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there are tens of thousands of the Congoese voluntarily serving the government, the trading companies, and the missionaries for hire; and many hundreds of young men are going from the mission schools into service as skilled artisans, overseers of labor, teachers, and in other capacities. Africa's own sons and daughters must themselves work out her material regeneration, for most of the manual labor must be performed by them; and one of the greatest facts of to-day is the participation of great multitudes of African natives in the reclamation of their continent.

A while ago, the Protestant natives of Uganda put 750,000 bricks, which missionaries had taught them to make, into the walls of a cathedral that holds over 3000 persons.

THE WINNING OF AFRICA'S RULERS. We see the native labor trained in the trade schools at Accra in 'demand among the French, German, Spanish, Belgian, and Portuguese regions of the west coast and on the upper Congo in the heart of Africa. We see industrial education turning out its artisans by the many hundreds, from the Lovedale Institute of Cape Colony to the Protestant missions of Liberia; and we observe that this civilizing work is greatly promoted by the hold the missionaries have gained upon some of the most influential native' rulers. Among them is Khama, King of the Bamangwato, famous for the peace, order, temperance, and industry that now distinguish all his people; Lewanika, King of Barotse, who asked the present King of Eng

land, when he visited that country, to send him more men to teach his people carpentry and other trades, so that they might advance more rapidly in civilization; Apolo Kagwa, the Prime Minister of Uganda, whose controlling thought is to work for the uplifting and civilizing of his people; Daudi Chwa, the little King of that remarkable country, who is being trained as a Christian prince; and Andereya Luhaga, King of Bunyoro, who has thrown himself heart and soul into the work of reforming the lives. and the conditions of his people, crushed to earth as they had been by the terrible tyranny of his father. It is a great boon to Africa that the plant of civilization, grown from seed the missionaries sowed, is being nurtured by some of the most powerful natives of the continent.


Y. M. C. A. BUILDING AT MADRAS, INDIA. (Built by native labor.)

Brickmaking is now a large industry across tropical Africa from sea to sea. The church at Blantyre is perhaps the handsomest specimen of trained native handicraft, but it is not the largest, nor does it illustrate any better than scores of other structures the attainments that the blacks have made in the building arts under missionary tuition. The blacks at Blantyre who built that church to the driving of the last nail were the sons of men who had never seen a white man; but they had the capacity and it was evoked in the missionary trade schools of the Free Church of Scotland, to which it is a splendid



We have given this much space to Africa because the larger part of it, 30 years ago, was the most consolidated mass of pure barbarism, unrelieved by a single ray of light, in the world. But the same work of enlightenment, through improvement of the material conditions of barbarous peoples, is advancing


in the most remote parts of the mission field. The culture of garden and farm, iron smelting and manufactures, the planting of rubber, the banana, and the cocoanut tree are now enlisting the energies of New Guinea cannibals formerly given to orgie and foray. Industrial communities are thriving among the debased aborigines of Australia. Good houses and home-made furniture are among the fruits of industrial training in the Pacific islands. Some of these islanders do their among the missions scattered over Turkey in own printing, and commerce has grown Asia, where many of the western methods through the mat and hat making and other of shoe and cabinet making, book binding, trades which the missionaries have intro- tailoring, carpentry, and so on, have been duced. introduced, and missionaries have even been able to suggest improvements in the native industries, as in silk embroideries. Thus western ideas are helping a little to alleviate material conditions in regions where misgovernment and persecution have nearly stifled all joy in life.

We should not expect that the industrial phase of mission work would have the same virility and the potency for good in China

and Japan that it has exhibited in barbarous lands. These great Oriental countries developed a very advanced type of civilization under which they brought their own arts and industries to a high degree of perfection. Even in this day of China's awakening she is more eager for the intellectual and scientific than for the manual training of the west. Several efforts on the part of British and American societies to introduce model farms especially devoted to fruits have met with success. In some of the cities they have

MIYAGI GIRLS' SCHOOL, SENDAI, JAPAN. (Reformed Church of the United States.)

Christian teachers among some of the Canadian Indians have had marked success in the introduction of helpful trades. This is also the case among the South American Indians; and who has not heard of the sheep farming and other industries that have greatly improved the condition of the natives at the extreme southern end of South America? The industrial feature is very important



(Reformed Church of the United States.)

long been teaching western methods of print- Livingstone's many years of gentle ministraing and weaving, and one of the Methodist tion to the sick, and Arnot's journey over missions at Chungking, on the upper Yang- half of tropical Africa with nothing to pay tse, reports that it is graduating boys as car- his way excepting his box of medicines, did penters, cabinet-makers, and tailors. The much to call attention to the value of mediindustrial feature is just being introduced cal practice as a beneficent feature of misinto Korea; and it is certainly thriving in sionary service. For 30 years this new phase Japan in schools for women and the mission of the work has grown by leaps and bounds orphan asylums. till it is found in every corner of the earth covered by the mission field.


The latest statistics of the evangelical societies show that there are now 400 hospitals, besides many dispensaries, with nearly 800 medical missionaries, of whom 250 are women; and in the hospitals, dispensaries, polyclinics, and native houses an average of about 2,300,000 patients are annually treated. This does not include the Roman Catholics, who make a large feature of medical missions.


But human suffering makes the whole world kin, and every part of the globe is eager now to have the western arts of medicine and surgery. The grandest humanitarian feature of Christian missions is the medical phase. Its great success has stimulated governments to follow the example of the humble preachers of the Gospel. The largest building in Dar es Salaam, the capital of German East Africa, is the government hospital, to which afflicted natives come from far away, where the great boon of treatment by European methods of healing is theirs without price. The great brick hospital at Boma, the capital of the Congo Free State, is the special pride of the government, which also has its hospitals and dispensaries at every station throughout its immense domain, which, whatever criticisms have been made, is recognized as the part of barbarous Africa that, thus far, has made the largest develop


The first medical mission is said to have been conducted by a Dutch physician in the East Indies from 1624 to 1638. The growth of the movement was very slow and it was not till the latter part of the nineteenth century that it became important.

No words could exaggerate the usefulness and success of this work. The missionary physician is eagerly welcomed in every land. His influence is far-reaching, for he carries the best gifts of medical science to the neglected, he revolutionizes native practice, and he supplants the terrors of the barbarous quack. It is, under the law, a misdemeanor to practice the arts of the fetich doctor in the Congo Free State and Rhodesia, but the medical missionary is doing more than the law to destroy baleful superstitions that have held millions in degrading bondage.

Even in advanced countries like India, where there are many native physicians schooled in western therapeutics, the medical service is wofully inadequate to the need. The most competent Indian doctors and surgeons have more work than they can do at high rates. The poor must suffer; but every

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where the widest blessings of the medical missions fall upon the poor. The latest Africa book, "Uganda to Kartoum," has a photograph of about a hundred patients waiting their turn as a single physician treats their cases. There is need for good surgeons as well as good doctors, and women physicians are especially important. In India there are 50,000,000 women who are practically cut off from the outside world, and the women practitioners who may go among them are still too few. They are training hundreds of native women nurses every year, but the need far exceeds the supply.

ger of the Christian faith but also the forerunner of material progress. He is paving the way for civilization. By industrial education he is helping the laggard races both to help themselves and to enter into larger and closer business relations with the rest of the world, so that they shall partake to no small extent of the benefits coming from reciprocally advantageous dealings with other countries; and his life of love and selfsacrifice is bearing no better fruit, from a worldly point of view, than the alleviation he brings to suffering, the years his medical skill adds to many a human life, and the The missionary finds everywhere that his useful men and women, who once were little medical service greatly promotes all phases waifs and strays, without hope or friends till of his work. It gives him the best of op- he gathered them into his fold and did his portunities for his special calling; and a best to give them strength of character and cured patient often brings not only his fam- attainment through which they may stand ily, but also his whole village to the mission. alone, far stronger than their fathers ever So the missionary is not only the messen- were to help themselves and others.



(The work on this building was done by native Christian masons as a punishment during the times of persecution in Madagascar.)




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Sir Francis Burdett, whose hospitable house in St. James' Place was the leading social center of his day, and who so charmingly entertained my dear, great friend," as Queen Victoria called Disraeli, was himself a man of most varied and fascinating personality. In his veins flowed the blood of a soldier of William the Conqueror's Guard, nor had seven centuries atrophied the chivalry of those heroic times. Sir Francis' parliamentary career began in the forty-seventh year of the reign of George III., and ended at the seventh milestone in the reign of Victoria. He was an uncompromising advocate of the freedom of speech. He denied the right of the House of Commons to imprison delinquents. The authorities ordered his arrest; he boldly resisted. The noble mansion in Piccadilly, where he was then living, suddenly became a castle, barricaded for three days against a regiment of Guards,-Sir Francis "the Coeur-de-Lion Knight" in valiant defense. Under enforced surrender this intrepid commoner, orator, reformer, patriot, was borne to prison, amid the acclaims of a vast concourse of people, " Burdett forever!" Napoleon at St. Helena reflected a sentiment not unsuited to the passion for democracy then growing," had I invaded England I would have made it a republic, with Sir Francis Burdett, the popular idol, at its head."

Among the attractions of the Burdett dinners in Disraeli's time was Miss BurdettCoutts, youngest daughter of the host, graceful in bearing, vivacious and cultured in conversation. Between the eccentric young politician and herself there sprang up a strong friendship, which covered a period of nearly

50 years, ending only with the death of Disraeli (Lord Beaconsfield), in 1881. In the commodious dining-room, from the window above which her father was dragged down a ladder on his way to the Tower, she whom the civilized world came to know as the Baroness Burdett-Coutts, entertained for 70 years the great and good of all callings: sovereigns, princes and princesses, statesmen and churchmen, ambassadors and soldiers, scholars and reformers, musicians and artists.

From youth to womanhood the Baroness enjoyed the friendship of the Duke of Wellington, who was her frequent guest and who watched with great interest the first 15 years of the development of her charitable career.

Germane to this fact is an entry in the journal of Phillips Brooks for May 22, 1883, in which he writes of dining at the house of the Baroness, where he met the Archbishop of Canterbury and Mrs. Benson, the Dean of Westminster and Mrs. Bradley, Lord Shaftesbury, Sir F. Leighton, Sir Thomas Brassey and Lady Brassey, the Marquis of Salisbury, etc., a distinguished company, in which, as it so often happened, the great problems that lay near to her heart were represented, the church, the state, the poor, philanthropy in its broadest sense.

How the cognomen "Coutts" became associated with that of Burdett in the familiar name of the Baroness points to an interesting ancestry. As far back as 1272 we find the names of Coults, Colt, and Cowtes. Two centuries later, in the reign of Edward IV., Thomas Colt owned estates in Suffolk and Essex. Still another century passes and William Coutts emerges into view, a cadet of the Auchintoul family, provost of Montrose, "a sagacious northern laird." His grandson, Patrick, became a merchant in Edinburgh and died there in 1704, leaving £2500, a goodly sum for those days. By the mercantile acumen of his eldest son, John, the financial prosperity of the Coutts family crystallized. But his son Thomas surpassed all his ancestors in business sagacity, and founded the famous Coutts Bank. He was a He was a man of

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