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Assuming that the growth of racial animosities must operate to the disadvantage of the South's interests, and that this will be increased through the arrival of white industrial and agricultural labor, he points out that the South cannot ignore the negro question, and in dealing with it warns it against the demagogue who "employs the negro as the instrument of his own self-exaltation." Its business revival, industrial changes, breaking up of isolation, increasing national life, challenge of new occupations, broader enterprises, and joy of material conquest, all lend encouragement to a sane solution of this vexing problem. Extremists and sensationalists are passing, and younger men with more aggressive confidence and new hopefulness are coming to the front. "Their growing influence is as certain," says this writer, "as the final power of truth and wisdom and right reason. Our need is not peculiarly the need of men 'great' in statesmanship, letters, oratory, but of men in every phase of occupation, however inconspicuous, who are great
in the steady daily power quietly to impress themselves within their concrete world as forces of simplicity, discrimination, firmness, and good sense. The South has been a land of great leaders. Many leaders, moved by great loyalties, is even better." This new leadership will have magnanimity, or a desire to be generous and helpful; it will have adaptability, the power to fit itself to new occasions; patience, knowing that its democracy is on trial; discrimination, to keep clear the line between worthy, and worthless negroes; a sense of proportion, to deal with real things in a real world, and immediateness, to deal with one task at a time.
All these will enable it to evolve a wiser and better policy than heretofore, when sentiment, disposition, and habit held sway. Passionately dedicated to the protection of the white race, Mr. Murphy asserts that this new leadership will pledge to the weakest and lowliest of every race the best chance which can be wrested from that fate which has bound us to a common soil.
RICHARD STRAUSS AND THE MUSIC OF THE FUTURE.
POPULAR interest in the musical genius and personality of Richard Strauss has been stimulated by the recent performance of the opera "Salome" in New York as it never could have been by innumerable critical and controversial articles on the art of the composer. The drama of Oscar Wilde, treating as it does of Oriental passions of love and hate so daringly expressed as to make the non-critical mind forget the exquisite art of the language, has been wedded to marvelously subtile music by the German composer, music which adds great power to the sensual appeal of the drama's action. Whether wisely or not,-it is a matter of opinion and controversy,-the trustees of the Metropolitan Opera Company of New York have forbidden the further presentation of "Salome" in that great auditorium.
This incident has aroused a great deal of interest in the composer, Richard Strauss, and makes timely a descriptive and analytical article on the subject of Strauss and his music, which appears in a recent issue of the Deutsche Mone tsschrift (Berlin). The writer, Mr. R. M. Breithaupt, in his prefatory remarks, a serts that the most significant thing about Strauss is that he is "still in process of development, in the full vigor of
creation, and we cannot tell whither he will turn, what further fruits this wide-spreading, powerful tree may yet cast into our laps."
We quote below the concluding portion of the article, which summarizes the composer's achievement, and speaks of the possibilities of future musical developments.
Where this music will lead and where Strauss
will finally end we cannot say. We can only divine. The infinitely extended conception of tonality since Wagner (notice, for example, the wealth of the C major tonality of the prelude to Tristan and Isolde) will perhaps draw everything within the realm of its resolving force. With Strauss all generic contrasts of pitch appear still quite naturally modified. Max Reger, however, is already working to resolve all existing harmonic bases and to prepare a new cosmos (in the harmonic sense). It may be that the contours of the old classical forms will be still further obliterated. The modeling of the themes will grow fainter and fainter until everything will melt into a limitless film of shining, floating harmony. The eight-measure period as well as the sixteen-measure sentence" appear already to most as nothing but a rigid formula. We prefer to-day the unconfined, the level. Perhaps the old motive will temporarily cease altogether and music really become an "endless melody"; musically, one spot of color. Gleaming plains, flaring lights, gaudy reflections, and grotesque play of color will dominate the time,
until once again the conqueror appears, the great painter and modeler, who will put an end to all this impotent effeminacy, and will oppose to all this coloring, solid values, positive thematic conceptions, daring invention, and inspired melodies. Music is for many to-day a purely instrumental problem, and its instrumentation merely a sort of physical experimental science of the development and discovery of new acoustic phenomena. It will be years before we shall have worked our way through the instrumental principle and shall take up old treasures, for instance, Händel's proud vocal power, once more.
It must be admitted that we owe much to the specifically peculiar gifts of Richard Strauss, the influence of which will make itself felt in the future. One may even deliberately declare:
Strauss, too, was necessary. Not as necessary, it may well be, as Hector Berlioz, the father of modern instrumentation, but surely as necessary as countless artistic apparitions that must commonly be reckoned as transitions to the general great artistic development. Strauss has refined the color-scheme to an extraordinary degree. His instinct for the picturesque is unremittingly engaged in counteracting as far as possible any differences which may still exist between the various groups of instruments (string and wood instruments, brass wind-instruments, and instruments of percussion), in blending completely the various types of sound with each other. In the art of the most delicate instrumental transitions, in the treatment, for instance, of the groups of wood instruments and their mingling, in the creation of that modern, satisfying coherent orchestral tone which strikes the ear like an adjustment of all the refractory phenomena of sound, he has, in reality, done perfect work. A song like Morgen, with the witchingly conceived nuns' harmony, no one could instrument as he did. It has a melodiousness; a tonality, in short, a harmonious coloring which one cannot conceive could be more perfect. On the other hand, all his imitators and worshipers are genuine bunglers, these modern would-be members of a guild appearing, indeed, as contrasted with their leader, as might an honest whitewasher or house-painter as compared with a real artist. But this instrumentation is the measure of his capacity and his limit. In it we have a perfect reflection of the time. Furthermore: we should be objective enough to acknowledge unreservedly that Richard Strauss has essentially enriched the style of characterization and revealed to us new sides of the music of description and representation. Whether this art, viewed from the esthetic and cultural standpoint, signifies anything really great and profound or perhaps even the regeneration of mankind, the future and history can alone determine. Certain it is that no art has ever been accounted great whose sole claim to admiration lay in its technique. Certain it is, besides, that where composition is too rapid and too abundant, too little is or can be experienced. We shall only then breathe anew and attain the basis for a new art when we shall succeed in restraining the limits of the formal and instrumental and learn once more to think and feel more vocally. For
the intrinsic essence of music is vocal in its nature and will ever remain so.
The Music of "Salome." One of the most courageous and incisive criticisms of the music of "Salome" can be found in the following, from Mr. Lawrence Gilman's recent article in the North American Review. Admitting the brilliance of the composition, Mr. Gilman says:
It is when one turns from the bewildering magnificence of its orchestral investure to a consideration of the actual substance of the music, the fundamental ideas which lie within the dazzling instrumental envelope, that it is possible to realize why, for many of his most determined admirers, this work marks a pathetic decline from the standard set by Strauss in his former achievements. It is not that the music is often cacophonic in the extreme, that its ugliness ranges from that which is merely harsh and unlovely to that which is brutally and deliberately hideous; for we have not to learn anew, in these days of post-Wagnerian emancipation, that a dramatic exigency justifies any possible musical means that will appropriately express it: to-day we cheerfully concede that, when a character in music-drama tells another character that "his body is like the body of a leper, like a plastered wall where vipers crawl. . like a whited sepulchre, full of loathsome things," the sentiment may not be uttered in music of Mendelssohnian sweetness and lucidity.
MODEL TENEMENTS IN ST. PETERSBURG.
THE two great currents of Russian na
tional life, liberalism and reaction, are not limited to the political arena. Cropping out in every department of the social fabric one sees the same two forces in antithesis and strife. This fact accounts for the dense ignorance of the agricultural classes and the efforts of individuals and societies to enlighten the peasants by ingenious floating agricultural schools and fairs; for the apparent indifference to disease and epidemics, and the appearance in the zemstvo physician's library of the latest medical papers and the newest surgical instruments; for deep intellectual stagnation and sporadic manifestations of the broadest intellectual consciousness; for suppression of every liberal educational tendency and the most progressive educational propaganda at isolated points. The same is true in the social work in the great cities. Consequently, it is not surprising to find in St. Petersburg, the city where every human right and liberty has been outraged, a recently organized society the purpose of which is to provide the people with modern dwellings at a very low rent. This society has not only been formed, but it has already built several large tenements which the Tag (Berlin) considers model in every way.
This German journal says that the Society for the Relief of House Famine has done excellent work in the Russian capital, and that its efforts are receiving encouraging support.
This society was formed some time ago, and its purpose is to provide cheap, comfortable living quarters for workmen and poor persons. So far its work has consisted in the erection of three, and four rooms, including kitchen. In all, five buildings which contain apartments of two, the five buildings contain fifty-nine two-room apartments, with rent ranging from $3.70 to $5 a month; ninety-nine three-room apartments, from $5.30 to $8.10 a month, and forty-two four-room apartments, from $7.70 to $10.60. The apartments are heated by steam, are well ventilated, and they contain in addition to the specified rooms a small antechamber, room for coal, cupthere are fifty-four small rooms for bachelors board for food, and water-closet. Moreover, and fifty-six similar rooms for single women. with the use of a common kitchen. The price of these last rooms ranges from $1.70 to $3.80 a
The society, however, is no ordinary landlord; for in case of the tenant's death the family may remain in the apartment for two months, rent free, and a certain sum is contributed to the funeral expenses. This sum varies with the amount of rent paid. But this is not the end of the society's benefactions. We quote further:
The plan of the association is not only to provide comfortable living quarters for its people but also to look after the physical and intellectual progress of the younger members of the families. The society has, therefore, established a school in one of its buildings, and this school is attended every day by no less than 300 children. Before the studies begin every child must submit to a vigorous douching, the washing of the boys being supervised by a male physician and that of the girls by a female physician. The same building also contains a library, reading and dining rooms, kindergarten, pharmacy, and other original adjuncts to an apartment house. The results so far have encouraged the company to go further. The plan is to begin operations
The association is a stock company, large proportion of the stock is held by the official and prominent families of St. Petersburg. The fact that the very persons who hold the stock are those in the front rank of the reaction forcibly emphasizes the remarkable contrasts of belief and action one meets in Russian social and political life. The Minister of the Interior subscribed to $50,000 worth of the stock and placed $100,000 at the disposition of the society under very favorable terms; the city of St. Petersburg holds $75,000 worth of the paper, and so on a large scale, and a house with furnished rooms at 30 to 38 cents a week has been started. the list might be extended.
WHY THE AMERICAN PEOPLE SHOULD UNDERSTAND INTERNATIONAL LAW.
SECRETARY ROOT ON INTERNATIONAL LAW. The chief reason for the existence of this new periodical, the growing need of popular understanding of international law,-is explained in a brief introductory article by Secretary Root. We cannot do better than to quote Mr. Root's own words:
REAL national service will undoubtedly John Bassett Moore; "Dr. Francis Lieber's be rendered by the new quarterly re- Instructions for the Government of Armies view, the American Journal of International in the Field," by George B. Davis; “The Law, published by the American Society of Calvo and Drago Doctrines," by Amos S. International Law, whose president is the Hershey; "Insurgency and International Hon. Elihu Root, Secretary of State. The Maritime Law," by George Grafton Wilfirst number of this journal, which aims to son; "The Doctrine of Continuous Voycover the year 1906, has just appeared, al- ages," by Charles Burke Elliott; "Notes on though hereafter each number will deal with Sovereignty in a State," by Robert Lansing, the three months immediately preceding the and finally, a good deal of illuminating edidate of issue. This journal will be the only torial comment on current topics of interone of its kind published in the English lan- national interest. guage. This first number contains articles and editorial comments of great service to the seeker for information on points of international law. In addition to these articles there are departments, among them a chronicle of international events, a bibliography of public documents relating to international law, the judicial decisions involving questions of international law, and, in the supplement, copies of all recent important international documents. The magazine is issued by an editorial board, which includes, among other authorities on international relations, Prof. John Bassett Moore, of Columbia University; Dr. Theodore S. Woolsey, of Yale; Hon. David J. Hill, American Minister to Holland, and Hon. Oscar S. Straus, Secretary of Commerce and Labor. The managing editor is Mr. James Brown Scott, of George Washington University. Some subjects considered in this first issue of the new quarterly are: "International Responsibility to Corporate Bodies for Lives Lost by Outlawry," by John W. Foster; "International Law: Its Present and Future," by
Governments do not make war nowadays unless assured of general and hearty support among their people; and it sometimes happens that governments are driven into war against their will by the pressure of strong popular feeling. It is not uncommon to see two governments striving in the most conciliatory and patient way to settle some matter of difference peaceably, while a tain an uncompromising and belligerent attitude, large part of the people in both countries maininsisting upon the extreme and uttermost view of their own rights in a way which, if it were to control national action, would render peaceable settlement impossible.
One of the chief obstacles to the peaceable adjustment of international controversies is the fact that the negotiator or arbitrator who yields any part of the extreme claims of his own country and concedes the reasonableness of any argument of the other side is quite likely to be violently condemned by great numbers of his own coun
(The founder of international law.)
trymen who have never taken the pains to make themselves familiar with the merits of the controversy or have considered only the arguments on their own side. Sixty-four years have passed since the northeastern boundary between the United States and Canada was settled by the Webster-Ashburton treaty of 1842; yet to this day there are many people on our side of the line who condemn Mr. Webster for sacrificing our rights and many people on the Canadian side of the line who blame Lord Ashburton for sacrificing their rights, in that treaty. Both sets of objectors cannot be right; it seems a fair in
ference that neither of them is right; yet both Mr. Webster and Lord Ashburton had to endure reproach and obloquy as the price of agreeing upon a settlement which has been worth to the peace and prosperity of each country a thousand times as much as the value of all the territory
that was in dispute.
of a country understand their own international rights the less likely they are to take extreme and extravagant views of their rights and the less likely they are to be ready to fight for something to which they are not really entitled. The more clearly and universally the people of a country realize the international obligations and duties of their country, the less likely they will be to resent the just demands of other countries that those obligations and duties be observed. The more familiar the people of a country are with the rules and customs of self-restraint and courtesy between nations which long experience has shown to be indispensable for preserving the peace of the world, the greater will be the tendency to refrain from publicly discussing controversies with other countries in such a way as to hinder peaceful settlement by wounding sensibilities or arousing anger and prejudice on the other side.
In the great business of settling international controversies without war, whether it be by negotiation or arbitration, essential conditions are reasonableness and good temper; a willingness to recognize facts and to weigh arguments which make against one's own country as well as those which make for one's own country; and it is very important that in every country the people whom negotiators represent and to whom arbitrators must return shall be able to consider the controversy and judge the action of their representatives in this instructed and reasonable
In every civil community it is necessary to have courts to determine rights and officers to compel observance of law; yet the true basis of the peace and order in which we live is not fear of the policeman; it is the self-restraint of the thousands of people who make up the community and their willingness to obey the law and regard the rights of others. The true basis of business is not the sheriff with a writ of execution; it is the voluntary observance of the rules and obligations of business life which are universally recognized as essential to business success. Just so while it is highly important to have controversies between nations settled by arbitration rather than by war, and the growth of sentiment in favor of that peaceable method of settlement is one of the great advances in civilization, to the credit of this generation, yet the true basis of peace among men is to be found in a just and considerate spirit among the people who rule our modern democracies, in their regard for the rights of other countries, and in their desire to be fair and kindly in the treatment of the subjects which give rise to international controversies.
Of course it cannot be expected that the whole body of any people will study international law; but a sufficient number can readily become sufficiently familiar with it to lead and form public opinion in every community upon all important international questions as they arise.
The New York Sun says, in commenting on the new journal:
The discussion of this question of Japanese rights under our treaties with her has served to emphasize in a striking way the necessity pointed out by Secretary Root in his article in the new American Journal of International Law for a popular understanding of international law and relations. If the Japanese people as well as we ourselves had only been better acquainted with our international rights and duties and with the exact provisions of our mutual treaty relations much unnecessary and foolish talk would have been avoided. The incident points to the desirability of the publication of treaties and their understanding by the people of the countries interested.