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The Religious World

In the death of the Rev. Alonzo H. Quint, D.D., Dr. A. H. Quint which occurred suddenly November 4, of heart disease, in the Congregational House in Boston, the Congregational churches in the United States have lost one of their most conspicuous leaders. Dr. Quint was born in 1828, and graduated at Dartmouth College and Andover Theological Seminary. He had occupied several positions of distinguished responsibility, having been Secretary of the Massachusetts General Association and of the National Council of Congregational Churches of the United States. At the National Council at Minneapolis he was elected Moderator, which office he held for three years. He was a corporate member of the American Board and one of the Visitors of Andover Theological Seminary. During the war he served as Chaplain in the Second Massachusetts Infantry. For three years he was a member of the State Legislature of Massachusetts. At one time he was editor and proprietor of the "Congregational Quarterly," and for many years was a prominent contributor to denominational papers. His last pastorate was in the North Church of New Bedford, Mass. For several years he had been in infirm health, but that had not prevented his presence at public gatherings and his co-operation in many forms of good work. He was one of the ablest debaters in the Congregational body, a skillful administrator in ecclesiastical affairs, a wise counselor in all perplexities, a genial companion and a faithful friend. He leaves a large place which it will be difficult to fill. The Boston Herald" well characterizes his service to the churches and the community in two sentences: "He had an eminently legal mind, and was the ecclesiastical lawyer of the denomination. He came to be in his last years the almost constant referee in ecclesiastical matters, and his judgment had more weight than that of any other man, when opinions were sought that make for peace."

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The Jubilee of Dr. Storrs

Few events in recent years have excited more general interest in church circles in the vicinity of New York than the celebration of the Golden Jubilee of Dr. Richard S. Storrs, pastor of the Church of the Pilgrims, Brooklyn. For fifty years in his own unique way he has carried on the work of that great church. The event is to be observed by various services. On Sunday morning, November 15, the anniversary sermon will be delivered by Dr. Storrs, and in the evening there will be an appropriate Praise Service. On the following evening the Manhattan Association of Congregational Ministers will give him a dinner, and present him with a lovingcup. On Tuesday the Hamilton Club of Brooklyn will give a dinner, and Thursday will be a day of general reception and festivity at the church. The following Sunday will be devoted to the interests of the Sunday-school and the mission of the church. On Monday, the 23d, Dr. Storrs will be the guest of the Congregational Club of Brooklyn, and on Tuesday, the 24th, there will be a popular gathering at the Academy of Music in that city, at which addresses will be delivered by prominent and well-known citizens of Brooklyn. Dr. Storrs has earned the splendid recognition which will be tendered to him. Few men in these days enjoy so long a ministry, and few men have behind them such a record. It is fitting that the city of which he has so long been an honored citizen should thus do him honor, and that the churches of which he has so long been an eminent leader should express to him their appreciation of the service which he has rendered.

Coming Meetings

The Brotherhood of Andrew and Philip is one of the many organizations established within the Church for the doing of Christian work. It is found in sixteen denominations in the United States. It has some of the features of a college fraternity, and some of the Young Men's Christian Association, with others peculiar to itself. "It is built on the plan of the United States Government in its relation to the several States. Each denomination, when large enough, looks after its own work. The Federal Council, representing these denominations, directs the whole." The Convention of the various chapters in the Reformed Church will be held beginning November 19 in the First Reformed Church of Brooklyn. It will bring together many ministers and delegates from various States. Among the speakers we notice the names of the Rev. Drs. J. T. Duryea, J. T. Good, C. C. Hall, and others equally prominent. The third annual meeting of the American Congress of Liberal Religious Societies will be held in Plymouth Church, Indianapolis, November 17-19. This claims to be an outgrowth of the Parliament of Religions, and is an effort to unite the liberal members of the various denominations in those forms of service which they have in common. The annual sermon will be preached by the Rev. P. S. Moxom, D.D., of Springfield, entitled "The Message to the Churchless," and addresses will be delivered by Dr. H. W.

Thomas, of Chicago, President of the Congress, Rabbi Gries, of Cleveland, Dr. Rexford, of Columbus, E. P. Powell, of Clinton, Dr. Paul Carus, of Chicago, and Edwin D. Mead, of Boston. Any society numbering twenty-five or more members having contributed to the treasury of the Congress a sum not less than $10 within one year will be entitled to one delegate, with a delegate for every additional twentyfive members up to one hundred, and to three general delegates for every one hundred members of such society.

Jubilee of Dr. Maclaren

Dr. Alexander Maclaren, of Manchester, England, belongs to the whole Christian world. Few, if any, would be inclined to dispute the statement of Dr. Parker that no greater preacher of the Gospel of Christ is now living. He is known in many lands in which he has never been heard, for his are among the few sermons that have a literary quality so fine that they lose little if any of their power when they are read. Dr. Maclaren's church is the Union Chapel, Manchester. There he has ministered for thirty-eight years. Before that he had been in the ministry twelve years. The celebration of his jubilee was, as it were, forced upon him. Ministers of different denominations spoke, expressing their gratitude for the work which he had done and for the joy of his fellowship. In responding, Dr. Maclaren said that he might be pardoned if he hardly recognized himself in the person who had been described in the addresses. He said that he thanked God that his thirty-eight years of service in that one church had run on without a single ruffle of any kind; and that, he declared, was not because he had not been faithful in his ministry. He recognized his many defects, the most conspicuous, perhaps, of which was that he had been a man of the study and had spent his time in learning how to teach the Word of God rather than in moving among his congregation. The truth was, he said, that his sphere did not lie in pastoral work. He had tried to make his pulpit the source of his labors, and he had tried to make the Bible that lay on it the source of his inspiration. He said that he had been longer in continuous service than any other minister in Manchester, with one exception, and he had found that the minister's influence increased in what he might term a geometrical ratio with the length of his pastorHe said that he had kept a register of his sermons since he began his ministerial course, and found that his last numbered 6,346, and he hoped he might live until the number had reached 7,000. He felt, however, that he had reached the age in which he must be allowed to ask some latitude in regard to his work. American Christians join their English brethren in extending congratulations to Dr. Maclaren. We feel that he belongs to us quite as much as to Great Britain, and to the whole Church of Christ quite as much as to the Baptist denomination. His ministry has been a long and fruitful one. The celebration of his jubilee, coming so near to that of Dr. Richard S. Storrs, adds especial emphasis to the value of long pastorates.

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A New Theological Professor

The Rev. Olin A. Curtis, D.D., was inaugurated as Professor of Systematic Theology in Drew Theological Seminary on Thursday, October 15. Professor Curtis chose as the subject of his address "The Theological Situation and How to Meet It." He said that for several years he had put to himself this question: What is the most significant feature of our modern life in its bearing upon the Christian faith? He replied that, after much trying and testing, he had reached this answer: "The failing sense of personal responsibility for character." This failing sense, he said, had come about in a subtle atmosphere which is both utilitarian and materialistic. These materialistic tendencies culminate in a profound pessimism. He says: "I am convinced that the increasing indifference of the average workingman to the Christian Church is more vague and deep than any mental antagonism to Christian theology. Below all his opinion the man is almost out of hope." When he turns from the ethical to the Christian situation Professor Curtis finds this "chain" "There can be no sense of sin where there is no sense of God's holiness; there can be no sense of holiness where, after wrong-doing, there is no ethical self-blame; and there can be no ethical self-blame where there is no sense of personal responsibility for character." Professor Curtis thinks that to-day there is almost no sense of sin. He finds in the theological situation a significant movement which has been called "The New Rationalism," and which has four characteristics. First: A change of emphasis from the Deity of Christ to the personal worth of Christ. Second: A change of emphasis from the death of Christ to the teaching of Christ. Third: A change of emphasis from the supernatural to the natural. Fourth: A change of emphasis from the authority of the Bible to the authority of the Christian consciousness. To the question, How this situation should be met by the Church and Christian teachers? he replies: First, we should be more than partisans; second, we should be patient with men, give them time, and trust them; third, we should be generous toward our opponents; fourth, we should be progressive, eager to

keep up with God himself; fifth, we should be awake for signs of hope; sixth, we should expect to find our Lord 'n the theological situation, even though it seriously perplexes us. The speaker then said that the Christian Church can allow no change of emphasis as to the Deity of Christ, or as to the death of Christ, or as to the supernatural, or as to the authority of the Bible. The substance of the address may be perhaps stated in the following quotation: "Tersely to state the matter, what we need is a revival of the sense of personal obligation and responsibility. The sudden and thorough way to get this revival would be for the Almighty himself to plow up the whole situation with the powers of Pentecost; but my aim in this address is to show what we can do ourselves."

The installation service of the Rev. Henry A. Stimson, D.D., as pastor of the new Manhattan Congregational Church in New York, took place on Monday, November 9. The Council convened at four o'clock in the afternoon. An Address of Welcome was delivered by the Rev. H. E. Cobb, D.D., of the Collegiate Reformed Church; an Address of Fellowship by the Rev. Richard S. Storrs, D.D., of Brooklyn; the Charge to the Pastor by the Rev. A. J. F. Behrends, D.D., of Brooklyn; the Right Hand of Fellowship by the Rev. Lyman Abbott, D.D., of Brooklyn; and the Address to the People by the Rev. R. R. Meredith, D.D., of Brooklyn. This new church seems to be now thoroughly well equipped for its work. It numbers among its members many men of great ability and experience. Perhaps the most prominent feature of the new church will be the Sunday-school, which will be under the direction of President Hervey, of the Teachers' College, and which will be graded as carefully as a day-school and on the same general principles. The first assistant of President Hervey will be Mr. Pettyman, Principal of the Horace Mann School. It required courage and consecration for Dr. Stimson to undertake to start this church, but everything now indicates that the time for its organization had come, and that a great work is waiting for it to do.

The Installation of Dr. Stimson

Universalist Missions

Sunday, November 8, was observed in the Universalist churches as " Japan Day" by offerings in support of their mission in that country. Formerly, the Universalist churches were often accused of indifference toward the duty of propagating the Gospel in nonChristian lands. Ten years ago this work was seriously resolved upon, and in 1890 was begun with $60,000 in hand, which had been collected for the purpose during a few years immediately preceding. An additional sum of $7,500 has been collected since, but the new year will find the treasury empty. Therefore the present call is made for not less than $10,000. At present the Universalist churches have in Japan four missionaries from this country and nine native teachers. Several churches have been organized, and about two hundred members gathered. A theological seminary in Tokio, two schools for girls, a considerable amount of literature, and a number of openings for further advance, make up a creditable record for the short time the mission has been in operation.

The Ordination of Mr. Raymond Calkins

The ordination of Mr. Raymond Calkins to the Christian ministry in the First Church of Christ in Pittsfield, October 19, was noteworthy because it illustrates the fact that the position of assistant minister is coming to be recognized as one worthy of the best gifts of a Christian man. Mr. Calkins is a graduate of Harvard, has been a professor of modern languages in Iowa, has studied abroad, has been an instructor in German at Harvard, and has had exceptional opportunities for various lines of study. It is said that Harvard University would have been glad to retain him for service there. A similar case is that of the Rev. H. B. Washburn, who, after graduating at Harvard and at the Cambridge Theological School (Episcopal), and spending two winters in study at Berlin and Oxford, has taken an assistant's place in Providence. The position of assistant minister offers noble opportunities for service. It is more than a subordinate's place. Whether the assistant is the preacher, the organizer of the work, or the one who does pastoral service, is of little importance. It ought to be and may be quite as honorable and dignified a position as that occupied by the leader in the work, and may well be coveted, not simply for a year or two, but for many years, by those beginning their ministry, or by those not desiring or not adapted for the responsibilities of leadership.

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face of what he regards as the great heresies of the present time. The article is largely devoted to observations concerning the influence of Ritschlianism, which he declares to be the most formidable enemy of sound doctrine in Germany. He describes it as a kind of rationalism, and yet with something large and noble in its ruling ideas. "It is its merits that make it dangerous." Ritschl he describes as an exceedingly engaging teacher of young men, and one who exerted a remarkable influence over other professors younger than himself. He says that Ritschlian preachers take little interest in Christian doctrine, and that just now they are preaching politics. Ritschlianism in Germany reminds Professor Johnson of Unitarianism in America. He acknowledges that from both those forms of faith he, and those who think like him, must be willing to learn much. In the face, however, of its errors, he believes that German Baptists are setting up the strongest bulwark for sound doctrine when they preach to the German people"Ye must be born again." He says that when the Unitarian defection occurred in this country, the Baptists of Boston stood firm for the old faith; and his inference evidently is that the Baptists of Germany, by their influence and their direct teachings, may be depended upon to stem the rising tide of Ritschlianism.

The Presbyterians of PhiladelA New Presbyterian Building phia dedicated on Saturday, October 24, for the uses of the Presbyterian Church, a magnificent building which is to be known as The Witherspoon. It extends from Walnut to Sansom Street, on the west side of Juniper Street. It will be ten stories high, and will contain publication offices of the Board, large and small halls, and various offices and apartments of other kinds. The exercises at the opening included a historical address by Judge Robert N. Wilson, President of the Board, and other addresses by Jerre Witherspoon, D.D., of Baltimore, and B. L. Agnew, D.D., of Philadelphia. Other men eminent in the Church took part in the service. This building, with the Presbyterian building in New York, will give to the denomination probably the finest buildings of any denomination in the United States.

Unfermented Wines at the Sacrament

Another indication of the widespread temperance sentiment in the churches is found in the fact that so large a number now use unfermented wine at the sacrament of the Lord's Supper. Probably a majority of the American churches have discarded fermented wine. The following figures, which we quote from an exchange, concerning the use of unfermented wine at the Lord's Supper, are suggestive of the general sentiment. In Scotland already 630 churches, representing various denominations, are known to have adopted this customamong them 147 of the Free churches and 144 of the United Presbyterian churches; while almost all the Congregational, Evangelical, and Baptist congregations in the country use the unfermented wine. Many of the strongest Nonconformist churches in England have already given up the use of fermented wine. This is only one indication of the feeling in the Christian Church, but it shows very clearly the trend of that feeling. It might be added that some churches in England, as, for instance, Carr's Lane Chapel in Birmingham, use two kinds of wine-unfermented for abstainers and fermented for others. A blue ribbon on the cup indicates which is intended for the abstainers-who, by the way, are rapidly increasing in number, in that church at least.

Florence Medical Mission

The "Florence Medical Mission," of Florence, Italy, sends us a report of good work done during the past year. The Mission was open from November till the last of May, cases being treated as late as the last of June. It has a Sunday-school in session from November until June; a soup-kitchen carried on from the beginning of December to the middle of April; and during the summer months, from the last of June until after the first of September, it supports a " Home "at Viareggio. Last year the latter received 117 inmates-35 boys and lads and 82 girls and young women. The report shows an increase in the work of the Medical Mission; and it appears to be doing a good work in ministering to the souls as well as the bodies of the sick and suffering. Many have confessed their faith in Christ and united with a neighboring church. The director of the medical-surgical work, Dr. Paggi, who has been connected with the Mission eight years, has a scheme for a cottage hospital to be added to the present equipment. It is felt that that would prove, not only a great help to the medical and surgical department, but to the spiritual as well. The report describes many interesting cases which have received attention and help, and pays tributes to various faithful friends who have labored there during the past, some of whom are now leaving for other fields. This work is undenominational, and the majority of those helped are Roman Catholics. The report says: Our object is to proclaim Christ as the Saviour, the One Saviour needed by all, and ready to save all, whether preached in a Catholic country or a Protestant one."

Books and Authors

New Books

[The books mentioned under this head and under that of Books Received nclude all received by The Outlook during the week ending October 30. This weekly report of current literature will be supplemented by fuller reviews of the more important works.]

The Prophets of the Christian Faith (The Macmillan Company, New York) is a republication of the series of articles so entitled which recently appeared in The Outlook. The value of this series of articles consists in several elements. It attests and illustrates the continuity of the prophetic gift. The line of prophets which began with Moses did not end with Paul. The prophets were forth tellers rather than foretellers; and this forth telling, this speaking by the Spirit of God, this interpreting the divine consciousness within men to themselves, did not cease when the Church of God broke out beyond the boundaries of Palestine and overflowed Europe. In the second place, it emphasizes the reality and importance of prophetism, which is individ ual, in antithesis to institutionalism, in which the ecclesiastic has been too often inclined to think the whole history of the Church is comprised. The prophets, rather than the priests or the philosophers, have made the Church what it is, because they have inspired that life of which the Church is at once an exponent and a dwelling-place. In the third place, this series introduces to the readers of this volume, not merely the outer lives, but the spiritual experiences and the essential messages, of the great divine messengers, beginning with Isaiah and ending, so far as this book is concerned, with Bushnell and with Maurice, and these lives as interpreted by prophetic spirits in our own time. As a volume of religious biography, illuminating and quickening the faith of those who read it, it deserves and will have a high place.

Christian Ethics, by Thomas B. Strong, M.A. (Longmans, Green & Co., New York), contains the Bampton Lectures for 1895. The phrase "Christian Ethics" has sometimes been criticised, as has the phrase "Christian Sociology," on the ground that ethics and sociology are simply sciences and are to be wrought out in a purely scientific spirit and by the scientific method. Mr. Strong justifies the title to his volume by his claim that the Christian science of ethics is distinctly a new science; that the incarnation adds a new factor in human life and furnishes a new moral foundation. "The Christian theory of moral life is not merely a new formulation of the old experience; nor is it merely a restatement of the old truths with certain new virtues added, but it is a view of life based upon a radically different experience of facts." That fact is a new and divine life, a life of union with the Father, illustrated in the life of Christ, by which that union is made possible for all mankind. Out of this grow what the author calls the theological virtues-faith, hope, and love, which throw a new light upon the old problem of the end of life, and produce a profound effect upon the nature of man and upon his position both toward God and toward his fellow-man. It is in the working out of this new and Christian conception, as distinguished from the Pagan and the Jewish conceptions of ethics, that the value of this volume consists. It is thus not merely an interpretation of Christ's teachings, but an attempted scientific exposition of the new and divine life which spontaneously grows out of union with the Father in and through his Son.

An Introduction to the History of the Church of England from the Earliest Times to the Present Day, by Henry Offley Wakeman, M.A., of Oxford (The Macmillan Company, New York), traces in a single volume of five hundred pages the history of the Church in England, beginning with the planting of the Church in Britain about 200 A.D., and ending with the Oxford Movement and its results in the latter part of the present century. The volume appears to us to be written in a non-par isan and truly historic spirit, though from the point of view of an English Churchman. The author, in a note, argues at considerable length the validity of the English orders. He holds to the organization of the Church of Britain prior to papacy, though he does not make it clear that any present English episcopate has been derived except through the Roman episcopate-that is, through Augustine. His treatment of both the Puritans and the Methodists is fairminded. The book is not especially interesting in style, nor are the dramatic elements in the history vividly brought out.

The Age of the Great Western Schism, by Clinton Locke, D.D. (The Christian Literature Company, New York), and Europe in the Middle Age, by Oliver J. Thatcher, Ph.D., and Ferdinand Schwill, Ph.D., cover something of the same period of European history. The former volume deals, of course, wholly with the Christian Church and with European events in their bearing on the Christian Church. It treats of such characteristic events as the Advent of the Flagellants, the Battle between the Popes, Huss and the Council of Constance, John Wyclif, Tauler and the German Mystics. The second volume is in form, but perhaps not in fact, more of a compend. The object which it aims to serve is that of a serviceable text-book of the history of the Middle Age for the use of the freshman and sophomore classes in the American college. It is accompanied with ten useful maps, with chronological tables, and with a full index. A fuller table of contents would have added much to its value as a text-book.

God the Creator and Lord of All, by Samuel Harris, D.D., LL.D., Professor of Systematic Theology in Yale University-two volumes (Charles Scribner's Sons, New York)-contains, it is to be presumed (for the volumes contain no preface), the substance of Dr. Harris's theological lectures in Yale Theological Seminary. We must leave any estimate of this book for a future review.

Volume I. of The Life of Napoleon Bonaparte, by William M. Sloane, Ph.D., L.H.D., Professor of History in Princeton University, is laid on our table. The work is to be sold by subscription only. It

is a superb piece of book-making. The colored illustrations take rank among the very best which we have ever seen of color-printingThe thoroughness of Professor Sloane's studies and the conscientiousness of his work we may assume are so well known that these qualities need no indorsement from us. Of his point of view, and of his estimate of Napoleon and his life, character, and work, we shall have something to say hereafter. It must suffice here simply to note the publication of this work in permanent form, and to say, what is undoubtedly true, that it is an important contribution to Napoleonic literature. (The Century Company, New York.)

Few chapters of recent history are more fascinating than that which Mr. Charles Howard Shinn has told in The Story of the Mine,. as illustrated by the Great Comstock Lode of Nevada. (D. Appleton & Co., New York.) This is the latest addition to the very interesting Stories of the West Series, planned for the purpose of presenting significant phases and characteristic types in the evolution of the West. The first volume, on "The Story of the Indian," was an admirable piece work; of Mr. Shinn's account of the mine is not less. admirable. He has not aimed to give a complete history, but to select and describe typical mining development, a typical mining community, and typical mining character. The phase of social and industrial life which he describes is both interesting and picturesque. Mr. Shinn has drawn his picture skillfully and sympathetically; he knows the country and people at first hand, and his book bears the impress. of first-hand work.

Mr. James Schouler, the author of "A History of the United States under the Constitution," has published through Messrs. Dodd, Mead & Co., New York, a handsome volume entitled Historical Briefs. Half of the volume is occupied by these briefs, and half by biographical matter. The six papers on Historical Grouping, The Spirit of Research, Historical Industries, Historical Monographs, Historical Tes- · timony, and Historical Style are of great value, but may not prove more popularly interesting than those on Parkman, on Lafayette's Tour in 1824, on Monroe, and on Polk. As to connection with present and pressing problems, nevertheless, we have found the paper entitled Reform in Presidential Elections" of greatest help. After every recent Presidential election there has been an outcry for the reform of the manner of choosing our chief executive. While the present basis for the electoral proportion by the States has its merits,. yet there is much reason for Mr. Schouler's assertion that we should sweep away our superfluous Electoral College. The present intervention of the House of Representatives should be abolished, according to our author, trusting that a popular plurality shall elect.Another volume of American Orations has been issued by Messrs.. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York. These are studies in American political history, edited by Alexander Johnston, the late Professor of Jurisprudence and Political Economy at Princeton, and have now been re-edited by Professor James Albert Woodburn, of Indiana. University. These volumes contain selected specimens of eloquence upon such important epochs of our history as colonialism, constitutional government, the rise of democracy and that of nationality, the anti-slavery struggle, the Civil War, free trade and protection, finance, and civil service reform. The volume just issued con-tains orations by King, Pinkney, Phillips, Adams, Calhoun, Webster, Clay, and Sumner. Professor Johnston's introduction on the antislavery struggle is a capital piece of work, and Professor Woodburn's. historical and textual notes are very helpful.- -The latest addition to the Story of the Nations" series (G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York) has been written by the Hon. J. G. Bourinot, Clerk of the Canadian House of Commons. The Story of Canada has a peculiar value for Americans in the United States. For many years occurrences on either side of the St. Lawrence were occurrences in a common country, and even now such an event as the change of government from the control of one party to another has for us a significance which no change of government in any other part of the world could have. We are bound to Canada as to no other land, and, while the ultimate amalgamation of the two countries may be settled in the very dim future, yet we have now to a certain extent a commercial, political, and moral union which finds continual expression The Manitoba school question, for instance, could not have been settled as it was without the knowledge of the deep sympathy of the great Republic across the border with the struggling province. Hence it is that this history of Canada, so well written and so entirely "up to date," deserves a popular welcome.-Miss Elizabeth S. Kirkland's short histories of England and France have now received the addition of A Short History of Italy. (A. C. McClurg & Co., Chicago.) As Miss. Kirkland takes us over the entire period from the fall of Rome in 476 to the present time, we have in concise form a long-needed aperçu; not so short as Cantù's "Storia di Italia," and not having anything like the literary merit of the works of Symonds, "Vernon Lee," and others who have taken up special periods, this small volume well fulfills its author's attempt, and will perhaps be of greater popular value than a more ambitious work. All students of a nation's history need to have a general survey of the whole history before attending to particular portions, and it has hitherto been the misfortune of all students of the history of Italy that their attention has been, for the most part, fastened to one particular period on which they enjoyed a flood of light, but which left the other portions in proportionate darkness.

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The Harvard Historical Studies, published by Messrs. Longmans, Green & Co., New York, under the direction of the Department of History and Government of Harvard University, will comprise works of original research selected from the recent writings of teachers and graduate students in the University. Two volumes have just appeared. The first is The Suppression of the African Slave Trade, and is by Dr. W. E. Burghardt Du Bois, now a professor in Wilberforce University, Ohio. The author is a negro, and his monograph is an admirable piece of work. It is based upon the study of National, State, and

colonial statutes, Congressional documents, and reports of societies. We learn about the rise of the English slave trade, the planting of colonies, the character of the farming and of the trading colonies, slavery during the Revolution and during the Federal convention time. More interesting, however, are the chapters on Toussaint L'Ouverture and the anti-slavery effort from 1787 to the final crisis. The volume is admirably indexed, and there are various valuable appendices. The second of the Harvard Historical Studies is a description of The Contest over the Ratification of the Federal Constitution in the State of Massachusetts, and is by Mr. Samuel Bannister Harding. A right comprehension of the party struggles in National politics (by which the interpretation of our Constitution was fixed) cannot be attained except through a more thorough study of the internal political history of the States, and this, the author's aim, is exactly fulfilled by his book.

Mr. James Lewis Cowles is the author of what he calls a practical solution of the railroad problem. The book is entitled The General Freight and Passenger Post, and is published in the "Questions of the Day" series. (G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York.) Mr. Cowles's solution of the railroad problem rests upon the fundamental principles that railways are post-roads, and are, therefore, subject, both as to State and inter-State commerce, to the eighth section of Article I. of our Constitution; that railway-trains are post-wagons, and the post-office ⚫ can fulfill the object of its being only when these post-wagons are entirely subject to its jurisdiction; that the transportation of persons and property is as legitimate a function of the post-office as is the transportation of letters. There are other principles, but these are the main ones. -The Rev. Morgan N. Sheedy, the first President of the Catholic Summer School of America, has put forth a little volume entitled Social Problems. (D. H. Mc Bride & Co., Chicago.) The author divides his work into two parts, "The Church and the Wage-Earner" and "Socialism and Socialists." There is much helpfulness and suggestion in the volume.

Two of the recent numbers of The Portfolio have as their subjects "Richmond," by Dr. Richard Garnett, and "The Life of Velasquez," by Mr. Walter Armstrong. Dr. Garnett lays us under additional obligations by his carefully written monograph on artistic and historic Richmond, while Mr. Armstrong's contribution (which we are glad to see is to be made yet more important by a sketch of the art of Velasquez) is a strong and vigorous treatment of a strong and vigorous life. The reproductions of pictures from the great artist are admirable. Dr. Garnett's "Richmond" would make a charming little book, but Mr. Armstrong's "Life of Velasquez," supplemented by his promised essay on the art of the great Spaniard, should by all means be published as a book.—Recent numbers of The Magazine of Art (The Cassell Publishing Company, New York) have been remarkable for ..some admirable articles. The election of Mr. Poynter as President of the Royal Academy gives us a special interest in the series of articles on the Academy, a series accompanied by capital illustrations. The articles entitled " Sir Edward Burne-Jones," "Lord Leighton," "Sir John Millais," and "Applied Art in East London " are equally timely and interesting.

Mr. John Owen has made a substantial contribution to literary study, from the interpretative side, in his examination of the Five Great Skeptical Dramas of History. (G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York.) Mr. Owen, it will be remembered, is the author of a volume on "The Skeptics of the Italian Renaissance," and another on "The Skeptics of the French Renaissance." In this volume he analyzes from his own point of view "Prometheus Bound," the Book of Job, "Hamlet," "Faust," and Calderon's "The Wonder-Working Magician." These plays, in the interpretation of Mr. Owen, each and all typify humanity in its great struggle against the powers of the universe. The volume is suggestive and will have fuller treatment.

It was a happy hour for his readers when Mr. Howells turned, as he has done so often of late, in an autobiographical direction. The latest collection of his short papers, Impressions and Experiences, is in some chapters a series of reports of his own life, and in all chapters of things he has seen or of experiences in which he has shared. The chapter on "The Country Printer" gives an account of his own childhood; "The Tribulations of a Cheerful Giver" is a capital illustration of Mr. Howells's delightful humor; while "Glimpses of Central Park and New York Streets" afford him ample scope for his charming descriptive faculty. (Harper & Brothers, New York.)

A great many volumes now stand to the credit of Miss Sarah Orne Jewett, but she has neither exhausted the interest of her material nor the freshness of her feeling. No writer has held more conscientiously to her own line of work, or has kept her own standards, or has sustained the high level of workmanship more steadily, than Miss Jewett. Her latest volume, The Country of the Pointed Firs, does not take one into a new field, but it is full of the close observation, the sympathetic feeling, the delicate humor, and the general veracity which characterized all its predecessors. (Houghton, Mifflin & Co., Boston.)

The Letters of Victor Hugo to his family, to Sainte-Beuve, and to others, edited by Paul Meurice, have been issued in a single substantial volume by Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin & Co., and are likely to add materially to what may be called the Hugo literature; that is to say, they throw light on the turning-points and the motives in the career of one of the most striking figures in modern literary history. The letters cover the period from 1815 to 1845.

Few volumes of the season have surpassed in quiet charm E. Boyd Smith's account of the little village of Valombre. Under the title My Village Mr. Smith gives a picture of the French peasant and provincial life, full of color, keen characterization, and nice study of manners, customs, and men. The volume is illustrated, humorously and sympathetically, with a series of pen pictures. (Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.)-A very dainty book in the attractive Arcady Library is Mr. John Buchan's Scholar Gipsies-a volume of out-ofdoor studies which find their landscape mainly in the upper valley of the

Tweed, and which combine pictures of nature, glimpses of character, bits of sentiment, touches of criticism, a little moralizing, and a good deal of sympathetic description. This volume is handsomely made, in a quiet way, and contains a number of illustrations. (The Macmillan Company, New York.)

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There is an element in human nature which makes most of us enjoy reading of the deeds of clever rascals. Lately Twelve Bad Men had a popular success; now we have A Book of Scoundrels, by Charles Whibley. Jonathan Wild, Sixteen-string Jack, Jack Sheppard, Cartouche, Deacon Brodie (already celebrated by Mr. Stevenson), and many less known rascals are discussed. The author, in his introduction, inquires curiously into the qualities constituting a great scoundrel, in the ironical vein which Fielding and Thackeray used so skillfully on this same topic. (The Macmillan Company, New York.)

Mrs. Elizabeth Stuart Phelps Ward has published through Houghton, Mifflin & Co. (Boston) a delightful book of reminiscences entitled Chapters of a Life, to which we shall refer later. Other books for later notice will be: Mr. Gilbert Totten Woglom's Parakites, a treatise on the making and flying of tailless kites (G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York); Mr. Eben J. Loomis's An Eclipse Party in Africa (Roberts Brothers, Boston); and Lawns and Gardens, by N. JönssonRose (G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York).

Mr. E. F. Benson, the author of "Dodo," has written a novel called Limitations, which is much less rowdyish than his first book. There is much more talk than plot, and the occasional touches of wit are not frequent enough to enliven the mass. (Harper & Brothers, New York.) Captain Marryat's The King's Own was one of his first novels, and he was quick to admit its great faults of construction. It has, however, many amusing passages. It is now added to the edition of Marryat's novels published by Macmillan & Co. (New York). Green Fire, by Fiona Macleod, is a story of Brittany and of the Hebrides, with a background of mysticism and superstition; in style it is too rhetorical and exclamatory. (Harper & Brothers, New York.)The Final War, by Louis Tracy, forecasts the much-feared general European war of the future. America also is involved. The end is universal peace, and the lesson is, Why not have the peace without the war? In its details the book is fertile in invention and in part plausible. (G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York.)

The Wheels of Chance, by Mr. H. G. Wells, the author of "The Time Machine" (Macmillan & Co., New York), is a piquant story, with some of the satire which characterizes Mr. Wells's other volumes. There is not a little vigorous philosophy in this tale.-A Fearless Investigator (A. C. McClurg & Co., Chicago) is a brightly told tale from an anonymous author. It is full of sharp " Bostonisms," and the development of Spiritualism plays a leading part in the book.The Epistolary Flirt is a conversational drama "in four exposures," by Emerie Amory. (Way & Williams, Chicago.) The persons of the piece consist of a woman who writes verses, a man who writes verse, and a man who writes poetry. The conversation is often clever, but the whole affair seems too "rapid."

A Rebellious Heroine, by John Kendrick Bangs, is the story of a realistic novelist who is conquered by his heroine and falls in love with her. The situations are often amusing. The wonder is that any man should love so rude a heroine.Robert Urquhart, by Gabriel Setoun (R. F. Fenno & Co., New York), is a Scotch story possessing a certain degree of strength. Courageous indeed is the writer to-day who brings his work in contrast with that of Ian Maclaren, Crockett, and J. M. Barrie. Comparison between these masters and the lesser lights there cannot be.

The season is prolific in readable boys' books. The late Colonel Thomas W. Knox, just before his final illness, wrote The Land of the Kangaroo. Colonel Knox knew Australia well, and through the imaginary adventures of two boys he gives much information about the animal life, physical features, oddities of nature, and social and political history of the island continent. (W. A. Wilde & Co., Boston.)- -The same publishers send us Ellen D. Deland's Malvern, a "neighborhood story" full of love of children and wisdom in their ways; Above the Range, a Western story for girls, with glimpses of Indian child life, by Theodora R. Jenness; and A Medal of Honor Man, by Charles Ledyard Norton, a patriotic story forming one of the "Fighting for the Flag" series.- -Mr. Frank R. Stockton, in his Captain Chap, tells of a party of boys who, starting for a short sail in Pennsylvania, meet one mishap after another, bring up with their boat (well named The Rolling Stone) in Florida, and there have adventures galore. (The J. B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia.)-George Manville Fenn is among the best of English writers of boys' stories; The Black Tor, a tale of the times of James I., will please its sought-for audience. It abounds in fighting. (Same publishers.). -Mayne Reid never wrote a better boys' book than The Young Voyageurs; it deserved reprinting. (G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York.). -The same firm sends us The Long Walls, a tale of treasure-seeking by an American boy in Greece. The authors are Elbridge S. Brooks and John Alden.A series of Historical Tales tells simply and well the "romance of reality." Mr. Charles Morris is the author. Rome and Greece are treated in separate volumes. There are many good pictures. (G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York.)-We have in former years spoken with warm commendation of Mrs. Sarah G. Morrison's "Chilhowee Boys" books as free from sensational effect and wholesome in all ways. These lads now leave their mountain home for a Tennessee college, and the history of Chilhowee Boys at College and on the journeys to and fro is well worth reading. (T. Y. Crowell & Co., New York.)

Mr. William D. Moffat has published, through Messrs. Arnold & Co., Philadelphia, Not Without Honor. This is the story of a boy who goes to New York and engages in newspaper work. There is a commendable avoidance of sensationalism.Messrs. Walter Camp and Lorin F. Deland have put forth an exhaustive treatise on Football. (Houghton, Mifflin & Co., Boston.) The main object of this book is to prove that brains will always win over muscle, and to that end the

authors give us not only the history of football and an explanation of the game as now played, but also the method of organizing a team, of training a team without a second eleven, the explanation of individual positions and their relationships, of blocking, of breaking through, of opening holes in the line, of interfering for the runner, of kicking, of team-play, and of the general system of coaching. Most of our readers will believe with the authors that the great popularity of football is not without its reasonable warrant, and that it calls out not only bravery, obedience, and self-control, but also perception, discrimination, and judgment.

Famous Givers and Their Gifts, by Sarah K. Bolton (T. Y. Crowell & Co., New York), is a collection of sketches of men and women who have contributed from their wealth to support educational institutions. The book is illustrated by portraits of many of the givers. The same publishers have just issued an exquisitely bound collection of Household Stories, by the brothers Grimm, translated by Lucy Crane, with illustrations by Walter Crane. The book will be a most welcome gift to the child who has imagination. It would be a stupid child indeed who would not yield thought and time to these wizards. The translations are well done.-Ginn & Co., New York, have added Autumn, Part I., to the series of "All the Year Round" readers. A short and valuable essay on methods of teaching in the St. Paul's schools, by the author of the series, Frances L. Strong, is the preface of the book. These books, more than reading-books, are intended to develop all the faculties of the child.

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Some one has said of Bret Harte's heroes that they are always men's men. This is true. Yet he sometimes creates a hero who is also a woman's hero, as, for instance, Barker, in Barker's Luck and Other Stories. (Houghton, Mifflin & Co., Boston.) "A Yellow Dog' is raised in the scale of development and becomes human, while the "Mother of Five " is worthy the pen of Kate Douglas Wiggin, whose Marm Lisa is published by the same house. 'Marm Lisa" leaves the reader enveloped in a mist of happy doubt as to whether "Marm Lisa" found her earthly heaven in a kindergarten or a settlement, or whether there exists somewhere that happy combination of the two that would make paradise anywhere. "Marm Lisa" inspires the reader with new hope. The redemption of the world in the flesh is possible, and will be accomplished soon. Mrs. Grubb is a fine piece of character-drawing; she is the new woman from a new social standpoint. Does Mrs. Wiggin try to make all her readers comprehend the truth that some have grasped, that there are men who possess the divine gift of the "eternally womanly" "-men who have the instinct that mothers the world? The prayer of Mistress Mary should be the possession of every kindergartner and of every woman. We wish there had been no fire, and are sorry that Mistress Mary wears that glittering steel band in her hair. The book is one that leaves the reader more hopeful, and with more faith in the world of men and women.

-Among the most entertaining of the children's stories this year is The Court of King Arthur, stories from the land of the Round Table, by William Henry Frost. (Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.) The stories are told from the point of view of a little girl traveling over the lands of King Arthur with him and his court.

This is a mother's age as well as the age for children. The almost daily appearance of books that have for their object the purpose of training mothers is proof of the hold that maternity has on the world at this close of the nineteenth century. Seed-Thoughts for Mothers contains selections from the writings of leading educators, arranged for daily readings. The editor is Mrs. Minnie A. Paull. (Thomas Y. Crowell & Co., New York.)

Mrs. William Starr Dana has just written a delightful book for the children who love plants and flowers, and the children who should be taught to love them. Every admirer of "How to Know the Wild Flowers" will welcome Plants and Their Children. (American Book Company, New York.)

Books sometimes make as positive impression by their appearance as do people. It is this that makes book-making so important to authors. The Joy of Life, by Emma Wolf (A. C. McClurg & Co., Chicago), as it lies on the desk, gives the impression that it is a collection of every-day spiritual receipts. Instead, it is a strong dramatic story, having for its heroes-for there are two-two brothers. One is the embodiment of duty-every other sense, emotion, and desire schooled to the point of obliteration save this; the other, a loving dreamer of high purpose, having a love of mankind, a tenderness for all things human, for all things having life. There are also three girls in the story-one shadowy, one strong and inspiring, and one who keeps the usual average of womanly character, and who is seemingly used as a measurement for the others. The story is one that leaves a deep impression on the reader. The title is a poor one for the story, and the dress emphasizes this mistake.

The Rev. J. A. Davis, a missionary to China, has written The Young Mandarin, a story of Chinese life. (Congregational Sunday-School and Publishing Society, Boston.) The author says in the preface that the story is not all fact nor all fiction. It is a realist's description of life in Amoy.

Every lover of nature is indebted to Florence A. Merriam for her delightful book, A-Birding on a Bronco. (Houghton, Mifflin & Co., Boston.) The reader goes over the prairies, through the hedges and woods, with this writer. There is evinced a rare sympathy with bird life that gains revelations of these shy creatures, of their home ways. Many lovers of birds could travel over the same ground, through the same paths, but "having eyes they see not," and need this book to discover the beauty, the instinct of love that dominates these feathered creatures to whom the promise of remembrance is given.

Mr. C. E. D. Phelps is the author of a small book of verses entitled Echoes from the Mountain. (G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York.) The matter of these verses is better than their manner.

Miss Florence P. Holden's practical suggestions to those who look and listen, published under the title Audiences (A. C. McClurg & Co.,

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"The Academy" is about passing to a new editor, Mr. Lewis Hind, lately editor of the Pall Mall Gazette," who will, it is supposed, introduce some of the features of that publication into the staid old "Academy."

-Philip Gilbert Hamerton, at the time of his death, had completed his autobiography up to his twenty-fifth year, when he was married. The narrative has been continued from that time by his widow, and will be published soon.

-A volume of travels, written by a private secretary, but recording the impressions made upon the Czar of Russia while traveling through Egypt and India, has just been published in London. Hundreds of illustrations are scattered through the two volumes already published.

-Mr. Henry Hoyt Moore's careful and interesting study of "Utopias Ideal Social Systems, Ancient and Modern," has been published in pamphlet form by the Brooklyn Ethical Association. Mr. Moore has not only described the various Utopias, but has criticised them very intelligently from the evolutionary standpoint,

-Mr. C. L. Shadwell, of Oriel College, Oxford, has prepared for the press an unfinished romance, by the late Walter Pater, entitled "Gaston de Latour." The scene is laid in France, at the period of the massacre of St. Bartholomew, and the central figure is drawn upon lines corresponding to " Marius the Epicurean."

-We read that when Mr. Richard Harding Davis met Li Hung Chang at St. Petersburg and was asked by the venerable statesman the customary questions-namely, as to how old and how rich he was and what he did—he replied, “I write books." "Why do you write ?” asked Li; "are you not strong enough to work?"

-The volume commemorative of William Morris will be an elaborate survey of his labors as "an industrial and decorative artist, preserver (as distinguished from restorer') of ancient monuments, and general worker in the aesthetic movement of the day." Mr. Aymer Vallance, a disciple of Morris's, is the author of the book.

-The late M. Challemel-Lacour, ex-President of the French Senate, was a well-known contributor to the "Temps," the "Revue des Deux Mondes," the "Revue Nationale," and the "Revue Politique," writing on literature, art, politics, and philosophy.. In 1893 he was elected a member of the French Academy as the successor of Ernest Renan.

-That sterling old publication, the "Bibliothèque Universelle," recently reached the hundredth year of its existence. The centenary celebration lasted three days. It began at Geneva, where the "Bibliothèque was published for seventy years, and where it has still its Biblio archives. The celebration concluded at Lausanne, the " thèque's" present home.

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-Not long before his death William Morris said to a friend, "I have enjoyed my life-few men more so." When he was talked to concerning the peril of such a life of intellectual tension as his, he laughed at the talker. "Look at Gladstone," he would say; "look at those wise owls, your chancellors and your judges. Don't they live all the longer for work? It is rust that kills men, not work."

-Mr. Henry Osborn Taylor's new book, entitled "Ancient Ideals: A Study of Intellectual and Spiritual Growth, from Early Times to the Establishment of Christianity," will shortly be published. The work is an attempt to treat human development from the standpoint of the ideals of the different races as these ideals disclose themselves in the art and literature, in the philosophy and religion, and in the conduct and political fortunes of each race.

-Mr. Harold Frederic informs us that "vast editions are becoming more and more the rule as the area of England's new novel-reading class expands. Unwin throws 35,000 copies of Crockett's 'Gray Man' into the market in a lump, and Skeffington got 36,000 of Marie Corelli's ridiculous Murder of Delicia' subscribed in advance of publication. By combining English and American subscriptions we get, too, a first edition of 45,000 for Ian Maclaren's Kate Carnegie.'"

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-"Will it not a little astonish Americans," says the Chicago" Times-Herald," "to know that Liverpool--hard, prosaic, commercial Liverpool-enjoys the reputation of giving to art and letters more modern notables than any other town in the United Kingdom? And that, too, in face of the fact that there is very little local appreciation of literary genius! Among the brainy and gifted Liverpudlians are Mr. Gladstone, William Watson and Richard Le Gallienne, the poets,. Hall Caine, Sir Edward Burne-Jones, Hugh Arthur Clough, William Edwards Tirebuck, James Ashcroft Noble, and others."

[For list of Books Received see page 878]

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