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LEADING ARTICLES OF THE MONTH.
THE PRESIDENT, CALIFORNIA, AND THE JAPANESE.
FROM the mass of comment, pro and con, on that part of President Roosevelt's message which referred to the difficulty over the Japanese school children in San Francisco, we quote portions of three rather striking and representative views: (1) that of Congressman Julius Kahn (representing the San Francisco district in the House of Representatives); (2) of the Baba Bharati, a Hindu teacher, editor of the Light of India; and (3) that of Mr. Soshai, a Japanese writer of note.
The Californian point of view is presented with vigor by Congressman Kahn in an article in the Independent. The people of the west coast, says Mr. Kahn, should be permitted to judge of the question of Oriental immigration, since they know more about it than Eastern Americ He reviews the subject of Chinese and Japanese coolie labor, presenting the well-known objections to those of cheapness, low standard of living, and the difference in moral codes. The Chinese coolie, says Mr. Kahn, was a "canker in the heart of our civilization," despite of his industry and frugality. The Japanese, on the other hand, have all the vices of the Chinese with few or none of their virtues. The people of California "regard these Japanese coolies with greater abhorrence,-aye, with greater fear,-than they do the coolies from China." The Japanese, further, are "devoid of the sense of business honor which characterizes the Chinaman." The people of California, however, have never made objection to merchants, bankers, and professional men from Japan. "It is the coolie against whom they protest." There has been, the Congressman continues, no denial of treaty rights to the Japanese. At the same time, he admits,
Californians freely express the belief that the existing treaty, under which Japanese coolies come to our shores at the present rate of 1000 per month, is not an altogether equitable instrument. They contend, on the contrary, that the treaty is altogether one-sided.
Its unfairness consists in the fact that while the Japanese want to come here, no Americans want to go to Japan to work. If similar conditions confronted the citizens
of Massachusetts, he continues, "we feel confident that they, too, would feel as we do." In the school matter, the San Francisco Board of Education was "within its legitimate rights in segregating Japanese scholars from the white children."
And the sentiment of the entire State is behind the Board of Education; and this sentiment is backed up by the opinions of some of the board's contention. I feel confident that our most eminent jurists as to the legality of Californians will never permit their young children to be thrown into close contact with adult
of the White House."
In a strongly worded article under the above title, in his little magazine the Light of India, Baba Bharati character izes President Roosevelt's stand on the Japanese-Californian question as "magnificent." "The American President has proved himself to be the one ruler of the modern West who has his fingers on the pulse of the world politics of the present and the future, and he feels that pulse aright."
President Roosevelt's vindication of the demand of the Japanese to be treated equally with the Americans in America, in his last message to Congress, will furnish a luminous page to the modern times. However much it may now be history of western nations in these aggressive criticised by individual Americans or by selfish political or industrial bodies on the Pacific Coast, the time will soon come when Americans as a nation will feel prouder of Theodore Roosevelt than they do even now. And Theodore Roosevelt's heart and moral self will, in his declining years, derive from it warmer comfort than from anything he has hitherto done during his strenuous stewardship of his nation's affairs. This Japanese part of his message stamps Mr. Roosevelt as a statesman with a far-sighted sagacity which his contemporaries do not possess. The manifesto is born of pure wisdom, the wisdom which belongs to the Old World; the wisdom
which, to the peril of the modern nations, is getting out of date; the wisdom which, when betrayed by a western statesman of to-day, is construed into an exhibition of eccentricity. But Roosevelt's manifesto precludes the possibility of such an opinion, except obstinate bigotry or personal animosity to the author. Its hall-mark of absolute sincerity and genuine inspiration is apparent in every word and sentence, but it is the inspiration that is the essence of the sincerity. It is an inspired declaration, to be sure, inspired from the highest source of illumination, of which its truth, vigor, and boldness of expression are the best proofs. It is patriotic, it is humanitarian, it is absolutely appreciative. It has been delivered from a pedestal high above politics, unknown to diplomacy, out of the reach of prejudice.
The Japanese Viewpoint.
One of the most striking features of the San Francisco-Japanese incident has been the reserve of the Japanese. In a recent issue of the Courrier Européen (Paris), however, Mr. Soshai, a Japanese writer of considerable note in his own country, handles the subject in extenso.
Mr. Soshai's personal opinion is that
According to the annual of Mr. Ito Sukeyoshi, the Sekai Nenkan, in 1903 there were 27 Japanese residing in Washington, D. C.; 6482 in the State of Washington; 1403 in New York City; 295 in the State of New York; 103 in Chicago; 115 in Missouri; 5123 in San Francisco; 18,123 in California, exclusive of San Francisco; 50 in New Mexico; 240 in Golo do; 432 in Nevada; 372 in Utah; 318 in Arizona; 209 in Alaska; 909 in Idaho; 1365 in Montana; 2466 in Oregon; 853 in Wyoming; 49 in other States. The total in the United States, according to the Japanese statistician, was therefore 38,934, against 67,740 in the Hawaiian Islands and 1995 in the Philippines. Mr. Soshai calls attention to an article in the Shinkoron entitled "A Batch of Notes on the New Japan," this "New Japan" being nothing less than California. In this discussion the writer urges is countrymen to emigrate to the United States; and an
THE PART GREATER THAN THE WHOLE.
Waal, I can't say right away.
From Punch (London).
The Californian incident may be considered of only relative importance in the relations of the United States and Japan, although the arbitrary exclusion of our compatriots from the schools has deeply wounded the pride of the Japanese. Just con-sultin' California on that vurry point." The President of the United States, however, may easily adjust the differences,-perhaps to the advantage of the Japanese. But the task of destroying the anti-Japanese feeling, of extirpating from Californian soil this weed which grows with the increasing presence of the Jananese and the rivalry of interests, is a task which even the ability and energy of Mr. Roosevelt cannot accomplish.
other article in the same periodical, but of later date, continues to assure the Japanese that of all countries the United States in general and California in particular are the most important and promising for the Japanese emigrant.
It would therefore seem that Japanese emigration to California is a well-developed propaganda, and that the advantages of the country are duly and generally appreciated by the Nipponese. The news of the San Francisco disturbance has, however, rudely shocked the national ambitions, and although there has been little or no expression of feeling, this feeling is none the less resentful. One or two quotations from Mr. Soshai's article will indicate this.
The moderate Asahi Shimbun of Tokio observes that" the United States loaded us with favors during the Russo-Japanese Waf, but now they have fallen into the prejudices and errors which are the bane of all other nations." And in the Jiyu Tsushin, Count Okuma takes note "of the disagreeable fact that there is an anti-Japanese movement in the United States."
However, we will remain calm for the reason that the United States have been our best friends
for the past 50 years. This reserved attitude, therefore, prevents us from saying anything about our neighbors on the other side of the water. But I am convinced that the present trouble is only a temporary movement, and I am sure that all Japanese will agree with me that in time the American people will do us justice. Nevertheless, while the San Francisco disturbance is a trivial affair if it is fanned merely by the labor leaders, it is serious if the controlling classes are back of it. In any event we must
THE San Francisco disaster of last April
was not productive of evil only, for it strikingly revealed just what elements are essential to the economic welfare of a community.
THE HOUSING PROBLEM IN SAN FRANCISCO.
The problem of distributing the funds which were sent for the relief of the stricken city was an enormous one. Yet, for the relief commission to limit its labors practically to work of a temporary character, in the line of building to erect only temporary quarters for the aged and helpless,, seemed a mistake to many, among whom was Dr. Edward T. Devine, who was chairman of two relief committees, and who succeeded in securing the adoption of reports embodying this idea. Of his labors in this direction Dr. Devine gives an interesting account in the current number of the Political Science Quarterly. After the earthquake and fire had completed their work, San Francisco was a city without homes and without incomes. For one month there was a reign of brotherly love such as the poets and sages have pictured. Laborers, professional men, servants, and captains of industry served without compensation or even the promise of pay. The bitterest of political enemies worked harmoniously for the common good,-worked hard and long, day and night. Food came from relief stations, and clothing came from the second-hand bureaus. "Hand-out" methods took the place of purchase and sale, for there were neither markets nor money with which to buy in them.
make our appeal to the broad spirit of the American people, for in the eyes of humanity and the world the greatness of the United States consists in their high standard of right and equity. In. my opinion President Roosevelt and his ministers will do us justice, and I hope that in a short time the amicable relations between the two countries will be resumed with greater cordiality than ever. If this is not the case, however, I must say that the Japanese are not the people to tolerate insult from any other power.
the camps and in the local districts systematic relief was to continue for many weeks." The lighting, water, and sewer systems were repaired, and the street-cars began to make money again. The people were still badly handicapped, it is true, but by the end of May the ordinary economic life of the city had been resumed. The problem of incomes was solved.
The destruction of the homes of one-half the population of such a city as San Francisco meant a far greater loss than that of income.
Here we have a glimpse of the housing problem as it faced the authorities last spring:
yet been rebuilt; and it is reasonably certain At this writing practically no homes have as that between 50,000 and 100,000 people,—say, 20,000 families, will find themselves compelled to leave San Francisco definitely for at least a year, or to live in temporary dwellings in which no real home life is possible, or to crowd into basements or living-rooms already sufficiently occupied but capable of overcrowding under compulsion, as living-rooms have been crowded known as not to require enumeration. before in other cities, with consequences so well
Dr. Devine was quick to see the need of financial aid in the erection of reasonably priced houses, and before the end of April he had called the attention of the emergency committee to this need, and advocated that a portion of the relief fund be devoted to the erection of attractive dwellings to be sold or rented to refugees then living in tents. The suggestion was not favorably acted upon at first, but on June 26 it was adopted by a special committee of the relief commission which had then succeeded the army and National Red Cross agencies. An elaborate and detailed plan was worked out by the committee and received the sanction of representatives of the New York Chamber of Commerce and the Massachusetts Relief Association, "each of which bodies still retained approximately a half million dollars
which had been raised for the relief of San Francisco."
To the committee the question of shelter seemed to be of such importance as to require the co-operation of architects and builders; and it was recommended that $1,000,ooo, or some such amount, be invested in acquiring land and erecting dwellings to be sold or rented on reasonable terms of monthly payments. After further study and consultation with architects and practical builders, a still more careful and detailed report was unanimously adopted both by the relief commission and the rehabilitation committee on July 11.
Mr. M. H. De Young suggested the plan of giving a bonus not to exceed $500 to any person who owned a lot in the burnt district and who was in a position immediately to rebuild. In no instance was the bonus to exceed the value of the building to be erected, and the money was to be paid to the contractor on the completion of the work. The one object was to secure the early rebuilding of the city. It was estimated that not more than $250,000 would be necessary for the construction and repair of the temporary structures, and the remainder was to be used in the erection of houses.
It was a golden opportunity. It would doubtless have meant untold wealth to San Francisco, for thousands would have returned to the city as soon as dwellings could have been rented or bought. Representative labor
leaders favored the plan strongly, for in it they saw what they thought was probably the greatest opportunity ever likely to be presented to the workingmen of the community to become home-owners. Twice did the secretary of the Building Trades Council appear before the committee in support of the plan.
But it was rejected; to the committee it seemed impracticable. The reasons assigned for this decision were three: 1. That the funds were not sufficient to meet the other demands for relief and this one in addition; (2) that there would not be time to build homes before the winter season set in; and (3) that to enter upon such a plan would not be in harmony with the wishes of the donors of the fund, for it would perpetuate rather than dispose of the relief fund.
Dr. Devine thinks that the committee has not acted wisely, though he does not question its motives. He thinks that
fortable homes the corporation is unintentionby choosing to build almshouses instead of comally adopting a policy which will tend to fill almshouses and eventually lessen the demand for homes. It is the peculiar and well-justified boast of San Francisco that it has had few or no pauper dependents. It is earnestly to be hoped that the barracks and temporary quarters for the aged and helpless which they are now building so hurriedly may safely be destroyed in a year or two at most, and that they will not remain,-as has happened under somewhat analogous circumstances in the city of Washington,— to aid subtly in creating a class of residents fit and contented to dwell in them.
THE "NEBRASKA MAN": A PRIMITIVE TYPE.
IN recent years few lines of research have proved more valuable than archeology. Entire schools of biblical criticism have fallen because of discoveries in the valleys of the Nile and Euphrates; and now it would seem that the valley of the Missouri in eastern Nebraska has given us a prehistoric man, the age of which may be safely reckoned at 10,000 to 20,000 years or more." Mr. Robert F. Gilder, who was the fortunate man to make the discovery only last September, has written interestingly about it in Putnam's Monthly for January; and Prof. Henry B. Ward and Erwin H. Barbour, both of the University of Nebraska, at Lincoln, have also thrown further light upon the discovery in the same magazine.
Few rivers flow through more beautiful country than does the Missouri above the
mouth of the "Legendary Platte," in Douglas County, Neb., separating that State from Iowa. Bluffs to the height of from 200 to 500 feet rise on either bank, and few hills of that region afford a more beautiful river view than the one on which the bones were discovered. For years these bluffs have proved a fertile field for archeological research, innumerable evidences having been found that they have been the habitat of man through many succeeding ages. Upon the hill summits are still found sepulchers of the aborigines.
In addition to the numerous mounds to be found in that section are hundreds of circular depressions in the earth, found usually upon the summits of the highest hills and in close proximity to the mounds. It was while trying to find whether the builders of one
had any connection with the builders of the other that Mr. Gilder found small pieces of human bone in the earth which had been removed by boys digging for a rabbit. The hill on which the mound is located is steep and rises 200 feet above the water level. To the trained eye could be seen indications of a circular mound about 20 feet in diameter, but it so happened in this case that a deeper and older burial-ground lay under the shallower and more recent one.
The method of excavation was to run two trenches through the summit of the mound, crossing each other at right angles in the center. Four feet from the top of the hill was found a compact clay bed, which proved to be the original top of the loess hill. Fire had been built upon it, and on the ashes an upper layer of bones was laid, a layer so hard that a spade could penetrate it only with difficulty. But the valuable find was not here, but in the clay which lay beneath it, which clay was once the top or surface of the hill. The loess layer on the top is known to be of comparatively recent origin, being deposit brought down by the river. But
below this layer comes clearly defined bright buff undisturbed original loess, with its characteristic lithological structure, its lime nodules and shells; and through it, to a carefully measured depth of 71⁄2 feet, are scattered bits of human bone, as already mentioned. Here were found the five primitive skulls, each one being more or less fragmentary.
Geologists who have made a study of this section of the country are agreed in attributing extreme age to this original loess, from 10,000 to 20,000 years; and that the fragments of bones found in this formation to a depth of 72 feet are as ancient as the formation itself can hardly be disputed.
Mr. Barbour, who is State Geologist and curator of the State Museum, says that the lowest representative of the human race yet found is "a speechless fossil man of Java, which occupies a position just half way between man and the apes." Next in development and intellectuality comes the Neanderthal man of Germany. And in about an equal degree does the "Nebraska loess man show advancement over the Neanderthal.
from the location of the glenoid cavity and the length of the lower jaw, the latter probably did not project very conspicuously. This lower jaw is one of the most remarkable parts of the skeleton. It is relatively short, very massive, and double the thickness of a modern mandible. The mental protuberance is marked in possėssing a strongly developed roll on the basal margin, which emphasizes the effect of its massive body.
All the long bones of the skeleton are massive, of more than average length, and distinguished by the very unusual prominence of the rough areas for muscle attachment and also of the protuberances which subserve the same function. In these particulars the leg bones are most striking. Their development indicates clearly the platecynemic condition usually regarded as characteristic of primitive people. The femur in modern skeletons, but has been noted by has a strong curve forward, which is not lacking many as peculiarly characteristic of ancient femora.
The manner of burial differed radically from that observed in other mounds in the vicinity. After the lower stratum of skeletons had been placed in the ground, earth had then been placed on top and burned to the consistency of a plaster wall. In another part of the mound, about 5 feet away, lay the upper layer of skeletons; but, with three exceptions, these skeletons had also been disarticulated and were more or less scattered about. A noticeable feature in connection with the skulls was the fact that the left temporal bone had been crushed, a club or heavy utensil having probably been used for that purpose. The general position of the skeletons seems to have been with the head toward the center and the feet extending outward. Two of the skeletons had been placed in a squatting position, the femurs and spinal vertebræ being in a vertical position close together.
The condition of the teeth is unique among specimens of this kind. In the lower jaw they are ground down to about the level of the gums, even the third molars, or wisdom teeth, showing the effect of hard usage; and the canines show only the dentine on their upper surface, with but a marginal line of enamel seen in profile. This feature appears in all the jaws of this collection and shows that the food material was of the hardest kind,—perhaps roots and grains.
Associated with the skeletons were a few flint implements of crude design, very unlike the well-formed flaked flint knives found with the upper layer of skeletons, duplicates of which Mr. Gilder has frequently found in the circles of that vicinity.