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and Porto Rico.



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Governor Magoon's good work
in Cuba continues. In the an-

nual report of his department to Congress (presented December 17), Secretary of War Taft gives a detailed documentary review of the recent insurrection in Cuba and the establishment of the pro-. visional government there by the United States, in the course of which he declares that, under the steadily progressive, peaceful policy of Governor Magoon, Cuba may yet be set upon her feet in a way to support herself. While the sentiment in favor of annexation to the United States or absorption by this country in some manner is apparently on the increase, particularly among foreigners and American business men in the island, it is certain that no interference is contemplated or will be permitted with Cuban affairs looking toward extinction of Cuban independence until the inhabitants of the island have had at least another chance. The elections will probably be held in May or June next. Pending these elections Governor Magoon has announced, by direction of the President, that the seats of all members of the second series of the Cuban Congress, elected in 1905, will be declared vacant. These are the Senators disputes about at the unmistakable behest of the country, whose election were largely responsible for had passed and submitted to the hereditary the outbreak of the insurrection. As to legislators for their approval. The radical Porto Rico, President Roosevelt, who vis- alterations made in the Education bill by ited the island on November 21, sent a the Lords (who passed the measure on Despecial message to Congress (dated Decem-cember 6, by a vote of 105 to 28) have renber 11) on Porto Rican needs. In this dered it not only unacceptable to the Commessage he pleaded for full American citi- mons, but absolutely impossible. The upper zenship for the people, praised their loyalty house, which is so strongly Conservative and and rapid progress in orderly self-govern- the great majority of whose members are ment, and noted their advance in education supporters of the Church of England, imsince the American occupation of the island. pressed upon the Birrell bill their general inAt the recent elections, held during early tention of securing sufficient denominational November, the Unionist party was victori- control of the public educational institutions ous in the seven insular districts, returning to compel denominational teaching during all the 35 representatives to sit for the next school hours. The position of the Commons two years in the House of Delegates. Señor was shown by the enormous majority (416 Tulio Larrinaga, the Resident Commissioner to 107) by which they (on December 12) to the United States, was re-elected.

rejected the amendments made by the Lords. The cabinet also decided to reject

. The Marquis of Lansdowne, the en bloc the amendments made by the upper The British Lords and present Conservative leader of house, and any compromise in the matter is Education.

the British House of Lords, is now regarded as hopeless. The bill, it is credited with having suggested to his brother evident, will be dropped and a new bill inpeers that since they could not be popular troduced at the next session of Parliament. they had better be politic. Lord Lansdowne The end may come quicker than this. The had in mind the way the peers were handling Premier may decide to go before the country the two highly significant measures, the Bir- on the issue and ask for a popular mandate rell Education bill and the Labor Trades to pass this particular measure,—a mandate Dispute bill, both of which the lower house, which will carry with it an implied warning



to the upper house of the British Parliament a judicious combination of force and diplothat to mend is better than to end. In the macy the government was enabled to accommatter of the Trade Disputes bill, also, the plish this result. There was considerable position of the country has been very clear, opposition,-indeed, some rioting-in differand in rejecting or mutilating this (as it is ent parts of the Republic, during which a feared the peers intend) the upper house of number of persons, including government Parliament will add still more to the popular officials, were injured; but, in general, it resentment against it.

may be said that the listing of church prop

erty before the buildings should be turned Changes are impending in the over to the state was accomplished without Changes in Campbell-Bannerman cabinet, serious disorder. About 20 persons only, inEngland.

the first of which is announced cluding two clergymen, were arrested for in the resignation of Mr. J. E. Ellis, parlia- resisting the officers of the law. On Decemmentary secretary to the India office. There ber in the law formally went into effect. will be a number of other changes of men: From that date all church edifices and other higher up, the most interesting to Americans property passed into the hands of the state, being the formal choice of a British Ambassa- and public worship could be carried on dor at Washington to succeed Sir Henry through worshippers forming “associations Mortimer Durand (retiring from the diplo- cultuelles" or by at least two persons makmatic service). In the middle of December ing a declaration before the civil authorities, in the court of St. James inquired whether the accordance with the Assemblage law of 1881, American Government would regard as per that a meeting was to be held, in order that sona grata the Hon. James Bryce, Chief the regular congregations might continue to Secretary for Ireland, and author of "The use the church buildings. The law applies American Commonwealth,” “The Holy to all meetings and it is equally severe on Roman Empire," and other scholarly works. Catholics, Protestants, and Jews. For sevThe choice, it goes without saying, is an ex- eral days preceding the day upon which ceedingly pleasant one to Americans, and it it became operative, it had been believed also indicates a realization on the part of in France and the rest of the world that a the London Government that the British compromise between the claims of the rediplomatic post in the United States has be- public and the Vatican had been reached in come one of the most important in the en- the form of the Diocesan Associations organtire imperial service. Speaking of Ireland, ized by Cardinal Lecot, Archbishop of Borit is interesting to note the fact that the deaux, and Cardinal Richard, Archbishop of Campbell-Bannerman government has con- Paris (the latter the virtual primate of sented finally to drop the famous, or in- France), and approved by the Pope. This famous,–Irish Crimes act from the Expiring Diocesan Association, it had been announced, Laws Continuance bill. It is interesting, was regarded by the government as a cult also, to read that Ireland now has an interna- association under the Separation act. tional trademark, being the first country to register such a designation. The design,

Just before the law became opwhich is applicable to anything produced or

erative, however (to be exact, on

Decision. manufactured in the country, is an antique

December 8), Pope Pius issued Irish ornament, inscribed with the words: his formal instructions to the French clergy, Dlanta e Eirinn," Made in Ireland.” in an encyclical in which he forbade them

making declarations under the law of 1881 On the uth day of last month or forming “associations cultuellesaccord

the Separation law took effect in ing to the present law passed in 1905. The Separate.

France, and church and state decision of the Vatican was in the form of were formally divorced after a more or less answers to specific questions put by the close union of 14 centuries. The process of French hierarchy. It declared that parish making inventories of all the property be- priests, vicars, and other ecclesiastics must longing to the churches in France, which remain passive and not co-operate in any way was begun nearly a year ago under Premier in the act of sequestration, by which was unSarrien and temporarily discontinued be- derstood the turning over of church property cause of the opposition from devout Catho- to the civil power. The only exceptions to lics, who considered it a sacrilege, was com- this “are cases in which the bishop considers


France and the Church

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This deci-
Effect in sion of the

Pope came as
a great surprise, not
only to the French Gov-
ernment, but evidently
to the great majority of
French priests as well.
The two Cardinal Arch-
bishops at once reversed
their decisions and or-
dered their subordinates
to obey the command of
the Pontiff. On the day
the law became opera-
tive and for several days
following (including
Sunday, December 16),
the country was tense
with excitement, and
movements of great mag-
nitude were expected
from Paris and Rome.
Nothing serious, how-
ever, disturbed the calm
of the French nation,
except the arrest, on the
morning of December
11, of Mgr. Montagni-
ni, the secretary of Car-
dinal Merry del Val, the
Papal Secretary of State,
who has had in charge
the archives at the Nun-
ciature at Paris. Mgr.

Montagnini was arrest-

ed while entering France (This prelate, on December 17, surrendered his episcopal residence to the

from Italy. His papers
Paris authorities in accordance with the new French Separation law.
The new Ministry of Labor, headed by M. Viviani, is now installed in were seized and he
Cardinal Richard's palace.)

was conducted


French territory, on the cause grave consequences.". In such cases charge of being an emissary of a foreign "he is permitted to do this, on condition that Power endeavoring to incite French citizens no churchman signs any document consecrat- to disobedience to the law. This arrest leaves ing spoliation." Churches and other eccle- the Vatican without any functionary of any siastical property which are seized by the kind whatsoever to look after its interests in state cannot be rented again by the church, Paris. The Madrid government has made except in cases of absolute necessity. If ec- known its unwillingness to have the Spanish clesiastics should be called to the colors” ambassador to France serve in this way. they must appeal to the Council of State, Italy is out of the question, since she was but," pending the Council's decision, should responsible for the fall of the church from their failure to respond to the call subject temporal power, and, moreover, the antithem to the penalty of desertion, they can papal demonstration in Rome on Sunday, report for service." If cultural associations the 16th, upon the reception of the news are formed the parish priest must remain from Paris, would confirm the Vatican in in his church and continue to say mass until not asking an Italian to represent her. Ausdriven out by violence." It is to be hoped tria, being a member of the Triple Alliance, that this is not the Pope's last word. is impossible.

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and the


It was a historic day for France. judgment there had been growing in the The Concordat

The struggle of more than a minds of the French people the general conRepublic.

generation had ended in the com- viction,—whether justified or not,—that the plete severing of the bond between the church has been the constant foe of the reFrench church and the French state. The public. This conviction they have expressed story of disestablishment in France since the in the steadily growing majorities in the agreement known as the Concordat, in 1801, Chamber of Deputies, repeatedly ratified at is a dramatic and significant one. The main the polls, which must be taken as embodying provisions of this famous treaty between the their will. The famous Associations law of French republic and the Roman See were: 1901, carried through by the Combes minis

(1) That the bishops would be appointed, not try, declared that its object was to give all by the Pope, but by the head of the French Gov. Frenchmen the right to form associations ; ernment, subject, however, to the approval of the but, it provided further, all existing associaPope.

tions of any kind whatsoever hitherto exist(2) That no change in the territorial consti: ing without a permit must procure such a tution of bishoprics could be made except through the concurrence of the two powers.

permit or disband. No member of an un(3) That the bishops would have to reside in authorized congregation could be permitted their dioceses, and would have no right to visit to teach in any school, public or private. Rome without leave of the French Government. Such was the radical make-up of the Combes

(4) That no assembly of bishops might be held without government consent.

ministry that practically no religious congre(5) That the expenses of bishops and priests gation could receive the needed permission, and the cost of maintenance of church edifices and the result was that all congregations were would be made a charge upon the public ex- dissolved or expelled from France, placing chequer of France.

before the church the grave problem of esThe papal negotiators had endeavored, but tablishing church schools with lay teachers. in vain, to have the Catholic religion declared the religion of the state. Napoleon

At this time, while the relation

Inception of was only willing to make the admission that the Present between church and state was so Catholicism was the religion of a large

strained, President Loubet went majority of Frenchmen,” nothing more. to Rome and called upon the King of Italy. It The Concordat worked smoothly, in the was against this visit of the head of the Cathmain, until the year 1848, when the first olic nation of France to the King, whom the republic was established. At the same time Pope considers the usurper of his temporal the temporal power of Pope Pius IX. was sovereignty, that the papal Secretary of State, overthrown at Rome and the policy of the Cardinal Merry del Val, issued his now Vatican became essentially, if not openly, famous protest. The French Government at anti-republican. It was at this time, also, once took up the challenge, maintaining that that a new division of parties appeared in this protest was a violation of that provision Europe, -Clericals and Anti-Clericals. By of the Concordat by which the Pope bound the coup d'etat of Louis Napoleon (1851). himself not to interfere in the political affairs the church was put in a more favorable posi- of France, declared the Concordat therefore tion, and secured many privileges throughout at an end, and supported in the two houses France, particularly in the matter of educa- of Parliament a bill (introduced by the Sotion. Equal privileges were at the same time cialist Deputy, M. Briand, now Minister of extended to Protestants and Jews. Since, Education and Public Worship) establishing however, Catholics have always numbered at the separation between church and state. least 95 per cent., the Catholic faith suffers This is the bill which, somewhat modified in most severely in the disestablishment. the course of long debates, has just become

Under it the various churches are Banishment

During the last quarter of the called upon to form lay boards of trustees of the

nineteenth century the church (“associations cultuelles), to be the custoCongregations.

made wonderful progress, and dians of the church buildings, which, it should displayed wonderful energy in its educational be remembered, largely belong not to the enterprises. Then, in June, 1899, the Wal- churches but to the communes, the departdeck-Rousseau ministry came into power, the ments or the state. Wherever such boards first one to pursue a frank Anti-Clerical pol- are formed everything is to go on just as icy. Ever since the Clerical forces fought before, the church occupying and controlling


a law.


The Govern

stipends from the public treasury for nine The position of the Catholics outside of years to come. But wherever boards of France is stated in the words of our own trustees are not formed the state declines to American Cardinal Gibbons, who, in a relet public property remain in irresponsible or cent interview, said: alien hands, and therefore itself takes possession of the church buildings, which it

Above all, please let American Catholics know

from ne that what the French Government is · promises to keep open and in repair for wor- trying to do is to bring about disunion between ship, and not to divert to other uses. Catholic believers and their priests, and between

priests and their bishops: But they are not

succeeding, and will not succeed. The union The objection of the Vatican to between these elements is complete. Persecu. Position of

the Separation law is based on tion has had no other effect than to bring us all Vatican.

three grounds: (1) The Pope closer together. was not consulted, as he considers he should have been, since the Concordat was a con

The contention of the French tract between two parties, of which he was ment's Point Government is that the Separa

of View. one; (2) the law makes no special mention

tion law was introduced, not of the Catholic Church and of the rights of against religion nor against priesthood, but bishops in its government, merely stating “ against the undue interference of the Vat

, that all associations for public worship, ican in affairs of state, and its audacious

associations cultuelles," must conform to efforts to obtain control of the different the rules of the cult for which they were branches of the state administration, as was created; and (3) the action of the French revealed, for example, during the Dreyfus Government in sequestering the church agitation." Minister Briand's concession, property is confiscation, since the status of offered just before the day on which the law the church before the Revolution is not was to go into effect, that a declaration of restored but property is taken away with- two persons (who might be laymen), under out remuneration. The Pope, it is reported, the law of 1881, would be accepted as fulhas declared: “I am like the father of a filling the requirements of the present law, family. I cannot permit outsiders to enter indicates the government's desire to be as reamy house and regulate the interests of my sonable and conciliatory as possible in the children without consulting me.” Papal op- matter. The state, declared M. Briand, position, the Pope is reported as asserting, is should always remain neutral in the face of not against the declaration required for re- all religious confessions, but, nevertheless, ligious meetings, but against the spirit of the state is always " bound to be anti-clerical Minister Briand's circular (issued December in its own interest ” and to oppose any po3), which is characterized as “not common litical intervention by the church.” The law, but a tissue of arbitrary, illegal disposi- Pope, while proclaiming that he regards the tions, of which consent to one means consent Concordat as still in force, has “ already apto all.” According to the Osservatore Ro- pointed bishops without the consent of the mano (the Clerical organ of Rome), the po- governinent, which he could not have done sition of the Vatican in this matter may be had the Concordat still obtained.” The law summed up as follows:

of 1905 is already in force, continued the

Minister. The Protestants and Jews have The Concordat has not yet been denounced by submitted; the Catholic Church will be the French Government, which is seeking to establish a new legal position for the church in forced to do so also. By telling French France. France has not only not come to an agree- Catholics to continue using the churches ment with the Holy See, but has repeatedly and after these have passed into the possession of openly shown hostility to the head of the church. the civil power, the Pope“ practically orders

The joy of the Masonic and demagogic associations shows that war is being waged against them to violate the law. No self-respecting the church and religion as such.

government could be expected to tolerate Notwithstanding the bills and regulations such an assertion of superior authority withwhich have been passed France now possesses in its jurisdiction.” The Pope's new attino law granting liberty to a religion which does

that of not accept the law of separation. One good tude, says M. Briand further, is thing in M. Briand's circular is the admission of political chief." The question is "whether the impossibility of applying the law of 1881 to the French clergy will follow him that far.” associations for public worship.

In that case the government “will move Therefore what is wanted is a real law of honest liberty instead of arbitrary ministerial cir- with an energy equaling the toleration it has culars.

heretofore shown."


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