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ingly injurious. The manufacturers soon learned that errors on their part in the compounding of their brands, whether intentional or due to carelessness, would be exposed by the inspection officials in all impartiality, not only to their consumers, but to their competitors as well, and to them it became simply a business proposition to exercise the utmost care in the manufacture and sale of their fertilizers. All this has been of the greatest benefit to the farmer as well as to the reputable manufacturer. The comments usually accompanying the published analyses have had an important educational influence on the farmer. They have taught him what to value in a fertilizer, what fertilizers to use for his various crops, how important it is that the fertilizing elements shall be in such a form as to be available to the needs of the plants, and they have pointed out the value or valuelessness of new fertilizing materials as they have appeared on the market. The American farmer no longer follows the old dictum that a fertilizer must smell bad to be efficacious, for he now knows that, no matter whether a fertilizer be odorous or odorless, unless it contains nitrogen, phosphoric acid, or potash it cannot benefit his crops, and he will have none of it.
STANDARDS OF PURITY IN CATTLE-FEEDING. The question of pure cattle-feeds is also of vital importance to the farmer. The systematic examination and inspection of cattle-feeds is of comparatively recent practice. In 1897 Massachusetts passed a law requiring such an inspection, and at the present time most of the New England and Middle States have similar laws. These laws were occasioned chiefly by the frequent appearance of undecorticated cottonseed meal (meal containing a large proportion of hulls), the great variability in composition of the different gluten meals and feeds, and because of the constantly increasing number of mixed feeds prepared by oatmeal and other manufactories, consisting very largely of their offal and waste products.
The three ingredients of a cattle-feed which give it its value are the protein, the fat, and the carbohydrates. The protein is the flesh-forming material, while the fat and the carbohydrates are chiefly useful in supplying fat and heat to the animal. The State laws require a guaranty only of the amount of protein and fat contained in the feed, and the reason for this is twofold: First, because these are the most important and most valuable elements of the feed, and, secondly, be
cause the average farmer already possesses sufficient carbohydrates in the roughage of the farm, and the chief object of his purchase of concentrated feeds is only to secure sufficient protein and fat to add to this roughage to obtain a well-balanced ration for his stock. The inspection of cattle-feeds, therefore, in the first place requires a chemical analysis to determine whether or not the guaranteed composition is reached. A long series of analyses made by investigators in all parts of the country supplies the chemist with certain standards of purity, which he can apply to the materials under examination. The mere fact that a feed reaches its guaranty, however, is not sufficient in all cases, for the average farmer as yet pays little attention to the guaranty, and purchases only by brand name. If a feed fails to come up to the standard set by experience, it then becomes necessary to determine the cause of this inferiority, whether it is due to inferior methods of manufacture or accidental or intentional addition of extraneous matter. Although, as referred to above, before the passage of the inspection laws cottonseed meal was very frequently found adulterated with hulls, at the present time when cottonseed meal, linseed meal, glu.ten feeds, and other high-class feeding materials fail to reach their guaranty, in the majority of cases the cause can be traced directly to imperfect methods of manufacture.
The troubles of the cattle-feeder, however, do not lie in the purchase of these standard materials, although they are exceedingly variable in composition. His great difficulty lies in the purchase of the mixed products, which under various attractive and tempting trade-names, at an apparently low price, are now so numerous in our markets. It is in the purchase of such feeds that the question of price is an important factor. When corn meal and ground oats are each worth $29 per ton, it is difficult to understand how a mixture of these grains under the name
corn and oats can be sold for $23 per ton. Such a discrepancy in price shows at once that the mixture cannot be strictly what it is represented. To be sure, it may contain corn and oats, but the oats especially will be found to be either light oats or oat hulls, or a mixture of the two. When we remember that good oats contain about II per cent. and oat hulls only about 2 per cent. of protein, the extent of the deception is clear. The presence of oat hulls, therefore, is no certain evidence that any other portion of the oat grain is contained in the mixture. The guar
anty is of much value in feeds of this class. Corn meal on the average contains about 9.5 per cent. of protein, and ground oats about II per cent. A mixture of these grains, therefore, which guarantees only 8 per cent. of protein assuredly cannot contain the best portions of these grains. Likewise, an oat feed guaranteeing only 5 or 6 per cent. of protein gives certain evidence that the greater part of this oat "feed" is oat hulls. An important illustration of the value of a guaranty is shown by a class of samples received at the New Jersey experiment station in 1902. Four samples of "rice meal" were received bearing the uniform guaranty of 2.56 per cent. protein and 1.00 per cent. fat. Analysis showed that the samples satisfied their guaranties, yet on their very face they showed that they were not what they claimed to be. Rice meal, which is a valuable carbohydrate feed, contains on the average about II per cent. of protein and 9 per cent. of fat, and it is clear, therefore, that any purchaser who buys rice meal guaranteed to contain but 2.56 per cent. of protein, at the same price he would pay for genuine rice meal, has no one to blame but himself, for the guaranty only too plainly tells him the source of this feed, namely, rice hulls.
The examples above cited show clearly the importance of requiring a guaranty, and what a protection such a guaranty should be to the intelligent purchaser. It is the inspector's duty, moreover, not only to ascertain whether a given feed satisfies its guaranty, but, in mixed feeds particularly, also to determine just what materials the manufacturer has used in compounding his mixtures. Some of these materials may simply be worthless, while others may be positively injurious. The detection of the adulterations practiced and the publication thereof have resulted in almost completely driving the offending feeds out of the markets of those States having feed inspection laws. An adulterated feed in the New England or Middle States is now very exceptional, and if such is found it is usually some new product whose sale quickly diminishes, if it does not entirely cease, after its analysis has once been published. In most of the States the following feeds are exempted from the provisions of the law: Hays, straws, whole seeds or unmixed meals made directly from the entire grains of
wheat, rye, barley, oats, maize, buckwheat, and broom-corn, and wheat, rye, and buckwheat brans and middlings. However, since very gross adulterations of wheat bran, feed, and middlings, with corncobs, broom-corn, and pulverized rock, have been observed in several of the States, these feeds are also gradually being brought within the provisions of the law.
OTHER FORMS OF INSPECTION.
But the farmer is protected not only in his purchase of fertilizers and cattle-feeds. The very common system of paying for milk and cream according to the fat content, as determined by the Babcock test, has led Maine and certain other States to pass laws providing for the inspection of the graduated apparatus used in these tests, thus assuring the farmer that he will obtain full credit for the fat contained in his dairy products. An inspection of nursery stock for insect and fungus diseases is in operation in 20 of the States. The San José scale, probably the most injurious single insect with which the American fruit-grower has to contend, was introduced into this country through a nursery in one of the Eastern States, a fatality that would hardly have been possible had the present inspection laws been in force. Maine and a few other States also exercise an inspection of seeds, thus assuring the farmer of the purity of his seeds and preventing the introduction of injurious weeds. The variability in the composition of paris green, the most abundantly used of all insecticides, has resulted in the passage of laws requiring its inspection in Louisiana, New York, Texas, New Jersey, and Missouri. Although these laws are of comparatively recent date, a grossly adulterated sample of paris green is already quite exceptional in those States.
Thus it is seen that the various States are doing a great work for the protection of the farmer. These various inspections have resulted in greatly reducing, if not entirely preventing, the sale of inferior and adulterated products, and, what is perhaps more important, they have indirectly educated the farmer, opening up to him the possibilities of his farm under conditions of modern farm practice, and have thus very appreciably contributed to the material wealth of the country.
THE SECRET OF SUCCESSFUL MOTORING.
BY M. C. KRARUP.
T was estimated in Mr. Haines' article in the January REVIEW OF REVIEWS that 100,000 private passenger automobiles would be operated in America in 1907, and that 50,000 new cars would be purchased this year.
This means that many thousand readers of the REVIEW OF REVIEWS will have changed their horse and wagon transportation for motor traveling, and that some entirely new problems are before them.
To the average reader of this magazine who has threshed out the question of changing his horse and wagon for an automobile, and who has bought his car, or is about to buy it, the next puzzling question is: How much must I know about the intricate and elaborate piece of machinery, in this new family vehicle,-I who am no mechanician, who, in fact, do not know "beans about the gas engine, and the electrical apparatus that fires it?
In other words, what is the irreducible minimum of knowledge about automobile that one must have to give the car a fair chance of normal life, effectiveness, and economy? Here are thousands of physicians, suburban dwellers, well-to-do farmers, spending from $500 to $5000 each for a totally new vehicle. It may lose 20 per cent. of its value in the first year, and it may lose 75 per cent. The difference depends most largely on how the car is treated.
Any answer must be largely relative, vary ing with different cars and different requirements of travel, and it is also to be said that with a motor a little knowledge may be a very dangerous thing. Tinkering in a tentative, half-informed way with a gasoline motor car is a very dubious thing for the car and the pocketbook of the motorist. Unless you know what you are doing, have adjustments made by a good mechanic. So, to begin with, every one who buys a car with the idea of operating and caring for it himself will learn to apply the clutch, start the car, change gears, apply brakes, fill the gasoline tank with fuel, the lubricating reservoir with oil, and the radiator with water, how to set the throttle and adjust the spark for starting and going, how to stop slowly or quickly, and how to steer; with nervous tempera
ments the act of subconscious control of the steering wheel should be learned very slowly and gradually.
Now if there is some one to keep the car in condition for you, these are practically all the things that you would have to know to operate it. But this "if" is such an overwhelmingly big one! Keeping the car in good condition is much more important, in avoiding breakdowns, than skillful operating. To keep the motor in good condition, the first and most important thing to understand is its lubrication. Oiling regularly is the chief secret of success. Here is the best way to learn the art:
Secure a chart showing every place in the car where lubrication is wanted, the brand of lubricant adapted for each place, and the number of miles of travel after which oil must be renewed in each place.
To get this a strong letter to the manufacturer will be necessary, as he is apt to take the ground that his instruction book is final and encyclopedic. Here is a letter that ought to bring out the information:
GENTLEMEN: I am thinking of buying one of your cars, model from your agent, John Doe, and intend to operate the car myself. Please send me one or more drawings or prints showing plainly every spot in the mechanism of this car where a part must be oiled or greased, each spot to be numbered and an annotation to be made stating the number of miles of travel after which the lubricant must be renewed. State also in each case whether the old oil or
grease is to be cleaned out, or simply replenished, and explicitly what brand of oil or grease is recommended. If any oil or grease receptacle is liable to leak, spilling the contents and rendering mileage on one filling uncertain, please state what precautions should be taken.
In addition, please send me a list of repair men within 250 miles' radius, whom you can absolutely recommend for their skill in adjusting and repairing your cars.
To illustrate what the lubrication of your automobile means, the following directions apply to a particular popular model; they sound more formidable than they really are, when the motorist has secured the simple scheme described in the letter:
feed tubes supplies cylinder oil to three engine(1) An adjustable force-feed oiler with six shaft bearings, to the water-pump shaft, and to two shaft bearings in the transmission case, all by
direct feed, and the overflow from the first three tubes keeps up a supply (2) of about three pints of oil in the crank-shaft casing, from which oil is splashed into the cylinders by the motion of the engine shaft and the connecting rods.
The supply in the force-feed oiler should be replenished after each trip, on principle, and after 50 miles of travel, anyway.
After every 300 miles of travel any deficiency of oil in the crank-case (2) should be taken up. This may be done by adding oil until the exhaust shows blue smoke, when the engine is running throttled, but a better way is to drain what remains in the crank-case into a can, make up what it lacks of three pints, close the drain, and pour back three pints.
After 900 miles, drain oil from crank-case, as before. Then remove exhaust-valve caps and squirt a pint of kerosene into each cylinder, crank the motor (with throttle shut, spark off) several times. The kerosene dissolves carbon deposits in the cylinders and rinses the crank-case, Then close drain, fill three pints of cylinder oil in crank-case, squirt a tablespoonful of cylinder oil into each cylinder, crank engine a few times to distribute the oil; return exhaust-valve caps. (3 to 10) Valve stems and plungers should be oiled at the outset of every trip, and every 50 miles a few drops from a hand oiler should be
(1) A grease cup supplying a rear bearing on the water-pump shaft should be given a turn to the right every 100 miles; cup should be replenished every 300 miles.
(12) The cam-shaft gears should be lubricated with grease mixed with powdered graphite every 100 miles.
(13) A grease cup on the clutch disk should be given a turn every 100 miles and replenished every 300 miles. The clutch-yoke rollers (14) should be oiled liberally every 100 miles; also the thrust bearing (15) at the end of the clutch spring.
The transmission box (16) is supplied with a gallon of heavy-body oil with an admixture of graphite, to be cleaned out and renewed every 2000 miles.
Covers should be removed from universal joints (17 and 18) every 4000 miles, and the grease therein renewed.
The manufacturer at present prescribes to renew every six months, but, in order to simplify the system, every lubricating operation not daily should be determined by mileage to obviate oversight.
The differential case (19) on the rear axle is packed with grease and graphite sufficient for six months' running," say 4000 miles. But in this case the possibility exists that the grease may soften by the heat developed in the gears and may run out through the axle tubes into the rear wheel-brake drums, and out; if this should
ball-bearing to be looked after, when each wheel is replaced).
The steering gear (24) is packed with grease, which may be left undisturbed for "a whole season," say 8000 miles; but, in addition, two oil cups are provided (25, 26) which should be filled occasionally," say every 2000 miles. Hand oiling takes care of ball-and-socket joints (27, 28) on the steering rod, the bearings (29, 30, 31, 32) of the knuckles and the joints (33, 34) of the drag link occasionally," say every 1000 miles.
Spring-shackle bearings (35 to 42), brakerod joints (43, 44, 45), bearings in the gearshifting shaft (46, 47, 48, 49) and clutch-shifting countershaft (50, 51) should be oiled by hand, say every 400 miles, or, in order to coincide with other acts of oiling, every 300 miles.
The purchaser of a car has a right to find the force-feed oiler adjusted and, if he adheres strictly to one brand of oil, there will be no need of changing the adjustment.
Along with lubrication in importance comes an understanding of the electrical system by which the spark is produced to fire the charge of gasoline vapor compressed in the engine cylinders.
Have a diagram made illustrating the electric wiring of the car; make repeated visual comparisons between the diagram and the actual connections on the car, till the precise manner in which connections should be made is learned. In case of replacements, consult the diagram to make sure that the original condition is exactly reproduced.
Rule I.-In case of ignition by magneto learn strictly the manufacturer's instructions for lubrication, cleanliness, and protection.
By buying a "coil current indicator" and applying it as directed by the makers to make sure that not more than a one-fourth ampere current is passed through the coil, long life is secured for batteries, and frequent filing and adjustment of vibrator points are avoided.
Rule II.-Don't interfere with the adjustment of the coil, as made by the manufacturer, until the vibrator points begin to throw sparks when buzzing.
Rule III-Don't interfere with the adjustment of the carburetor, as made by the manufacturer.
It will remain right for thousands of miles, until some movable part of the carburetor or throttle becomes worn, and then the remedy happen, a general cleaning-out with kerosene lies in the replacement of the worn part. Adand repacking with grease will be required. justment, once lost, is difficult to reproduce The unmechanical motorist must prefer a dif- correctly for all engine speeds. ferent arrangement.
Where bearings (20, 21, 22, 23) are packed with grease, these should be cleaned out and replenished "every month," say every 900 miles. (In this case, there is also an adjustment of a
Rule IV. When filling a radiator with water or non-freezing mixture, open air vents, if any are provided, and fill slowly, so as to make sure that air, contained in cylinder jackets and the
Rule VII.-Every 1000 miles test every nut and bolt with a wrench and tighten if found loose. Tighten nuts on tire lugs within 50 miles after a new tire has been put on.
Every 1000 miles take muffler apart and clean its parts and vents.
Rule VIII.-With the advent of cold weather drain all water from the radiator pipes, and cylinder jackets (opening all petcocks provided for this purpose), and fill instead with calcium chloride, free from acid as tested by litmus paper, and soft water, in the proportion of 2 pounds to each gallon of water.
Rule IX.-To wash a car use a hose and cold water, guiding the stream clear of all electrical apparatus. Clean grease from vehicle body and running gear by large sponge and cold soapsuds; rinse with hose; dry, when perfectly clean, with chamois.
Rule X.-When a car is taken out of service for one week or longer, the tires should be fully inflated and the wheels jacked up resting the axles on wooden bucks; the ents of the whole cooling apparatus shou drained off. If the car is to remain without atention for one month or longer, the cylinders should be cleaned out with kerosene and well oiled. The place of storage should be dry, cool, and darkened. All external parts subject to rust or tarnish should be coated with oil or paraffin. Upholstering should be covered; folding top opened; curtains
Rule XI-Learn as soon as possible the adjustment for wear of clutch, or clutches, and brakes; also the best method of starting the motor in cold weather. These differ in different machines.
In the vexatious matter of tire troubles, there is more luck; no amount of good management can reduce expense in the same degree as it is reduced in the engine and wiring by keeping the car tuned up. Yet, even with tires, many experts believe that 75 per cent. of the accidents may be avoided by regular inspection of the pneumatics in the barn, and by an absolute rule to moderate speed in making turns.
The best management of a car will include raising each wheel with a jack after a run, spinning the wheel round and looking for the "pimples " on the tire that foretell blowouts.
No rule in regard to the manner of operating a car is absolute or valid for all cars without exception. The following may be found of practical and general interest:
hand will then be free to operate throttle, spark, Practice steering with the left hand; the right change-gear, and emergency brake at any moment, and thereby accident may be avoided.
Going down hill, moderate the speed by shutting the throttle completely, so as to make the car drag the engine through its motions without explosions; if the hill is steep, change to low gear. At the bottom of the hill, open the throttle before the car has lost its momentum. With a car of as high power for its weight as is desirable, it is not necessary to apply brakes for descending a hill, and the method described saves the brake surfaces.
When a car skids on a slippery surface, release clutch slightly without applying brake; then re-engage clutch gradually. If rear wheels skid sideways, turn front wheels a little to the same side, if the traffic permits.
A car with planetary gear may be slowed down by applying the reverse clutch, and a backward movement may be stopped by the low forward gear. This method is useful for close maneuvering in street traffic.
When leaving a car standing in cold weather with the engine shut down, blanket the radiator, whether it contains water or anti-freezing mixture. This will facilitate restarting. When stopping, turn spark completely off, and then, while the engine slows down, throw the throttle three-fourths open. This will often make it possible to start the motor next time by simply switching the spark on.
When wishing to speed up by the throttle, advance (usually by pulling back) the throttle lever first, the spark lever afterward; the latter slowly.
When slowing down by the throttle, first retard the spark, then throttle down. When opening the throttle to take a hill better, but not for speed, don't advance the spark.
If throttle and spark lever are in one (not common, any more), always advance or retard slowly and gradually.
Never drive with open throttle and spark more retarded than central position; to do so causes overheating of exhaust parts.
After cranking a motor, while the spark switch is turned off, by mistake, don't turn the switch on and crank again. The muffler will first exhaust, may blow it open. First expel the contain an explosive mixture, which, fired by the charge from the muffler by cranking with the throttle shut, then open throttle, turn switch on, and crank the third time.
Any one who observes the routine outlined in the foregoing will find troubles reduced to such a satisfactory minimum that he may well afford to have recourse to a repairman or a "visiting chauffeur," if perhaps his engine valves may finally require grinding or if the bearings of connecting-rods should need to be taken up."