emotional responsiveness, sympathy not only with the moods of the poet, but with every kind of human experience and with nature animate and inanimate, and reverence for that which is noble, right and good; he has wide and broadminded interest in all classes of society, desire for the knowledge of spiritual truth and the significance of life; and he has capacity for sustained thought.
The writer, while pointing out defects in the present plan of poetry-teaching does not forget to prescribe a practical remedy.
Throughout the whole inquiry he deals with causes rather than with effects, regarding civilization as a force, a progressive idea expressing itself as a social environment, and education as an inner experience, a practical process for the nutrition and growth of the civilization idea, rather than as the mere acquisition of knowledge. Regarding experience as the only road to truth, and the inherent consistency of all experience as the foundation of our present civilization, Mr. Henderson places special emphasis upon the necessity of constantly enlarging experience in the conduct of the individual and social life; of recognizing the common element There are several ways in which the teaching in human events; of gathering these elements of poetry might be bettered. The first is seeminto a distinct philosophy, with a care that the ingly a very simple one; frequent reading aloud philosophy flowers into performance. Educa- to the class by a teacher who is able to read tion, he declares, rests upon this principle of poetry and who mistakes it neither for seesaw the uniformity of experience, and is a definite nor for prose; on the other hand, practice on process, quite as definite as the other sciences of experience.-not a jumble of different methods of school-keeping as advocated by rival masters, but a rigid application of the principle of cause and effect.
the part of the students. The teacher of music, the teacher of singing, have been specially trained; why should not the teacher of poetry, which requires a fine gift of music, also be trained?
IMMIGRATION is as vexing a problem
to British Columbia as it is to the United States. Having excluded the Chinese and Japanese by an increased Dominion head tax, that province is now confronted with a human influx from India. Since Hindus are British subjects the problem is one of increasing difficulty. These newcomers are Sikhs, or lower-class Hindus, with no definite aim, and restricted in their employment or labor by "caste," which is of four shades: Behmins, or sacerdotal order; Kshatriyas, soldiers and rulers; Sudras, laborers; and Pariahs, outcasts.
The Canadian arrivals belong to the Kshatriyas and Sudras. The prohibitions of their sects, unless surrendered, will unfit them for service in Canada. They must do their own cooking, or partake only of food cooked by members of their own caste; different castes cannot work together, nor can one be the agent of the other. Even where employed in any number, at present their work is not the equal of the Orientals'. In trade and domestic knowledge they are sadly deficient, and are unfit physically for laborious pursuits. They are tall, slender, and gaunt, poorly clad, poorly fed, and poorly housed. In a shack in Vancouver, at one time occupied by a family of two parents and twelve children, notoriously insufficient for their
wants, seventy Hindus find lodging! Six times, heretofore, the health authorities have ejected families from this hovel because it was overcrowded. Six persons is its full complement! Here, like sardines in a box, these destitutes are cooped, and occasionally relieve their monotony by sanguinary contests, in which blood flows like water.
More than 2500 arrived in British Columbia during 1906, and public opinion is decidedly against them. Writing in the Canadian Magazine for February, Mr. J. Barclay Williams, a Canadian, outlines this situation in a pessimistic fashion, and reaches the conclusion that the Sikh is useless to Canada, that he will become eventually a burden to the Dominion Government, and suggests that the Indian Government be advised of the unfortunate lot of its subjects now on Canadian soil. He closes thus: "That the time is not far distant when the Sikh will retrace his steps is the popular belief, as it only needs the necessary cost of transportation to induce him to do so."
Mr. Saint N. Sing, a native of India, presents the obverse view. Quoting the late Queen Victoria to the effect that the Hindu is "amiable, well-bred, intelligent, and devoted," he denounces the treatment of the Hindu immigrants in British Columbia as "disgraceful," and the result of an ex
treme spirit of hostility."
The causes of this immigration, the conditions of the Hindus, their habits and characteristics, as well as their future prospects in British Columbia, Mr. Sing claims, "have been grossly misrepresented or utterly misunderstood." "The discussion of the subject by the press and public of the Pacific coast of Canada has been not only frantically furious," says he, "but it has been characterized also with the densest ignorance about the lives, habits, and influence of the East Indian immigrants in particular, and about the present conditions in modern India in general.”
Ascribing as the cause of their arrival a desire to obtain higher wages and better opportunities for a livelihood than Hindustan affords, he claims the "overcrowding" and poor housing of the Hindus in Vancouver are due to an insufficiency in houses for that city's rapid growth. Then, quoting Dr. Alexander S. Munro, the Dominion Immigration Inspector at Vancouver: "It is a shame these Hindus are treated as they have been. They all have money in their pockets to pay for whatever they get, but the trouble is they can't get it." He emphatically adds: "Yes, the trouble is, 'they can't get it.' Continuing, he applauds their courage in overcoming "that East Indian fiend of fiends," caste, and says those who are now in British Columbia have united to establish co-operative houses, to supply the acute wants of the newly arrived and unemployed immigrant. This goes to prove that their ideas have passed the chaotic stage, and are now materializing. As to Hindu cleanliness, he adds, that is proverbial.
of Mr. Williams' views. He claims that the Sikhs are "tall, broad-shouldered, and deepwinded; muscular and robust,-men who can patiently put up with a hard, struggling, tough life." This certainly joins issue with Mr. Williams' summary. Their quick perception and bright intelligence make them the peer of any immigrants that have ever entered British Columbia from the Pacific coastal towns or drifted from the eastern parts of Canada." In morals and abstemiousness they hold their own, and he triumphantly points out that the police-court records in British Columbia have yet to contain the first conviction of a Hindu. The climatic change, he contends, will not affect them; and coming from the Afghan border, where caste is construed liberally, he believes they will not be hampered by its regulations.
The indiscriminate villification of the Hindus he charges to "flamboyant and inflammatory yellow emanations from the morbidly rabid press organs of Vancouver and Victoria." This hostility is, however, only sectional, and that it should exist at all is incomprehensible to him in view of the fact that Hindus and Canadians alike are supporters of the same empire. Despite the hardships and difficulties which they are now facing, he believes they will succeed in conquering them. He thus concludes:
cords to cement the union of the respective Meanwhile these immigrants supply additional countries of the empire, and supply the link which will make these members of the same empire take more than passing interest in the successes and problems of one another. Let every
one wish that Canada be for the Canadians and India for the East Indians,-but not at the sacri
His spirited defence is the very antithesis fice of imperial ties.
THE POSSIBILITIES OF LATENT LIFE.
AFTER quoting the case of some frogs returning to life after having been solidly frozen in ice for several days, and that mentioned by Sir John Franklin, of a carp gayly floundering about upon being thawed out, after having been frozen stiff and apparently lifeless for thirty-six hours, a writer in the Dutch monthly, Vragen van den Dag, says:
The physiologist Raoul Pictet subjected fish to a temperature of 15 degrees, and they survived. They perished only when the temperature was lowered to 20 degrees. Frogs, however, survived after being subjected to a cold of
28 degrees; while centipedes could not be killed