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DIAZ AND MEXICO.
Porfirio Diaz, the present Presi-, In 1888 he funded the national debt at 4/2 per dent of Mexico, has won a place among cent. and made such arrangements for paying the the great statesmen and leaders of our day is restored and the bonds sold above par. He has
same in gold that the credit of the nation was evident to all who read the history of that fostered the development of its resources and has country. He has been a prominent figure thus helped to build up vast manufacturing inin his native land for over 50 years, ris- terests. He has maintained peace and caused ing from the ranks to the highest position the brigands of former days into rurales or mili
the day of the revolution to pass. By converting within the gift of his people. His great tary constabulary, he has made Mexico the safest firmness of character and his unflinching de- country in the world to live or to travel in. termination to free Mexico from the galling He has fostered education, and has made the yoke of imperialism are virtues so highly de- common schools in Mexico second to none. veloped in him as to excite the admiration
He has promoted railway building, so that Mex
ico is the best supplied nation in this line in even of his enemies.
the world, in proportion to its size. He has President Diaz is now 76 years of age, purified official life, greatly improved every and is serving his seventh consecutive term branch of government service and has taught in the Presidential chair. Understanding
Mexicans the important lesson of self govern
ment. In a word, he is the maker of modern as we do how averse to modern advance- Mexico; and modern Mexico is a very differment are the natives of Spanish-American ent thing from the Mexico that existed between countries we marvel all the more at Diaz's 1810 and 1876. success.
The man who has done all this was the son of an innkeeper in the town of Oaxaca, the capital of the state of the same name. He was born in September, 1830. His parents endeavored to make a priest of him, but he revolted and became a student of law. His one great ambition from youth up, however, seems to have been for a military career. In 1856 he was given an opportunity to gratify this desire; he was made commander of a battalion of Oaxaca militia. In 1860 he was elevated to a colonelcy. His reputation as a soldier after the War of Reform was one of which he might well feel proud. In his 13 engagements he made a record both for bravery and skill.
He showed remarkable staying qualities in his achievements during the battle which he waged with the French Army of Intervention, in 1862, and especially in the repulse of the invaders at Puebla on May 5th, which
is the greatest event chronicled in Mexican o
history. Though constantly put to the test, he was stanch in his loyalty and in his fidelity to republican principles. In 1871 he issued his “Plan de Noria," which proposed a reorganized government along constitutional lines. The death of President Jaurez, who had been enjoying his third term of the Presidency, quashed this movement. Sebastian
Lerdo de Tejeda, president of the Supreme Mr. Arthur Howard Noll, in the Sewanee Court of Justice, succeeded to the office. He Review for October, tells of some of the created many constitutional reforms, pleasmarvelous accomplishments of President ing the Liberals thereby, but failed to become Diaz during the 30 years he has occupied generally popular. Diaz was elected to the the chief executive seat of Mexico.
national Congress. Lerdo proscribed him
and he Acd to the United States. Diaz was til 1879 that the United States recognized proclaimed “Commander-in-Chief of the his government, because of its revolutionary
· Army of the Reorganization ” by the revo- origin. His marriage, in 1883, to the daughlutionists, who in the constant warfare that ter of Don Manuel Romero Rubio, added was waged were successful. Then Diaz was much to his popularity. He spent his honeyreturned as President of the Republic for four moon in the United States, and became a years on December 1, 1876. It was not un- favorite with the Americans.
THREE GREAT RUSSIAN CRITICS.
MOST of the Russian papers and periodi- Since 1857 he occupied the position of curator
cals note with great sympathy the of the art department of the Imperial Public deaths of three prominent Russian public contributions dealing with the entire domain of
Most of his numerous journalistic men, -Stassov, Spasovich, and Vesilovski.
art were published in 1886 in three large volThe most remarkable Russian art critic, umes of 5500 pages. A fourth volume, dealing Vladimir Vasilyevich Stassov, who died Oc- exclusively with Tolstoi's “What Is Art”? was tober 23, was born in 1824, graduated from published shortly before his death the national law school in 1843, and chose a for national realism in art in its broadest sense.
paralleled polemical ardor and faith he stood journalistic career, in which he was especially To him as a realist a work of art had to posprolific as an art critic during the three dec- sess real intrinsic worth, an underlying idea and ades from 1860 to 1890, although he con- reproduction of life at close range; treatment tinued his literary activity until a few days the next place, to be national had to respond
and technique was a secondary matter. Art, in before his death. From a number of periodi- effectively to the vital and mature artistic de
given people. He upheld in music the new Rus- essays on Mickiewicz and Pushkin. Politically sian school (Rimski-Korsakov and others); in he held aloof, although a Pole, from the nationpainting, Vereschagin, Kramskoi, and the trav- alistic movement, and rather leaned toward the eling exhibitors in general, and in sculpture, An- Russian moderate liberalism as voiced by the tokolski. The same preference for national Vyestnik-Yevropy and his own short-lived Polish realism he shows in architecture, although Ber- paper Krai. He acquiesced to the status quo lioz and Schumann in music, as well as Armen- as regards Poland and harmonious co-operaian, Hebrew, and Oriental ornamentation equally tion with Russian bourgeois liberalism for muclaimed his attention. His range of work in- tual cultural growth of the two nations. cluded ethnography, archeology, and other scientific fields having any bearing on art. His orig
A. D. Vesilovski, the academician and celinal research and indefatigable work gave the ebrated philologist and historian, was born in world the rich biographical material and com- Moscow in 1838, graduating from the hisplete “lives” of Russian artists from Glinka torico-philological faculty of the Moscow to Vereschagin.
University in 1860. He traveled extensively V. D. Spasovich, Russia's most famous and in Spain and the rest of Europe, becoming a most brilliant barrister and publicist, was polyglot linguist. born in 1829 in the government of Minsk, of noble Polish family. During 1857-1861 Prague, and especially in Italy, contributing to
From 1862 to 1869 he studied again in Berlin, he held the chair of criminal law at the St. Italian periodicals. In 1870 he published his Petersburg University. Finding his profes- “ Villa Albert ” new materials for the characsorship incompatible with his social and polit- terization of social and literary life in Italy in
the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, whereical views, he resigned and devoted the rest of his life to jurisprudence, the bar, and upon he accepted a chair at the St. Petersburg
University In 1881 he was elected ordinary journalistic activity.
academician and later chairman of the depart
ment of Russian. He was also corresponding Besides his vast erudition and his valuable member of many foreign universities and learned contributions to criminology (“ Theory of Evi- societies. His research work had a wide range, dence in Criminal Court Procedure," and other Sanscrit
, mythology, classic folklore, medieval, works), he distinguished himself as an unpar. and Byzantine legends; Slavonic literature, myalleled pleader in criminal cases. He brought about acquittals by his specific gift and method, thology, and folklore; Russian epics and phi
lology proper. giving the jury a psychological life portrait of the defendants. Russian and Polish history of lit- He is noted for his startling and farerature claimed his attention next. history of Polish literature and collaborated reaching comparisons and parallels between with Pypin in the history of Slavonic literature,
a widely divergent and remote field of philoand interpreted Shakespeare and Byron in his logical and mythological folklore research.
MAGNETS FOR LIFTING PURPOSES.
FEW of our industrial plants to-day could conveying an electric current possesses mag be conducted with more than a reason- netic properties. This principle is responsi
a able degree of despatch without the use of ble for the telegraph, the electric motor, and some kind of hoisting tackle. The loading the telephone of to-day, the only difference and unloading of material, together with the being that with the lifting magnet the load frequent removal or transfer of heavy ob- or weight to be raised takes the place of the jects, are essential to almost every type of armature. Though its use for lifting purindustry, and the plants which manufacture poses is comparatively recent, it has received our steel and iron products would be com- world-wide recognition, the Imperial Shippletely paralyzed by a breakdown of their yards of Yokohama, Japan, having adopted derricks or hoisting cranes. Any improve it. The latest improvements in the magnet ments, therefore, which increase the efficien- are the invention of Arthus C. Eastwood, cy and safety of this department of opera- who has contributed in Cassier's Magazine tion are of vital interest and value to every for December an interesting article replete industrial employer.
with photographs illustrating its various uses. The latest improvement in this direction The present state of efficiency of the liftis the use of the electro-magnet along with ing magnet has been reached only by careful the hoisting tackle. The electro-magnet it- experimenting. A pioneer along this line self dates back to 1820, when Oersted dis- was S. T. Wellman, one of the first manucovered that the neighborhood of a conductor facturers of open-hearth steel in America.
The lifting and moving of long steel plates tomatically adjust themselves to the more or had always been tedious and slow. Not in- less irregular surface of the pile or load to frequently would the hooks or slings slip, be lifted. A magnet was constructed with and accidents were common.
seven central and twelve outer pole pieces, To Mr. Wellman's mind, the electro-magnet
which were held together in such a manner offered an ideal remedy for these difficulties. as to adjust themselves vertically to the load What could be more ideal than to attach an to be lifted; yet there was a large leakage, electro-magnet to the hoisting tackle of the and the shorter pole pieces were found to crane, lower the magnet upon the plate to be lifted, grasp it by the simple closure of an elec- give better effects. tric switch, convey it to the desired spot, and
Mr. Eastwood then conceived the idea of release it by simply opening the switch. having the central pole, instead of being ad
justed toward the load to be lifted, to be adjusted away from the load. The idea seems paradoxical, and was pronounced idiotic even, but the results have demonstrated the correctness of this theory. As many as two dozen pigs can be easily picked up from an indiscriminate pile. Indeed, the attraction is such that they will jump from 4 to 6 inches to meet the magnet; so that the construction has to be of the stanchest kind in order to withstand the daily hammering of 800 tons of iron.
In the handling of steel plates, a half dozen or more can be lifted at once. By opening the switch which controls the magnet the lowermost plate will drop first; and if the switch be then closed the remaining pieces will again be secure. Plates of different sizes and descriptions can thus be lifted and distributed at the will of the operator.
Kegs of nails securely coopered and ready for shipment can be picked up a dozen at a time as easily and quickly as a jackknife. Wire and metal scrap of the sharpest and most tangled description can be picked with the ease of iron pins by a toy magnet. Immense steel safes weighing 5 and 6 tons are picked up without a scratch or mar to the paint, and conveyed to any place within the area of the crane.
One of the difficulties in steel shipbuilding has been to lift the plates from the ground and hold them in proper position while being attached to the vertical sides of the ship. But by the use of the electromagnets, which can be attached to the
smooth and even slippery sides of the plate, Many of the Wellman magnets are still any desired position can be secured, and the doing good service, but they lack in power saving in time and labor is considerable. to adjust themselves to all kinds of material,
Not least of the valuable uses of this new whether it be steel ingots, scraps, or pig magnet is in the lifting and releasing of the iron, which last presents a very uneven sur-“skull-crackers.” The “skulls ” are the face, with large air gaps between adjacent metal which clings to the lining of the ladles. pigs.
These, together with imperfect castings and An attempt was made by Mr. S. Piek to other scraps, must be broken before they can improve the efficiency of the magnet by pro- be sent to the furnace for remelting. The
height above the pile and then allowed to rest, is hoisted, and allowed to drop again. drop, being released by a latch which is The superior advantages of this kind of a tripped by means of a rope. - Not infrequent- magnet are evident. Its almost universal ly, however, the ball glances after striking, use in the handling of iron and steel products and the latch cannot be attached without will be only a matter of time. The reducrighting the ball, “and the prying up of a tion in labor cost is large, almost no ground more or less spherical ball, weighing from work being necessary. And, further, the in10,000 to 20,000 pounds, requires much creased speed at which material can be hanlabor.” By the use of the magnet all this dled by the crane will mean an increase in is changed. Even the castings to be broken the product of the plant, and this with no are placed in position by the magnet, and the expense save to attach an electric magnet to ball is picked up in whatever position it may the hoisting tackle.
A SPANISH VIEW OF WHY WE HAVE "FAILED" IN THE
IN a recent number of Nuestro Tiempo passions, and in the end a nursery of corruption
for the Americans. (Madrid), Señor P. Sincero discusses the present status of the Philippine question. The Filipino independence, he continues, if article, although tinged with Spanish pre- granted now, would "only invite a partition judice, is of interest to American readers, of the islands among the different powers.' giving, as it does, the views of one who is
Without a strong government to watch over thoroughly familiar with his subject from a and control them, the Filipinos would become temperamental as well as scholastic stand- the prey of puerile discords, which, among other
internal disorders, would lead to attacks upon point. After a brief summary of the facts in re- people would be its ruin, since they are not in
the foreign residents. Self-government for this gard to our relations with the Filipinos since the least prepared for it
. Antonio Luna, the the outbreak of the Spanish war, the writer only real military leader of the insurrection,
said to me two years before the outbreak of hossays:
tilities, and shortly after his arrival from It must be confessed that, in spite of their ex- Europe: “My country is too uncivilized to think perience, the American politicians who have vis- of a war for independence." ited the islands have been slow to understand When we see, upon cold analysis, how feeble, how pretentious and false is the social life of not to say nonexistent, is the intellectual force the Filipinos. They have been too easily carried generated by Filipino mentality, and note the away by enthusiasm when, at some little ban- grotesque efforts and ridiculous imitations of quet where only a half dozen persons understood its social orders, it is impossible to suppose that . what they were saying, they addressed the Fili- out of such elements a real nation and governpino people just as they would have addressed ment can ever be constructed. the American people in speaking before an Amer- This writer remarks the lack of literary ican audience. In the latter case a hundred reporters would have hastened forth at once to activity among the Filipinos and thinks that, spread the words of the orator broadcast through could this state of things be attributable to the 45 States, and in a few hours the speaker's Spanish rule, there should be now, after seven ideas would be studied and discussed by millions of citizens interested in the public welfare. years of the new régime, some signs of a
Among the Filipinos, on the other hand, change for the better. He continues: there is no middle class and hence no intelligent In the heat of revolutionary and political paspublic opinion at all.
sions we would also have remarked that inThis Spanish writer suggests that we ment of ardent desires and noble sentiments.
tellectual growth which is produced by the fer" have not yet lost the chance of abandoning But the atmosphere of liberty and the laisser the islands."
faire policy of the Americans will no longer
produce by means of repression any internal I should look upon the transfer or sale of the agitation in the subconsciousness of the tribes ; Archipelago as the most prudent course which for among peoples of rudimentary civilization could be taken by the American Government for it is not this atmosphere of political liberty that the future and well-being of the nation. As yet most favors development. there are no important interests to be sacrificed,
The writer admits that we are making and I cannot see anything unreasonable in the idea, for it seems certain that these possessions strenuous and, in the main, successful efwill only prove a cause for the display of evil forts to educate the natives.