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opened and closed with the Lord's Prayer, and one or more of the collects.
10th. It shall be the duty of the Treasurer, at every meeting of the committee, to report the state of the funds; when he shall be instructed to deposit them in some bank in the name of the society. He shall not pay any sum of money with out an order signed by the President of the society.
11th. One tenth of the income of the society shall be invested in bank stock or public securities, to constitute a permanent fund. The interest of which shall be added to its increase, until it shall have amounted to the sum of eight thousand dollars; after which the interest may be applied to the purposes of the society, as may be deemed expedient.
12th. The constitution shall not under. go any alteration or addition whatever, unless the same has been considered at two meetings of the society, and not without the consent of two-thirds of the members present at the fmal meeting.
Officers of the Society for 1819. The Right Rev. Bishop Bowen, D. D. ex officia, President. Thomas Gadsden, jun. Corresponding Se'y. Ebenezer Thayer, jun. Recording Sec❜ry. George B. Eckhard, Treasurer.
Standing Committee-John W. Mitchell, James S. Johnson, Thomas O. Elliott, Henry Frost, M. D. Hugh P. Dawes, William G. Rout, Charles W. D'Oyley, Edward P. Simons, Thomas C. Marshall, Thomas Morris, jun.
THERE is a land of calm delight
To sorrowing mortals given; Where rapturous scenes enchant the sight, And all, to soothe their souls, unite ;Sweet in their rest-in Heaven. There glory beams on all the plains ;
And Joy, for Hope, is given;
And all is Love-in Heaven.
To passing pilgrims given:
Amid the fields of Heaven.
For those with sin who've striven:
From a Liverpool Paper of May 31. On Sunday, the 2d instant, a venerable minister of the establishment, in Derby. shire, walked twenty-four miles, did duty at three churches, by reading prayers and preaching four times; he also baptized an infant and churched the mother, published the banns of one couple, married another, and interred a corpse! He is seventy years of age.
CONSECRATION.ON Wednesday, 11th of August, St. Matthew's Church, in Wilton, Connecticut, was consecrated by the Right Rev. Bishop Hobart, assisted by several of the neighbouring clergy.
ON Wednesday, 16th June, 1819, the Rev. Charles Mann, and the Rev. William Westerman, were admitted to the holy order of Priests; and Charles C. Austin, and William Armstrong, to that of Dea cons, by the Right Rev. Bishop Kemp, of Maryland.
Ar the late commencement of the University of Pennsylvania, the degree of D. D. was conferred on the Rev. James Milnor, and the Rev. Samuel F. Jarvis, of NewYork. The same degree has been also conferred by Columbia College, New-York, on the Right Rev. Philander Chase, of Ohio, and the Rev. Thomas C. Brownell, Bishop elect of the diocess of Connecticut. Union College, Schenectady, had, a short time before, conferred the degree of LL. D. on the last named gentleman.
On Wednesday, May 26th, 1819, the Rev. Petrus Stuyvesant Ten Broeck, was instituted to the office of Rector of St. Paul's Church, in Portland, Maine. The Rev. Mr. Olney, of Gardiner, officiated at Morning Prayers; after which the office of Institution was performed in a manner highly impressive by the Rev. Mr. Morss, of Newburyport, Massachusetts. The Sa crament was then administered by the Rev. Mr. Ten Broeck.
ON Thursday afternoon, Aug. 19, 1819, the corner stone of the foundation of the Protestant Episcopal Church, in the pleasant and interesting village of Mantua, on the west side of the Schuykill, near Philadelphia, was laid by the Right Rev. Bishop White, assisted by the Rev. Messrs. Boyd and Muhlenburg, and Judge Peters, the proprietor of the Town Plat; who thus delivered possession of the uncommonly beautiful site of the Church, which he had previously granted.
The Bishop pronounced an impressive address on the occasion, to a numerous assembly of highly respectable citizens, who attended the ceremony; which was conducted with great solemnity, and accompanied by very appropriate prayers.
Biographical Memoirs of the late boundary is here traced out between
DR. GEORGE BERKELEY, the learned and most ingenious Bishop of Cloyne, in Ireland, was born in that kingdom, at Kilcrin, near Thomastown, the 12th of March, 1684. He was the son of William Berkeley, of Thomastown, in the county of Kilkenny; whose father, the family having suffered for their loyalty to Charles I. went over to Ireland after the restoration, and there obtained the collectorship of Belfast. George had the first part of his education at Kilkenny school; was admitted pensioner of Trinity college, Dublin, at the age of fifteen, under Dr. Histon; and chosen fellow of that college June the 9th, 1707, and placed under the tuition of Dr. Hall. The first public proof he gave of his literary abilities was, Arithmetica absque Algebra aut Euclide demonstrata; which, from the preface, he appears to have written before he was twenty years old, though he did not publish it till 1707. It is dedicated to Mr. Palliser, son of the archbishop of Cashel; and is followed by a mathematical miscellany, containing observations and theorems inscribed to his pupil Mr. Samuel Molineux, whose father was the friend and correspondent of Locke.
the ideas of sight and touch; and it is shown, that, though habit has 30 connected these two classes of ideas in our minds, that they are not without a strong effort to be separated from each other, yet originally they have no such connexion, insomuch, that a person born blind, and suddenly made to see, would at first be utterly unable to tell how any object that affected his sight would affect his touch; and particularly would not from sight receive any idea of distance, outness, or external space, but would imagine all objects to be in his eye, or rather in his mind. This was surprisingly confirmed in the case of a young man born blind, and couched at fourteen years of age by Mr. Cheselden, in 1728. A vindication of the Theory of Vision was pub. lished by him in 1733.
In 1710 appeared The Principals of Human Knowledge; and, in 1713, Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous: the object of both which pieces is, to prove that the commonly receiv ed notion of the existence of matter is false; that sensible material objects, as they are called, are not external to the mind, but exist in it, and are nothing more than impressions made upon it by the immediate act of God, according to certain rules, termed laws of nature, from which, in the ordinary course of his government, he never deviates; and that the steady adherence of the Supreme Spirit to these rules is what constitutes the reality of things to his creatures. These works are declared to have been written in opposition to sceptics and atheists; and herein is inquired into the chief cause of error and difficulty in the sciences, with the grounds of scepti cism, atheism, and irreligion: which
eause and grounds are found to be the doctrines of the existence of matter. He seems persuaded, that men never could have been deluded into a false opinion of the existence of matter, if they had not fancied themselves invested with a power of abstracting substance from the qualities under which it is perceived; and hence, as the general foundation of his argument, is led to combat and explode the doctrine maintained by Locke and others, of there being a power in the mind of abstracting general ideas. Mr. Hume, having regard to these writings of the very ingenious author, as he calls him, says, that they "form the best lessons of scepticism which are to be found either among the ancient or modern philosophers, Bayle not excepted." He professes, however, in his title page, and undoubtedly with great truth, to have composed his books against the sceptics, as well as against the atheists and freethinkers: but that all his arguments, though otherwise intended, are, in reality, merely sceptical, appears from this, that they admit of no answer, and produce no conviction. Their only effect is, to cause that momentary amazement and irre solution and confusion which is the result of scepticism. It may just be observed, that Berkeley had not reached his 27th year when he published this singular system.
In 1712, he published three sermons in favour of passive obedience and non-resistance, which underwent at least three editions, and afterwards had nearly done him some injury in his fortune. They caused him to be represented as a Jacobite, and stood in his way with the house of Hanover, till Mr. Molineux, above-mentioned, took off the impression, and first made him known to queen Charlotte, whose secretary, when princess, Mr.Molineux had been. Acuteness of parts and beauty of imagination were so conspicuous in his writings, that his reputation was now established, and his company courted even where his opinions did not find admission. Men of opposite parties concurred in recommending him: Sir Richard Steele, for instance, and Dr. Swift. For the for
mer he wrote several papers in the Guardian, and at his house became acquainted with Pope, with whom he always lived in friendship. Swift recommended him to the celebrated earl of Peterborough, who, being appointed ambassador to the king of Sicily and the Italian states, took Berkeley with him as chaplain and secretary, in November, 1713. He returned to England with this nobleman in August, 1714, and towards the close of the year had a fever, which gave occasion to Dr. Arbuthnot to indulge a little pleasantry on Berkeley's system. Poor philosopher Berkeley, says he to his friend Swift, has now the idea of health, which was very hard to produce in him; for he had an idea of a strange fever on him, so strong that it was very hard to destroy it by introducing a contrary one.
His hopes of preferment expiring with the fall of queen Anne's ministry, he some time after embraced an offer, made him by Ashe, bishop of Clogher, of accompanying his son in a tour through Europe. In this he employed four years; and, besides those places which fall within the grand tour, visited some that are less frequented. He travelled over Apulia (from which he wrote an account of the tarantula to Dr. Friend,) Calabria, and the whole island of Sicily. This last country engaged his attention so strongly, that he had with great industry collected very considerable materials for a natural history of it, but unfortunately lost them in the passage to Naples; and what an injury the literary world has sustained by this mischance, may be collected from the specimen of his talents for this sort of work, in a letter to Mr. Pope concerning the island of Inarime (now Ischia) dated October 22, 1717; and in another from the same city to Dr. Arbuthnot, giving an account of an eruption of Vesuvius. He arrived at London in 1721; and being much affected with the miseries of the nation, occasioned by the South Sea scheme in 1720, published the same year An Essay towards preventing the Ruin of Great-Britain; reprinted in his miscellaneous tracts.
His way was open now into the very
first company. Mr. Pope introduced him to lord Burlington, and lord Burlington recommended him to the duke of Grafton; who, being lord lieutenant of Ireland, took him over as one of his chaplains in 1721. November this year, he accumulated the degrees of bachelor and doctor of divinity. The year following he had a very unexpected increase of fortune from Mrs. Vanhomrigh, the celebrated Vanessa, to whom he had been introduced by Swift: this lady had intended Swift for her heir; but, perceiving herself to be slighted by him, she left near 8000 7. between her two executors, of whom Berkeley was one. May 18, 1724, he was promoted to the deanery of Derry, worth 1100 7. per annum.
In 1725, he published, and it has since been reprinted in his miscellaneeus tracts, "A proposal for convert ing the savage Americans to Christianity, by a college to be erected in the Summer Islands, otherwise called the Isles of Bermuda:" a scheme which had employed his thoughts for three or four years past; and it is really surprising to consider how far he carried it. He offered to resign all his preferment, and to dedicate the remainder of his life to instructing the American youth, on a stipend of 100l. yearly: he prevailed with three junior fellows of Trinity college, Dublin, to give up all their prospects of preferment at home, and to exchange their fellowship for a settlement in the Atlantic Ocean at 407. a year: he procured his plan to be laid before George I. who commanded Sir Robert Walpole to lay it before the commons; and further granted him a charter for erecting a college in Bermuda, to consist of a president and nine fellows, who were obliged to maintain and educate Indian scholars, at 10l. a year each: he obtained a grant from the commons of a sum, to be determined by the king; and accordingly 10,000 7. was promised by the minister, for the purchase of lands, and erecting the college. He married the daughter of John Forster, Esq. speaker of the Irish house of commons, the 1st of August, 1728; and actually set sail in Sep
tember following for Rhode-Island, which lay nearest to Bermuda, taking with him his wife, a single lady, and two gentlemen of fortune. Was not this going a great way, and was not here a full prospect of success? Yet the scheme entirely failed, and Berkeley was obliged to return, after residing near two years at Newport. The reason given is, that the minister never heartily embraced the project, and the money was returned into another channel.
In 1732, he published The Minute Philosopher, in two volumes 8vo. This masterly work is written in a series of dialogues, on the model of Plato, a philosopher he is said to have been very fond of; and in it he pursues the freethinker through the various characters of atheist, libertine, enthusiast, scorner, critic, metaphysician, fatalist, and sceptic. The same year he printed a sermon, preached before the society for propagating the gospel in foreign parts. In 1733, he was made Bishop of Cloyne, and might have been removed in 1745, by lord Chesterfield, to Clogher, but declined it. He resided constantly at Cloyne, where he faithfully discharged all the offices of a good Bishop, yet continued his studies with unabated attention.
About this time he engaged in a controversy with the mathematicians, which made a good deal of noise in the literary world; and the occasion of it is said to have been this: Mr. Addison had given the Bishop an account of their common friend Dr. Garth's behaviour in his last illness, which was equally unpleasing to both these advocates of revealed religion. For, when Addison went to see the doctor, and began to discourse with him seriously about another world, "Surely, Addison," replied he, "I have good reason not to believe those trifles, since my friend Dr. Halley, who has dealt so much in demonstration, has assured me, that the doctrines of Christianity are incomprehensible, and the religion itself an imposture." The Bishop, therefore, addressed to him, as to an infidel mathematician, a discourse called the
Analyst; with a view of showing, that mysteries in faith were unjustly objected to by mathematicians, who ad mitted much greater mysteries, and even falsehoods in science, of which he endeavoured to prove, that the doctrine of fluxions furnished a clear example. This attack gave occasion to Maclaurin's treatise, and other smaller works, upon the subject of fluxions; but the direct answers to the Analyst were set forth by a person under the name of Philalethes Cantabrigiensis, but generally supposed to be Dr. Jurin, who published a piece, entituled, Geometry no friend to infidelity, 1734. To this the Bishop replied in A defence of freethinking in mathematics, 1735; which drew a second answer the same year from Philalethes, styled, The minute mathematician, or the freethinker no just thinker. And here the controversy ended.
But the Bishop, ever active and attentive to the public good, was continually sending forth something or other in 1735, the Querist; in 1736, A discourse addressed to magistrates, occasioned by the enormous licence and irreligion of the times; and many other things afterwards of a smaller kind. In 1744, came forth his celebrated and curious book, entituled, Siris; a chain of philosophical reflections and inquiries concerning the virtues of Tar Water: a work which, he has been heard to declare, cost him more time and pains than any other he had ever been engaged in. It underwent a second impression, with additions and emendations, in 1747; and was followed by "Farther Thoughts on Tar Water," in 1752. In July, the same year, he removed with his lady and family to Oxford, partly to superintend the education of a son, but chiefly to indulge the passion for learned retirement, which had ever strongly possessed him, and was one of his motives to form the Bermuda project. He would have resigned his bishoprick for a canonry or headship at Oxford; but it was not permitted him.. At Oxford he lived highly respected, and collected and printed the same year all his smaller pieces in octavo; but he did not live long; for, on Sun
day evening, Jan. 14, 1753, as he was in the midst of his family, listening to a sermon which his lady was reading to him, he was seized with what was called a palsey in the heart, and instantly expired. The accident was so sudden, that his body was cold, and his joints stiff, before it was discovered; as he lay upon a couch, and seemed to be asleep, till his daughter, on presenting him with a dish of tea, first perceived his insensibility. His remains were interred at Christ church, Oxford, and there is an elegant mar ble monument over him, with an inscription by Dr. Markham, then dean.
As to his person, he was handsome, with a countenance full of meaning and kindness, remarkable for great strength of limbs; and, till his sedentary life impaired it, of a very robust constitution. He was, however, often troubled with the hypochondria, and latterly with a nervous colic, from which however he was greatly reliev ed by the virtues of tar-water. At Cloyne he constantly rose between three and four o'clock in the morning, and summoned his family to a lesson on the base viol, from an Italian master he kept in the house for the instruction of his children; though he himself had no ear for music. He spent the rest of the morning, and often a great part of the day, in study; and Plato, from whom many of his notions were borrowed, was his favourite author. The excellence of his moral character is conspicuous in his writings: he was certainly a very amiable as well as very great man; and Pope is scarcely thought to have said too much, when he ascribes
To Berkeley every virtue under heaven.
General Introduction to the FAMILY
BIBLE now publishing in this city by T. & J. Swords. (Continued from p. 275, and concluded.) The passages in brackets are added to this edition.
In the conference held at Hampton Court, in 1603, before King James the First, between the Episcopalians and Puritans, Dr. Reynolds, the speaker of the Puritans, requested his Majesty that a new translation of the