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neighbor to the North. With the first day of 1907 Persia became a constitutional monarchy, the instrument providing for a bicameral Parliament having been signed several days preceding by the late monarch. The national council consists of 156 members;. a Senate is also provided for, of a membership to be settled hereafter. General elections will be held every two years. The former Minister of Commerce, Sanleh-edDaouleh, has been elected president, and the first session, held on January 3, was devoted to a consideration of the national, finances.

What Will

the New

Although Persia is comparatively

secluded and remote from the Shah Do? chief centers of interest, for years there has been going on in this ancient land a silent but momentous struggle between Great Britain and Russia for dominating influence which should eventually expand into absorption. We may now look for a revival of discussion of the Bagdad Railroad, largely engineered by Germans. These three modern European nations have long been struggling for commercial ascendancy in Persia, which, even in its decline, remains great. Its 10,000,000 people, as recent events amply demonstrate, are both physically and mentally worthy of their illustrious ancestry. Moreover, desolate as a large part of the empire iş, it still contains resources of vast potential wealth, and, considered for its strategic position in war and commerce, it is of the first importance. The deceased Shah was a man of strong mentality and an honest wellwisher of his people. The new monarch is in his thirty-fifth year, and is regarded as a man of progressive tendencies. His foreign policy, it is claimed by students of middleAsiatic politics, will consist largely in playing off England against Russia.

The Indian National

The annual session of the Indian National Congress opened at CalCongress. cutta on December 26. The president, Mr. Dadabai Naoroji, who was reelected, made an enthusiastic speech to the 1000 delegates present, in which he advocated an active campaign for Indian autonomy. This speech, as well as the resolution against the partition of Bengal, have been received with mingled feelings throughout England, some of the British journals even charging the congress with sedition. January 1, by the way, was the thirtieth anniversary of the proclamation of Queen Vic


tional self-government are advocating that sympathizers with Indian aspirations for nathis anniversary be marked by some larger recognition of Indian rights. Without the least disposition to question the benefits of British rule in India, Americans can sympathize heartily with the aspirations of the great Hindu people for a more complete expression of their national desires. Mr. Naoroji's closing words are significant:

Be united. Persevere and achieve self-government, so that the millions now perishing from poverty, famine, and plagues, and the scores of millions now starving on scanty subsistence, may be saved, and India once more occupy her proud position of yore among the greatest civilized na

JapaneseAmerican Friendship.

Although the sensational news- panic in the island empire at an early date if papers of this country and Eu- Japanese banks do not call a halt in the prorope continue to discuss, with motion mania, which has now reached a fever more or less positiveness of detail, what they heat. He advocates a contraction of the curcall the coming war between the United rency. Persistent reports of a disagreement States and Japan, the relations between the between the Japanese and Russian commistwo governments and peoples as a whole sioners over the working out of those clauses have never been better than they are to-day. of the Portsmouth peace treaty which reThe Japanese viewpoint in the matter of the fer to Japanese fishing rights off the SiSan Francisco school question is set forth on berian coast, as well as the claims of Rusanother page (220) in quotations from sian and German merchants that Japan is Tokio dailies. As a matter of precaution violating her pledges about the open door in against possible hostile demonstrations on the Manchuria, are denied from Tokio. Pacific Coast, the Tokio government has decided not to send the Japanese training squadron to visit this country, as had been its original intention, although a Japanese fleet will probably visit the Jamestown Exposition this summer. While her energies are being absorbed in exploiting Manchuria and Korea, Japan begins to feel at home the reaction from the nervous temperamental and financial tension of the late war. In a recent interview Baron Shibusawa, one of the most prominent of Japanese economists and a large holder in financial institutions, predicted a


The Immortal William (in Paradise) to Goethe, who was largely instrumental in starting Shake speare's fame, (pointing to Tolstoi, who has just written a book on the faults of the Avon bard)

"My dear Wolfgang, if I had only known of him I should have put him into my plays as my best

clown."-From Ulk (Berlin).


Some months ago an influential French journal asked its readers Longfellow. to vote for the 100 most illustrious and useful Frenchmen. The result of the voting showed that the verdicts of historical writers are not always borne out by popular insight. The choice of the widely separated voters of many different classes indicated that, while the masses of the people may be temporarily deceived in matters of this kind, the high standards of popular appreciation remain for comparison and for inspiration. Not even an iconoclast of the eminence and courage of Tolstoi, for instance, can destroy our literary ideals. The great Russian's recent book on the weaknesses and faults of Shakespeare somehow does not convince. The verdict of the ages is not often wrong. This fact is brought out in the remarkable way in which the fame of some of our own great public men has persisted and even waxed greater with the years. During this month of February occurs the one hundred and seventy-fifth anniversary of the birth of George Washington, the one hundredth of the birth of the poet Longfellow, and the ninety-eighth of the natal day of Abraham Lincoln. Every year of our republic's history seems to add to the dignity and glory of Washington's name. The fame of Lincoln is forever on the increase, and it may be safely asserted that the corner which Longfellow occupies in the hearts of his countrymen can never be usurped by another. The gentle poet did not strike the note of Emerson, of Bryant, of Poe, of Lowell, or of Whitman, but he sang songs that touched the hearts of his countrymen and of all the world. They are celebrating in Cambridge, on the 27th of this month, the centenary of his birth, and we describe the ceremonies on another page. It is a good thing for the democracy of America that the lives of men like these are accepted as ideals which persist.


(From December 19, 1906, to January 20, 1907.)


December 19.-In the Senate, President Roosevelt's message on the discharge of the colored troops of the Twenty-fifth Infantry is read.

December 20.-Both branches adjourn for the holiday recess.

January 3.-Both branches reassemble after the holiday recess....In the Senate, the resolution of Mr. Foraker (Rep., Ohio), directing an inquiry into the discharge of the colored troops at Brownsville, Texas, comes up, and Mr. Lodge (Rep., Mass.), offers an amendment recognizing the President's right to discharge the troops.

January 7-In the Senate, Mr. Lodge (Rep., Mass.), offers a new resolution for an inquiry into the dismissal of the negro troops....The House passes the bill providing for a judicial review of the facts before a fraud order is issued by the Post Office Department.

January 17.-In the Senate, Mr. Blackburn (Dem., Ky.) offers an amendment to the resolution of inquiry concerning the discharge of the negro troops, especially disclaiming any right to question the President's power of dismissal.... The House passes a bill authorizing the President to send the supply-ship Celtic with relief for the people of Jamaica.

January 18.-In the Senate, Mr. Whyte (Dem., Md.) speaks against encroachment by the federal Government on the powers of the States, and Mr. Kittredge (Rep., S. D.) attacks the lumber trust....The House adopts an amendment to the Legislative Appropriation bill, increasing the salary of the Vice-President, Speaker, and members of the cabinet to $12,000 and of Congressmen to $7,500 a year.

January 8.-The House debates the Army Ap- new investigation of the trouble at Brownsville, propriation bill.

January 9.-The Senate considers the bill limiting the hours of work of railroad employees.... The House strikes out, on a point of order, the provisions in the Army Appropriation bill abolishing the rank of lieutenant-general.

January 10.-The Senate, by a vote of 70 to 1, passes a substitute presented by Mr. LaFollette (Rep., Wis.), for his bill to regulate the hours of employment on railroads.

January 11-The Senate passes the General Service Pension bill....The House, in one hour and thirty-five minutes, passes 628 private pension bills.

January 12.-In the Senate, a message was received from President Roosevelt, urging action in the break of the Colorado River threatening the Imperial Valley.

January 14-The Senate passes the Legislative Appropriation bill; the President sends in a message in which he stands by his action in dismissing the negro troops from the army, but revokes that part of the order which bars the discharged men from civil employment under the Government....The House passes a bill to prohibit unnecessary whistling by vessels in harbors. January 15-In the Senate, Mr. Spooner (Rep., Wis.), concludes his defense of the President's right to discharge soldiers without honor; the nominations of George B. Cortelyou to be Secretary of the Treasury, James R. Garfield to be Secretary of the Interior, George von L. Meyer to be Postmaster-General, and Herbert Knox Smith to be Commissioner of Corporations are confirmed....The House debates the Fortifications Appropriation bill.

January 16.-In the Senate, Mr. Foraker (Rep., Ohio) introduces a substitute resolution on the discharge of the negro troops....The House passes the Fortifications Appropriation

POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT-AMERICAN. December 22.-President Roosevelt orders a Texas, in which United States negro troops were implicated, to be made by Assistant Attorney-General Purdy.

December 29.-Secretary Taft announces that while he is not seeking the Presidency and does not expect to be a candidate, he would not decline the nomination if it should come to him.

December 30.-Attorney-General-elect Jackson of New York informs W. R. Hearst that he will consider an application for a recount of the ballots cast in the mayoralty election of 1905.

January 1.-The new federal Pure Food and Drugs law goes into effect throughout the United States....Judge McCall, of the federal court, declares the LaFollette fellow-servants act unconstitutional....Charles E. Hughes is inaugurated as Governor of New York.

January 2.-The New Hampshire Legislature elects Charles M. Floyd (Rep.) Governor.

January 3-Governors Guild of Massachusetts, Cobb of Maine, and Floyd of New Hampshire take the oaths of office."

January 4.-The Interstate Commerce Commission begins an investigation of recent railroad wrecks.

January 7.-The United States Supreme Court, on a division of 5 to 4, holds invalid the annual tax of 4 cents per $1000 capital stock imposed by the State of Colorado upon foreign corporations doing business in that State.... Postmaster-General Cortelyou announces his retirement as chairman of the Republican National Committee; Harry S. New will be acting-chairman....Attorney-General Jackson of New York State names Clarence J. Shearn, W. R. Hearst's counsel, as special counsel to direct the suit to oust Mayor McClellan.

January 8.-The New York Court of Appeals decides that the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company has the right to charge double fares, 10

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January 10.-The Interstate Commerce Commission finishes the Chicago hearing on the Harriman railroad lines.

January II.-Republican members of the Kansas Legislatiure nominate Representative Charles Curtis for the United States Senate.

January 14.-Republicans of the West Virginia Legislature nominate Stephen B. Elkins for his third successive term as United States Senator....Governor Hughes of New York appoints ex-Senator Frederick C. Stevens Superintendent of Public Works and Charles H. Keep as Superintendent of Banks.

January 15.-Harry A. Richardson (Rep.) is elected United States Senator for Delaware... The Massachusetts Legislature elects Winthrop Murray Crane (Rep.) United States Senator.... The Maine Legislature re-elects United States Senator William P. Frye (Rep.).... The Montana Legislature elects Representative Joseph M. Dixon (Rep.) United States Senator to succeed W. A. Clark (Dem.)....The Nebraska Legislature elects Norris Brown (Rep.) United States Senator.... The Colorado Legislature elects Simon Guggenheim (Rep.) United States Senator to succeed Thomas M. Patterson (Dem.) ....The Idaho Legislature elects William E. Borah (Rep.) to succeed Fred. T. Dubois (Dem.) as United States Senator....The Tennessee Legislature elects ex-Gov. Robert L. Taylor (Dem.) to succeed Edward W. Carmack as United States Senator.... Democratic members of the North Carolina Legislature nominate F. M. Simmons for re-election as United States


January 16.-The New Hampshire Legislature re-elects United States Senator Henry E. Burnham (Rep.)....The Michigan Legislature elects Representative William Alden Smith (Rep.) United States Senator to succeed R. A. Alger.


December 19.-The Victorian Parliament passes an anti-gambling bill....The British House of Lords, by a vote of 132 to 52, rejects the concessions offered by the government in the matter of the Education bill.

December 20.-The Governor of Southwest Africa arrives in London to negotiate with the British Government on frontier questions.... Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman formally withdraws the Education bill in the British House of Commons.

December 21.-The British Parliament is prorogued....The French Chamber of Deputies, by a vote of 413 to 166, passes the amended Separation law.

December 22.-A negro leader in Cuba issues a manifesto saying that the negroes demand a large share in the offi es in return for the part which they played in the recent revolt.

December 24.-General Alfaro is formally elected President of Ecuador by the National Assembly.

December 26.-A bill for the regulation of labor is introduced in Congress by the government of Uruguay....A test vote in the French Senate on the amended Separation bill shows 183 members in its favor to 80 opposed.


December 28.-The Danish Royal Sanitary College, in an address to the King, accuses the Danish Minister of Justice of abuse of power The French Senate, by a vote of 187 to 87, passes the amended Separation bill. December 29.-The Japanese Diet is opened December 30.-The Shah and the Crown Prince sign the Persian constitution, the Crown Prince also signing a document promising not to dissolve the present Parliament within two years.

December 31.-President Penna of Brazil authorizes a loan to Rio Janeiro of $50,000,000... The Persian National Assembly rejects the proposed composition of the Senate, and the negotiations regarding the constitution are reopened.

January 1.-The Persian National Assembly accepts a revised constitution as submitted by the Grand Vizier.

January 2.--The Russian preliminary budget estimates for the first six months of 1907 show an increase of nearly $19.000 000 in the regular expenditures compared with those for the same period last year.

January 3.-The new French law amending the Church and State Separation law of 1905 is signed by the President and promulgated.... The articles of the Polish National League, published at Breslau, show plans to take action in case of war; several leaders of the agitation are placed on trial at Gneisen.

surplus of over $13,000,000 for 1906, and a still January 8.-The Prussian budget shows a better prospect for 1907.

January 9.-General Pavlov, the Russian miliist at St. Petersburg; the assassin is captured. tary procurator, is shot and killed by a Terror

Mohammed Ali Mirza is formally acknowledged as Shah of Persia.

January 14-The Russian provisional budget shows a deficit of over $120,000,000, for which a new loan must be raised....The Porto Rican Legislature meets and elects Francisco de P. Acuna Speaker.

January 16.-The election of President Figueroa of the Republic of Salvador is announced. January 20.-Count Okuma announces his in-` tention to resign the presidency of the Japanese. Progressive party.


December 19.-The United States Senate confirms the nominations of Henry White, of Rhode Island, as Ambassador to France; Lloyd C. Griscom, of Pennsylvania, as Ambassador to Italy; John W. Riddle, of Minnesota, as Ambassador to Russia; Irving D. Dudley, of California, as Ambassador to Brazil; and Leslie Combes, of Kentucky, as Minister to Peru.... The United States Senate ratified the Red Cross convention providing for the amelioration of the condition of wounded of armies on the field ....The Executive Committee of the Bureau of

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American Republics elects John Barrett to be
Director of the Bureau.

December 20.-The French Senate ratifies the
Algeciras convention.

December 21.—It is announced that the British Government has been informed that the appointment of James Bryce as Ambassador will be entirely acceptable to the United States (see page 166).

December 28.-Sir Mortimer Durand, the British Ambassador to the United States, leaves Washington.

December 29.-The Russian Government publishes the text of its negotiations with Japan. December 30.-King Edward approves the appointment of James Bryce to be British Am

bassador to the United States.

January 6.-A conference of Austro-Hungarian ministers decides to open negotiations for commercial treaties with Rumania and Bulgaria.

January 8.-Chinese commissioners sent to Manchuria recommend an effort to regain the railroad and mining privileges granted to Russians and Japanese.

January 9.-It is announced that Great Britain and Russia have agreed to support the new Shah of Persia.... Secretary Root makes an argument before the Foreign Relations Committee of the United States Senate for ratification of the treaty with Santo Domingo.

January 12.-The Chilean Government proposed to Parliament the raising of the legation at Washington to the rank of embassy.

January 14.-It is announced that a complete agreement has not been reached by the German and American commissioners in regard to tariff schedules.

January 19.-Governor Swettenham, of Jamaica, peremptorily requests that the American troops be withdrawn from relief work at Kingston; the warships under Admiral Davis sail away from the harbor.

January 20.-Nicaragua and Honduras agree to submit their differences to arbitration.


December 19.-Fire at Harbin destroys the quarters of the general staff, the museum, the library, and many warehouses. ... The three hundredth anniversary of the sailing of the first British colony for Virginia is celebrated in Lon


December 20.-M. Ribot is received into the French cabinet.

December 21-A native industrial exhibition is opened in Calcutta.

December 22.-A violent earthquake affects a large section of Russian Turkestan.

December 23.--President Roosevelt issues a proclamation calling on the people of the United States to contribute to the relief of the Chinese famine sufferers....A strike of locomotive firemen goes into effect on the Southern Pacific Railway.

December 25.-A Russian court-martial condemns to death ex-Admiral Nebogatov and the officers of his squadron, but petitions the Czar

to commute the death sentence to 10 years' imprisonment....Heavy snowstorms are reported from all over England....The first instance of the closing of a church under the French Sepof 582 cases of typhoid is reported from Scranaration law ocurs at Alzay-sur-Indre....A total ton, Pa.

December 26.-Serious earthquake shocks are reported in the province of Tacna, Chile; half of the town of Arica is destroyed....The Indian National Congress opens at Calcutta.. The Attorney-General of Minnesota brings suit of $60,000,000 stock by the Great Northern Railfor an injunction to prevent the proposed issue road.

block roads and wreck telegraph and telephone December 27-Snowstorms in Great Britain communication in many places.

broath, Scotland, 21 persons are killed and about 20 injured....The Governor of Akmolinsk, and Charles S. Fairchild are indicted by grand Russia, is assassinated....George W. Perkins jury in New York on six counts, charging forgery in the third degree, in connection with transfers of stocks by the New York Life Insurance Company.

December 28. In a train wreck near Ar

December 29.-The Cleveland Electric Raillines....One hundred thousand men way announces 32-cent fares on all of its city ported out of work at Lodz, all the factories having been closed.

are re-.

and about 100 injured in a train wreck on the December 30-Forty-five persons are killed Baltimore & Ohio near Washington, D. C.

British railroads abolishing rebates goes into December 31.-An agreement signed by the force.

on the gun-wharf at Portsmouth, England, does
January 2.-Fire in the military storehouses
damage estimated at $1,250,000.

Carnegie, for a building to house the Bureau of
January 4-A gift of $700,000 by Andrew
American Republics in Washington, is an-

January 5.—The Canadian Government decides to place an export duty on electricity from Dominion's industries....The Baroness BurdettNiagara Falls in order to obtain power for the Coutts is buried in Westminster Abbey (see page 199).

Bangkok, Siam, is destroped by fire; the loss is January 7.-The Chinese trading quarter of estimated at $3,000,000.

January 10-A severe typhoon sweeps the and much property destroyed....Earthquake islands of Leyte and Samar; too lives are lost shocks are felt in Norway, Sweden, and several American states.... The Hawaiian volcano Mauna Loa is active.

Kingston, Jamaica, is destroyed by earthquake January 14.-The greater part of the city of shocks and fire immediately following; the dead number more than 1000.

January 19.-The Shah of Persia is crowned at Teheran....The one hundredth anniversary of the birth of Gen. Robert E. Lee is celebrated throughout the South.... Fifteen thousand people are rendered homeless in and near Cincin

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