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The Home Club

Some Ways of Amusing Children While purely philanthropic basis are, many of them,

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Traveling

By Neda S. Thornton

Nearly every one who has taken a long and tedicus journey has been pained at watching the futile attempts of tired and worn-out mothers to amuse their equally tired and worn-out chil

realizing that the kindergarten is the first step in education. True, there was recently offered by a church in New York City the sum of twenty dollars a month to a trained kindergartner to conduct two sessions a day without an assistant. The pastor's assistant who made more than that to amuse children that length of time."

dren. We all remember sweet, tactful people this munificent offer said, “It is not worth

who at such times have been able to divert and interest these little ones, to the rest and comfort of the mothers and to the delight of the little ones themselves.

Finding it necessary to take a three days' trip with my own little son, not two years old

and a most active, restless fellow-I fell to thinking how I could make the journey endurable both for him and myself. The results of my effort were so satisfactory that I have ventured to give them to The Outlook's readers. First, on the outside of my traveling-bag were strapped what I knew to be perfectly irresistible to any child, viz., a few new picturebooks. In selecting, I got the best-not necessarily the most expensive, however, but such as are approved by the followers of Froebel

and Pestalozzi.

Inside my bag, besides pencil and paper for drawing cars, steamboats, and other objects, I put a good-sized bag of animal crackers and a paper of small pins-for in previous moments of meditation on this all-absorbing question it occurred to me that although one animal cracker would not stand alone, two of a kind, placed side by side, with a pin through the bodies, would stand upright. The car window-sill, upon which they were placed, was very soon turned into a Zoo, not only to the delight of my own little son himself, but also to the amusement of several other children who sat near by.

Also, in anticipation of our journey, I had cut from papers and magazines verses, especially of the descriptive kind, telling of cats that "meow" and dogs that "bow wow." These, being read in a dramatic and expressive tone, were fully appreciated.

Along with the picture-books was strapped an illustrated catalogue of a large retail firm in New York. The pictures of the most attractive boys and girls in the catalogue were cut out and pinned to the cushioned back of the seat in front of us. The clocks, chairs, and other articles of furniture were also cut out, with strips of paper left on to serve as "props."

So absorbed was the little fellow in all these diversions that he did not even notice the inevitable candy and popcorn vender who appeared frequently and succeeded in tempting the other little people with cheap and health-destroying sweets.

And so I found that, by a little planning and forethought before the journey, and by the employment of a little tact while on the way, a much-dreaded trip was made an event to look back upon with pleasure.

The Required Foundation Many graduates of institutions of learning, as well as those who are not graduates, will enter kindergarten training schools this coming autumn. In New York State a law goes into force January 1, 1897, which is very important to all who intend to prepare for special departments of education and to teach under

the control of the State or the local educational authorities. Superintendent Skinner has sent notices to all the local authorities of

the passage of this law, which provides that no appointments shall be made in any public school unless the applicant shall have graduated from a high school or institution of equal or higher rank having a course equal to that of a high school, and such school must have the approval of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, if in the State of New York. A certificate to teach cannot be granted in the public schools of New York State except to those who meet this standard. The best kindergarten training schools require equal, and some higher, standards from the entering pupils than those stated. The kindergarten associations are raising their standards, and those maintaining kindergartens on a

The kindergarten is not the only profession that has suffered because of the gross ignorance of good people. Stenography and typewriting are the victims of misapplied philanthropy. Hundreds of ignorant girls have been encouraged to take lessons in these two fields who had no elementary training. It is positively wicked to give lessons in stenography or typewriting unless the pupil has passed a certain standard examination agreed upon by the managers of the Y. M. C. A. and the Y. W. C. A. Anything that gives a worker

a false estimate of his value is fatal to his best interests. The man or woman who in

ignorance provides means for education in any field is a menace to progress, for the progress of mankind depends on the standards maintained by expert knowledge.

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tired you are, but when the strain is over and you have had your summer vacation, free from thought of school work for next year, I am sure you will find yourself quite rested. Don't you think so? Do you think of doing anything to earn money hereafter? Or do you and your mother think it better for you to stay at home with her? Or do you think of keeping house for some one else? I thoroughly believe in a girl's learning something by which she could earn money enough to support herself if necessary, even though there may seem no

possible need of it now or in the future. I think it not only a proper safeguard for a girl to give her self, but I also think she is so much more a woman of the best type, and that her character is strengthened and ennobled by it.

One thing I want to impress upon you. If you decide to do something outside of your own home to care for yourself, be sure to give the matter careful thought, and do not do the first thing that falls in your way, unless it is to your certain belief just the thing you want to do and can do best. A girl of your age has not usually given the matter much thought, because there has been no time in her life for that. Half the weariness and irritation from the work done in this world is caused by the fact that so many are

doing the wrong thing, while if they were doing the thing best adapted to them they would do it easily

and happily. Most people stray into the path nearest them, and sometimes that is just the road to success and happiness, and sometimes it is not. Many let false pride hinder them from doing the thing they would really, pride aside, like best to do, and could do best. Scrubbing well done is far better than painting poorly done, and the worker is more honored in the former case than in the latter. Once more, I want to urge you to be sure you are choosing the work you are best fitted for, if you are to do anything outside of home. Do it at great sacrifice at first, if necessary, and in the end the sacrifice you will find not so great.

I do not want you to think, dear, that I am going on the supposition that you are never to marry. Although I have not married, I thoroughly believe in marriage. But I do not believe in it to the extent of marrying just to escape being unmarried. It is the condition of life intended by nature and nature's God, and is the best life for man or woman when it is happy. So do not think I am talking as I am be

cause I have taken it for granted you are to be, like your auntie, an old maid; it is because I believe that the knowledge that a young woman has that she can earn her own living and be counted in with the world's workers is a great thing for her, that I have said all that I have to you.

There! I did not mean to take advantage of you. when announcing the sending of your gown, to preach a sermon or deliver a lecture while I had your ear. So forgive me; but don't forget the lecture.

Give my love to all, and accept much for yourself, with best wishes for all you undertake in these last AUNTIE. days at school.

Health Culture Society There has been organized in Brooklyn a Health Culture Society. The aim of this society is to interest women to wear skirts

that will not touch the sidewalk. It is the intention of the members to devise and wear a rainy-day dress that will be hygienic and not

remarkable. A similar attempt was made in Boston a few years ago, but it did not succeed. During the Exposition in Chicago

about one hundred women, residents of that city, adopted a suit that was a cross between a bathing suit and a bicycle suit. Many of the bicycle suits would make attractive rainyday dresses by the addition of a cape or a warm jacket in winter. A tailor-made gown, with the skirt slightly shortened, makes a satisfactory rainy-day gown, as many women have proved to their own satisfaction. Women are dressing more in accord with the rules of health than ever before. The bicycle Shortened and narhas accomplished much. rowed skirts pass almost unnoticed. Bicycle dresses are worn to breakfast and lunch as a matter of convenience. They answer for tramping and rowing. So great is the advance in the matter of dressing hygienically that a woman feels like apologizing if she wears for a tramp in the country a gown that requires to be lifted from the ground.

A Text for Bicyclists

In the "British Medical Journal" there has appeared a series of articles entitled “ Cycling in Health and Disease." One rule is emphasized: "Keep within your powers." There is no safer rule for guidance in life than this. It is a sentence which many might take as a life motto. It would mean preparation before attempting; it would mean a comprehension of one's fitness for every attempt in life. It does not mean timidity or shrinking. It means knowing what one can do, and doing it conscious that every step taken is a preparation for the next step. These articles condemn putting a child under seven on a wheel, even to be carried. The greatest care is urged as to the size of a wheel used by a growing child, the position of the child, and the movements of its legs. Every precaution should be taken against over-exertion. The opinion of eminent medical authorities is quoted, and the consensus of opinion is in favor of the use of the wheel for sound men and women of all ages.

The Care of Vegetables

The Health Protective Associations are urging the better class of dealers in vegetables not to expose their goods for sale outside of their stores. It is claimed that this exposure to the sun and dust wilts and injures vegetables. The suggestion is made that housekeepers refuse to trade with dealers who do not care for their goods in accordance with the best sanitary principles.

To Cure Mosquito-Bites
The New York "Tribune" says that—

A mixture of glycerine and carbolic acid is said to form a wonderful protection from mosquitoes as well as a cure for the bites. Take about twenty drops of the acid and put it into a bottle containing an ounce of glycerine and half an ounce of rosemary water. If used freely at night, the sting of the bites will be almost miraculously cured and the disfiguring blotches removed by morning.

A Suggestion

Dear Outlook: In reference to moreen skirts, co experience that there are kinds of black moreen cerning which "J. W." inquires, I can say from which do not catch dust. I have adopted the plan of fastening samples of various kinds to my skirt, and buying the one which stands the test of wear on dusty streets. M. C. G.

Would You Believe It?
By Mary Chase Thurlow

A morning-glory on our wall,
With round and rosy face,
That smiled alike on one and all,
And lighted up the place,-
One rainy day that flower queer
Shut up its cheerful eye.

It looked so dull and strange, oh dear!
It really made me sigh.
Would you believe a flower so gay
Could look so sad that rainy day?

A little maid within our walls,

That makes our life's delight, Her smile like sunshine on us falls, When her sweet face is bright,One rainy day that child of ours

Put on a doleful pout.

She frowned all day because the showers

Kept her from playing out. Would you believe a maid so gay Could look so sad that rainy day?

A Queer Nest

By E. H. K.

For the Little People

Kitty and Joe Major were little city children who were spending their summer vacation in North Dakota with their Aunt Sue and her husband, Dr. Morris. One morning the Doctor told them that if they cared to they could go with him to see a sick Norwegian woman who lived about ten miles across the prairie. Of course they were delighted, and were soon off. I should like to tell you of the beautiful drive they had; of all the harebells and roses and white bedstraw which grew on every side; of the hawks and owls and badgers and gophers they passed, and of little Nels, the herdboy, and his spotted pony. But if I did, you might not hear about the nest I meant to tell you of. They had driven about an hour and a half when they came to the house where the sick woman lived.

It was the queerest house you ever saw, all nade of sods piled one on top of another, as you would build a block house.

Inside, newspapers were fastened to the wall to keep the dirt from falling down into the people's eyes and food.

There were two rooms in the house, one of which seemed to be a summer kitchen, and had only a floor of earth. Here a little yellowhaired girl was washing dishes. This was Lena, who, with a neighbor's help now and then, did all the work while her mother was sick.

In the other room were two beds, a homemade table, and some home-made benches. The only chair was a big wooden rocker.

In the larger bed was the sick woman, with a very little, very red-faced baby on her arm. The woman's "nurse hung across a beam just over the bed.

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"What!" you say, "her nurse hung across a beam?" Yes, but her nurse wasn't a nice, soft-voiced woman who wore a big white apron, and had gentle hands. Her nurse was only a hemp rope, one end of which was made fast to the beam, while the other dangled within easy reach of her hands. When she wanted to move, she took hold of the rope and pulled herself along with its help, just as you would pull yourself up by taking hold of your papa's hands.

A Norwegian Bible and hymn-book lay on a shelf at the bed's head, and a big pitcher of lovely wild roses filled the room with their

sweetness.

Two little white-haired children were asleep in the smaller bed.

Kittie and Joe perched themselves on one of the benches, and used their eyes while the Doctor talked with the sick woman, having Lena as an interpreter. One of the first things they noticed was a pretty white hen hopping over the door-sill. They didn't quite think that hens ought to be allowed in houses, but as they were only visitors they politely kept quiet. Biddy put her head first on one side and

up.

then on the other, making all the time a cozy little sound. Then she stepped daintily across and flew up on to the bed where the children lay asleep. She began to pick the bedquilt and to flap her wings, till the children woke For a minute they looked shyly at their young visitors, while the little hen kept up her fussing. The sick woman said something in Norwegian, speaking with a beautiful voice, full of gentleness. The little boy smiled, and began making a nice hollow in the bedclothes. When it was all fixed, the white hen nestled down in it very comfortably. The children smoothed her wings with their brown little hands, and spoke to her in their queer Norsk language.

By the time Dr. Morris was through talking

with their mother the little hen had laid a

warm yellow egg and had gone out-of-doors with a great flutter and cackling. The little boy took the egg in his hand and trotted over to his mother's bed to give it to the new baby; In funny broken English Lena told Willie and Joe that the white hen had had no mother when she was a very little chicken, and that the two children had had her for their pet ever since. She had followed them about everywhere, and when they took their naps the chicken had crept close to them and slept too. She laid her first egg on their bed on the morning that the new baby came, and had left a fresh one there every day since. Lena said that the little boy, Lars, was sure that his hen knew about their baby and that it had no teeth to eat bread and meat with, and so had brought it those nice yellow eggs.

To pay her for being so kind Lars had let her share his bread and milk and cottagecheese every day since the baby came.

After Dr. Morris had made some powders for the sick woman and told Lena how often to give them, they all said good-by to the gentle

questions must be correctly answered by the contestants, and the errors in the printed answers pointed out.

The following epitaph appears on a stone recently erected in memory of a number of men who sacrificed life and property for their principles. This epitaph infers an impossibility. What is it?

To these pure patriots, who, Without bounty, without pay, Without pension, without honor, Went to their graves, Without recognition even by their Country, This stone is raised and inscribed, After thirty years of waiting, By one of themselves. The examination of a set of papers presented by the pupils in a cooking-class revealed some astonishing things; namely, that French women in cooking "clarified their own fat," that every kitchen used as a cooking-school "should once," and that a certain dish "could be eaten have room for six or eight girls to cook at cold twice." What are the errors in these statements?

To the one whose answers and corrections show the clearest comprehension of the meanings of words a book valued at $2 will be given.

Write on one side of the paper only; write name and address distinctly; give the name of school, and the grade in which you are a pupil. State age, and the name of the book you prefer if you are the prize-winner. This contest will close August 11.

A Large Boiler

A boiler, as you doubtless know, is the vessel in which the water is boiled to generate steam to run the engines and machinery in boats and factories. In New York City there is a company which sells steam for heating and for mechanical purposes. That is, they

children who had so nice a pet as a dainty have a building in which they put large boilers.

white hen.

Another Prize Contest

"Who were the Pilgrims?" "A dirty, filthy set who lived under the ground."

"Name a domestic animal useful for clothing, and describe its habits." "The ox. He don't have any habits, because he lives in a stable."

"If you were traveling across the desert, where would you choose to rest?" "I would rest on a stool."

"Describe the white race, and show that it is superior to other races." "A white man will nod at you when he meets you on the street."

"Of what is the surface of the earth composed?" "Dirt and people."

"Name a fruit which has its seed on the outside." "A seed-cake."

"Name five forms of water." "Hot water, cold water, faucet water, well water, and ice water." "Name and locate the five senses." "The eyes are in the northern part of the face, and the mouth in the southern." "Who 66 were the mound-builders ?" History cannot answer these questions. Science only can." "Define flinch,' and use it in a sentence." "Flinch, to shrink. Flannel flinches when it is washed."

"By what is the earth surrounded, and by what is it lighted?" "It is surrounded by water, and lighted by gas and electricity."

"Name six animals of the Arctic zone." polar bears and three seals."

66 Three

From these boilers the steam is carried through the pipes, the same as water and gas are carried into buildings, and there used. The other day one of these steam-heating companies put in the largest boiler, probably, that ever was constructed. It took thirty-six horses to draw it from the pier on which it was landed to the building in which it was to be placed. It weighs 119,000 pounds and stands 31 feet high. When it was got to the building the front of the building had to be torn out to get the boiler in. On its journey from the pier to its home it was attended by a large crowd of interested spectators.

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An Old Baby

Hundreds of years ago, when people died, the bodies were treated in a way to preserve them; they were then inclosed or wrapped in textiles that had also been subjected to chemical treatment, and when all had been done these bodies were put away on what we might call shelves. A gentleman traveling in the East was told by his guide that he could secure for him the mummified body of a little baby. The traveler accepted his offer, and has succeeded in bringing the little mummy to this country. Now he proposes to write a book about the games played by the children when this little baby was alive, 4,200 years ago. He has been telling the story of this little

"What is yeast?" "Yeast is a vegetable flying baby, and the life it must have lived, to the

about in the air, hitching itself on to anything."

"Why do you open the dampers a stove when lighting a fire?" "To let the oxygen in and the nitrogen out."

"What did the Constitution do for the country?" "It gave the President a head."

"What are the last teeth that come to a man?" "False teeth."

The readers of the Little People's page so conclusively proved their interest in the study of English in the contest closed in the issue of June 20 that the editors have decided to submit for another contest the above series of questions. These questions were, it is stated, submitted to and answered by the pupils in the public schools of a large Eastern city. The

little children in Baltimore, and they are so interested that he proposes now telling them a story on paper of how the little children of Egypt played and lived many years ago.

Hawk and Hens

We hear of happy families of animals. A novel case of this kind is now told. A gentleman in Maryland has succeeded in taming a hawk, and in teaching it to live on the most amicable terms in a hennery, enjoying the companionship of the hens and turkeys, and apparently not knowing that they ought to be enemies, not friends.

The Spectator

66 The Americans are a crude and uncultured people; and they show it in their treatment of these important questions of social etiquette." The speaker was a lady of distinction and good breeding, and she spoke with seriousness and feeling. The Spectator had been brought face to face with one of those questions of attire which frequently loom up on the mental horizon of men who are neither slaves to fashion nor absolutely indifferent to it. If he had belonged to either of these specified classes, the question would never have presented itself. Beau Brummel knows instinctively what to do and to wear; Horace Greeley knows nothing about such matters, and cares less. Belong ing to neither extreme, the Spectator was moved to wonder which leader represented the saner view of this phase of life. After finding that the authorities disagreed completely about his particular question, and that he could do pretty much as he pleased in the matter and be sure of condemnation from the one set of experts or the other, the Spectator fell into a skeptical mood as to the view of the lady of distinction, and asked himself whether, after all, rigid rules of etiquette are desirable and to be esteemed as an evidence of true progress in civilization.

The lady in question had placed the matter in definite shape for discussion by citing a personal experience. "I was invited," said she, "to attend an afternoon meeting, at a private house, held to advance a 'cause.' I found the parlor darkened, the shades down, the gas lit, and the majority of the ladies in full evening dress! There are only two excuses for a woman's doing such a thing "—and the speaker's fine eyes lost their usual kind expression: "ignorance, or the possession of but one dress. The fact that the latter excuse would not apply in the case of at least one of these women was shown to me a few evenings later, when I attended a church wedding and saw one of these same women in street dress!

In England, where there is some knowledge on these matters, such vulgarism would be impossible."

Here was the issue. There are certain con

ventional rules, more or less well recognized, for the government of personal conduct in "society." Is conformity to these rules the test of good manners? At first thought an affirmative answer seems reasonable enough. One of these rules requires a man to take off his hat in saluting a lady; another requires him to use a fork in carrying food to his mouth, instead of the back of a knife; another requires that he shall not whistle in a parlor, a street-car, or a private office. Any one who fails to observe these rules must be regarded

—or,

as lacking in good manners. But the further question arises, Who established these standards, and why? And did these rules replace others which were formerly the standard of good manners? and if so, why were the old ones discarded? And are we to have no liberty in starting new fashions in manners? and if not, why not? Now, the Spectator is not very deeply versed in antiquarian lore in order to be up with the times, let him say anthropology!-but he believes he is correct in saying that the bow and the removal of the hat are a survival and adaptation of the custom of prostration in the presence of a conqueror; and that democracy and chivalry combined have left only an adumbration of the original ceremony in an act of deference to the fair sex. The time was, too, when the use of a knife in eating was a decided advance in elegance, displacing as it did the more primitive plan of using the fingers-in the times when the punctilious goodwife might have been heard saying, “Goodness, Johnny! where's your manners? Don't you know enough to eat with your knife ?" In the days, also, when whistling was a new discovery, it was doubtless very pleasing to those who had not learned the new art to listen to those who had; but with the modern development of "nerves," whistling, save in the privacy of one's boudoir or on the public platform, has become "bad form." And so

(From Good Housekeeping.)

"Here's Cleveland's baking powder, pure
With purity that will endure
The test of time, and be a clever
Helpmeet and friend in kitchen ever.

with other matters of etiquette, all along the
line of conduct. The fact is that there has been
a continual formation and re-formation in the
standards of "good form" among all peoples
that have had any development at all, either
from good to bad or from bad to good-ac-
cording to either the traditional or the evolu-
tionary view of society; and the Spectator is
inclined to believe that whenever a people
really ceases to grow and to change, it must

cease to exist.

There are some races, however, that are pretty slow and that yet still exist; and according to the Spectator's ethnology, these are the ones that have the most inflexible codes of etiquette. The Chinese are a good example; and the Chinaman, we are informed by Mr. Arthur H. Smith in that entertaining book "Chinese Characteristics," has a genius for etiquette; the most accomplished foreigner finds himself helpless in the deeper mazes of Chinese formality, though they seem simplicity itself to the native, who is baked, as it were, in the "cake of custom." Mr. Smith tells of a Chinese official's wife, who, in paying her respects to a foreign lady at the latter's home, deliberately turned her back on her hostess, and saluted a vacant wall. This, it seemed, was the proper place for the hostess, inasmuch as the Emperor's palace lay in that direction! Here a great rudeness was committed simply because custom had absolutely dethroned good will and kindness of heart in favor of an artificial system of behavior. And this story brings out very clearly another fact -that for every custom, however absurd, gotten or perverted, it may be, but in the Foolish and illogical, forminds of the originators, at least, there is a definite reason for every regulation of their code. The first observers of any practice cannot justify it by "custom;" it must seem useful or desirable in itself. Reason, then, being the ultimate factor in etiquette, is not every regulation of manners to be submitted to this test, and to stand or fall in accordance with the best light we can cast on it through the exercise of this faculty? Is there now a good reason for a given practice? the Specta

there is a reason.

tor would ask if he were framing a new code
of manners. If there is, let us maintain the
practice; if not, let us start a new one, would
be his advice in answering his own question.

ever."

upon graciously, as a pleasant reminiscence of court costume. And if the ladies persist in wearing a dress that displays a beautiful throat, and prefer to wear it at home in the daytime, rather than in a public place in the evening, shall we not say, Great is the Goddess of Reason, that she has thus won Modesty to lend her ear? Will she not some day be able to influence Fashion herself?

66

But how about democracy's protest against aristocratic distinctions in costume? How about bending the knee to the effete customs of the Old World? What shall we say of the Brother Jonathan who offers to shake hands with the Queen, and greets her son-in-law with Say, Dook," instead of "Your Highness"? Well, the Spectator opines that in the good time coming, with less insistence on the observance of formalities on the part of the host, be he plebe or potentate, there will be more willingness to observe them on the part of the guest so that while the host (or perhaps the Spectator ought to say the hostess, since woman is in our modern democracies the natural conservator of aristocracy) will not be displeased if the guest comes in fustian, the guest will on his part use every endeavor to obtain a suitable wedding garment of the latest pattern. In the leveling up of both clothes and character which democracy is to the other half way, to get each from the other bring, host and guest will each seek to meet the lesson which every man has for his openminded neighbor, and, above all, to find satisfaction in the good will and happiness of his companions, not in the observance of cere-

monious rules about clothes and manners.

The English sometimes grow sarcastic at our expense. The London "News" vouches for the following: "Scene: Rome. Time: A few days ago. Young English lady wandering near the Coliseum. To her approaches a group of American young ladies. One of them says to her: Would you kindly tell me whether that is the Arch of Titus? My Baedeker is two years old." The 66 News

unkindly remarks that the American ladies

"were probably from Chicago."- New York World.

Can't

Sleep

This brings the Spectator to his theory about the future development of this matter of manners-and the Spectator is never SO happy as when leaving the solid ground of fact and sailing off in the bright clouds of speculation. He believes that just in so far as reason comes to control men's actions they will cease to be restricted by undeviating rules in matters of etiquette. For the development of reason means the development of individuality; and individuality refuses to cut its cloth all to the same pattern. Differentiation favors a wide variance of opinion and action, and tolerance of it; and the social etiquette of the future will be less marked by rigid metes and bounds, more distinguished by personal flavors, than that of the past. If, for instance -to descend to earth again-a man chooses to wear a "Prince Albert " coat of an evening, instead of a "swallowtail," the new society will nod approval; if he should even appearnow that the bicycle suit has come to stay this will not be regarded as treason-in knickerbockers, with ruffled shirt and silverbuckled shoes, his idiosyncrasy will be looked Hood's Pills is, aid digestift dinn

That is because your nerves are weak, your digestion imperfect, your blood impure. Feed the nerves with rich, red blood, purified, enriched, and vitalized with Hood's Sarsaparilla, and you will enjoy sweet, refreshing sleep.. This great medicine has power to build up the physical system, strengthen the nerves, and give vigor and vitality to every function.

Hood's

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Correspondence

Auricular Confession

To the Editors of The Outlook:

In the issue of your paper of June 20 the following statement is made in an article upon the "Russian Church," viz.: "Both the Greek and Latin Churches require auricular confession before the reception of the Holy Communion, as does the Anglican Catholic Church." The Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States is an integral and influential part of the Anglican branch of the Catholic Church. It ought to be well understood that this Church does not require auricular confession before the reception of the Holy Communion, and that nowhere in her Prayer-Book, except in the office of the visitation of prisoners, and then only in the case of one under sentence of death, is confession in secret to a clergyman for the purpose of obtaining absolution in private suggested or implied.

JOHN T. MAGRATH.

Prices and Currency

To the Editors of The Outlook:

The greatest economic harm that can overtake a nation is falling prices. It represses investment, it retards progress, it bankrupts the energetic proprietors who are. in fact, the chief debtor class.

The greatest boon to a country is universal activity, and nothing contributes so much to this as rising prices. When prices are advancing, every one wants to buy, and what they buy must be constructed by human hands and brains. In twenty-five years prices of American goods have declined fully onehalf. Every manufacturer, merchant, and investor (except in town lots) has found himself all the time facing a lower market when he came to sell than when he bought. His predisposition has been to wait. If now the status quo of 1872 were to be gradually restored, he would be anxious to buyeven ahead of his wants. Depression in trade comes from dislocation of industry, the indisposition to buy on the part of those who buy to sell for profit, and inability to buy on the part of those who buy to consume. Active business is maintained by the desire of the merchant class to buy all they can, and the large consuming power of those who work for wages.

Whatever other causes have led to decline in prices, all authorities agree that a contraction of the currency does reduce prices.

A country with one dollar of currency per inhabitant would have lower prices than one with fifty. If there be an equal quantity of gold and silver, striking out one of them will reduce prices. If one only be in use and the other is added, prices will advance.

In our present state of stagnation what we most need is a desire to buy. Any cause that will convince merchants and investors that future prices will be higher will at once start demand for labor and increase consumption. Whether this anticipated rise in prices be attributed to increase in the money supply or to depreciation in the quality of the currency, the effect must be the same-the determination to buy with a view to higher value.

No panic, no buying of foreign-held bonds, can interfere with the commercial instinct to buy on a rising market, and the industrial activity required to supply the increased demand.

N. O. NELSON.

English in American Universities To the Editors of The Outlook:

The review of " English in American Universities" published in your issue of June 13 seems to me by far the most valuable discussion of that little volume which has appeared; and I hope that every one interested in that book or in the subject may read this trenchant criticism.

Perhaps the most important omission in the book reviewed is that no full presentation and discussion of methods is attempted. Professor Bates, of Wellesley, in her bright paper which appeared at the close of the series of articles reprinted in the book, says pointedly: "It is very well for the editors and contributors of The Dial' to claim on behalf of stu

66

literature, it seems to me, should consider primarily the interpretation and criticism of literature, the principles of literary form and construction, the characteristics of the principal literary genera, and allied topics. Unless some such clue is followed, a class in literature might be used to teach at all known subjects of human knowledge; since all forms and departments of life find expression in literature. To announce a class in Shakespeare or Milton, and then to turn the attention of the students to questions about which those authors cared nothing whatever either as artists or as men, may make the work severe," but such work is not the study of literature. I wish that your reviewer, whose expert knowledge upon this whole group of questions is very manifest, would discuss for us some of the ways by which literary study can be made hard without ceasing to be helpful. Perhaps one way is to increase the amount of reading required until the work is made sufficiently severe. Written papers based upon this reading may be required, which shall both show how carefully the work has been done, and also furnish valuable training in the art of expression. Searching questions upon the lessons assigned can be given out in advance, and written answers to the most important of these can be required. So far as the work in classes in literature cannot be made both severe and literary, both hard and helpful, it seems to me that it should not be made severe at all.

What does The Outlook's reviewer think of Mr. Payne's opinion that the linguistic and the literary study of English "should be sharply differentiated"? There are distinct objections to this separation, but I have come to believe in it for the most part. I doubt very much whether literary questions ever receive adequate attention where the linguistic and literary lines of study are combined in the same classes. The master of linguistics has at his command such a vast body of definite queries demanding exact answers that he will be loth to give time to the more vital but less definite and tangible questions and discussions which spring from a close sympathy with the shaping spirit of the creative artist, and which call out such sympathy. I know from my own experience that, in literary teaching, one who has had experience in linguistic work misses the support of that more exact method.

In the study of Chaucer, I admit, a good measure of verbal study is a necessity, since the meanings of the words must be ascertained. Of the value of linguistic training in English I make no question; and, of course, a large measure of such study should be required for the doctor's degree in English.

The Outlook review says: "The older disciplines (the Greek and Latin disciplines) . . . are certainly slowly passing. Into their place English instruction can come if it be made as substantial, as systematic, as severe as was the elder teaching." When a newly elected college president was once told that he would have a hard time to "fill the shoes" of his predecessor, he wisely replied, "I shall bring a pair of my own." Let English instruction find its own proper place, and fill that.

The sharp criticism of your reviewer upon the lack of "orderly method" in the arrangement of courses in English in our American institutions is abundantly deserved, and ought to do good. However, let me place beside it some words from Mr. Payne, taken from the volume under discussion: "In physics or in philology, the 'course' is a perfectly rational device; it is of the essence of training in such subjects that the work should be logical in its developWith literature the case is very different. Mere didactics are as powerless to impart the message of literature as they are to impart the message of music or of religion."

ment....

...

"Only one professor" in the book, says this review, "offers 'rest and refreshment' as an allurement to his courses." Your reviewer has misunderstood me. It is not my own faulty courses, nor all possible courses, that are to be "an unfailing source of rest and refreshment," but our noble literature itself, as a lifelong refuge, inspiration, and delight. A. H. TOLMAN.

The University of Chicago.

dents the delights of the spiritual glow' etherealized General Howard Roll of Honor

beyond the dull concern for 'the historical and adventitious,' and to demand that the professor add to the most gracious gifts of nature a culture deep as a well and considerably wider than a church door, but by what process, after all, shall the essential values of literature be impressed?"

Your reviewer says: "The study of English must become an important, serious, arduous, and essential part of college discipline, or pass entirely out of serious consideration." I judge that this is intended to apply to the study of English literature, and of foreign masterpieces through English translations, as well as to other forms of English training. Here the question of method recurs. How shall this be done, without devoting the strength of the class to other than literary questions? Classes in

The following is a supplementary list of the names that have been entered upon the General Howard Roll of Honor of the Congregational Home Missionary Society. There have been previously reported 852. The number of shares included in the accompanying list is 35, making a total of 887.

A Friend, Lowell, Mass. Broadway Church, Somerville, Mass. Cradle Roll of W. H. M. U. of First Congregagational Church, Hyde Park, Mass.

Mrs. T. D. Murphy, by a Friend, Chester, Mass. Central Cong'l Church, Jamaica Plain, Mass. Woman's Missionary Union of Minneapolis Churches, Minn.

Miss A. A. Pickens, by a Friend, New York, N. Y.

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Mrs. Sarah B. Capron, by a Friend, Boston, Mass. In Memory of Deacon S. W. Kent, by Mrs. S. W. Kent, Worcester, Mass.

North Congregational Church, Providence, R. I. Rev. Cyrus Richardson, D.D., by First Church, Nashua, N. H.

Deacon Newell Greenwood, by First Church, Nashua, N. H.

Mrs. P. L. Alcott, Columbus, Ohio. Rev. S. E. Bassett, Fort Valley, Ga. Congregational Church and Sunday-School, Francistown, N. H.

Congregational Church and Auxiliaries, Medina

Ohio.

Y. P. S. C. E. of Congregational Church, Orange Valley, N. J.

A Friend, Plymouth, N. H.

Maple Street Church and Sunday-School, Danvers, Mass.

Union Sunday-School, Marlboro', Mass.
Ladies of First Church, Chelsea, Mass.

Newman Cong'l Church, East Providence, R. I. Miss Ann E. Shorey, by Newman Congregational Church, East Providence, R. I.

Mr. Ethan Brooks, West Springfield, Mass.
Congregational Church, Jacksonville, Ill.

In Memory of Deacon B.W. Payne, by Mrs. L. A. Payne, Homer, N. Y.

Two Friends, Hartford, Conn.

Miss Margaret C. Hackett, Providence, R. I. Two shares.

First Congregational Church, Rockford, Ill.
Mrs. Eli C. Smith, Bridgeport, Conn.

Mrs. Elizabeth McFarland, in Memory, by the Merrimack Conference of the N. H. F. C. I. and H. M. U.

Y. P. S. C. E., Puritan Church, Brooklyn, N. Y. Rev. S. A. Barrett, by Members of Congregational Church, East Hartford, Conn.

W. P. Patten, Kingston, N. H.

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Notes and Queries

Can you give me any information on the following questions: 1. Has the South Carolina Dispensary Law been modified with the hope of increasing the State revenue? 2. What is the quantity of liquors consumed now as compared with the old license law? 3. Do any considerable number of the temperance people desire to go back to the old license system? 4. Where can I find the latest summary of its results? W. L. H.

1. The South Carolina Dispensary Law was modified with the hope of securing a more efficient administration, and an administration further removed from political influences. For a good many months liquor was sold by the Dispensary at a low price in order to drive the bar-rooms out of business;

Greer, or other men of their position have their cards engraved? I am specially interested in the use of Episcopal clergymen, but should be glad to learn of the practice of others. F. L. P.

We happen to know that one of the gentlemen you name uses a card without prefix or title. We know others who do likewise. Others, also, who use the "Rev." and even append the "D.D." Every variety has its representative among men of high position. There is no easily recognizable "best use." Follow your own taste, whether it be for simplicity or otherwise. No line can be drawn in this matter between the practice of Episcopalians and of others.

a

confusion and apparent contradiction which, in

when these had been driven out, the price of liquor readers, I should be glad to have explained. You

was raised with the hope of increasing the State revenue. 2. It is reported that much less liquor is consumed in South Carolina now than under the old license law. Tippling and treating have been practically done away with. 3. Very few of the people of South Carolina of any class desire to go back to the old system. Even the Charleston "News and Courier," which still denounces the Dispensary, declares that saloons must not again be licensed which sell liquor to be drunk on the premises. 4. For the latest summary of the results write to the Commissioner in charge of the State Dispensary, Columbia, S. C.

1. Is there a concordance in point of scholarship and thoroughness superior to Young's Analytical Concordance-one that gives the original words? 2. Can the Losetian system of memorizing be obtained in book form? If not, mention the best work on aids to memory. 3. What is the best work on the English language? G. W.

1. We think there is not. 2. We do not know. David Kay's book, " Memory, What it is, and How to Improve it," is a judicious study of the subject. and full of valuable practical suggestions, but does not undertake to give any artificial system of memory help. 3. It is hard to advise without knowing you. For one who wishes to study, Champney's "History of English" (Macmillan, New York) and Earle's "English Prose " (Putnams, New York) together constitute what we think the best thing. For a general reader, Professor Marsh's popular "Lectures on the English Language" (Scribners, New York), though old, are very good; also Archbishop Trench's "English, Past and Present."

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1. Will you kindly outline a course of study of the history of the drama, and what books are accessible? 2. What books should be used by a club in studying Shakespeare? J. K. B.

1. Golden's" Brief History of the English Drama;" Lowell's" The Old English Dramatists;" Symonds's 'Shakespeare's Predecessors in the English Drama;" H. Irving's" English Actors;" W. Winter's "Shadows of the Stage" Matthew's "French Dramatists of the Nineteenth Century;" R. G. Moulton's "The Ancient Classic Drama." 2. Rolfe's School Editions of Plays; Craik's "English of Shakespeare;" Corson's "Introduction to Shakespeare;" Dowden's "Life and Art of Shakespeare;" Moulton's "Shakespeare as a Dramatic Artist;" R. G. White's "How to Read Shakespeare;" Fleay's "Shakespeare Manual;" Abbott's "Shakespeare Grammar."

In your issue of 13th inst., under the caption "A Human Bible," "H. D. C." writes: "How can we fail to recognize the human element, when we find the New Testament writers quoting from the Old Testament in such an extremely human and fallible way, now plainly forgetting the right number or geographical locality, or even the right book, now quoting (says Toy) from the Greek or Aramaic, but never from the Hebrew, and now-most important of all-giving to the quotation a sense or an application which would have made the author of it stare with amazement ?" Will you kindly indicate the passages referred to? C. H. S.

Specimen passages are these: Acts vii., 14, compared with Genesis xlvi., 27; Acts vii., 15, 16, compared with Genesis 1., 13, and Joshua xxiv., 32, which seem confusedly blended in the quotation. Matthew xxvii., 9, compared with Zechariah xi., 13. Hebrews i., 8 and 9, compared with Psalm xlv., 6, 7-a nuptial song addressed to a military hero.

1. Please give me the best work on " Applied Christianity," as lately hinted at in editorial on Presbyterian Assembly. 2. Also say if you regard Dr. Green's (of Princeton) late work on "Bible vs. Higher Criticism" as the best work on the conservative side. V. M.

1. See Gladden's "Applied Christianity" and his "Ruling Ideas of the Present Age," Ely's "Social Aspects of Christianity," Prall's "Civic Christianity," Hodge's "Heresy of Cain" and his "Christianity Between Sundays." To be had of any leading bookseller. 2. We accept it as such on the testimony of those who are entitled to pronounce upon it. Can you inform me as to the "best use" of clergymen in the matter of their visiting-cards? Do they use the "Rev."? Do some have two cards, one for parish use and one for general use? How do Dr. Rainsford, Dr. Huntington, Bishop Potter, Dr.

I notice in your final statement of results from a vote gathered by the "New England Homestead " common, I presume, with many other of your regular say, "A majority of those voting (2,588 to 2,168) favored the free coinage of the American product," by which I suppose you mean silver. From what source do you reach such a conclusion? The table of answers immediately preceding gives 980 yes and 1,421 no-the numbers much less and majority_the H. B. E. other way. Please enlighten us.

The answers in the table were to the question whether the subscriber believed in "unlimited" free coinage. Many farmers who opposed this measure favored the free coinage of the American product, believing that this product was too small to produce a harmful inflation of the currency.

In discussing the financial state of our country, a friend-like myself a devoted reader of your valuable paper-said that Dr. Abbott has never in his editorials answered the following question: Do you consider our overproduction one cause of our late panic? Is the power of a machine to do the work of a hundred men an injury or benefit to the people?

The Outlook does not believe that general overproduction of wealth was a cause of the present depression. It believes that machinery enables the same number of workers to produce for themselves a greater amount of wealth, and benefits workmen only less than employers.

Kindly state how you square such passages as John i., 12, Rom. viii., 15, Gal. iv., 5, Eph. i., 5, with your fundamental doctrine of the Fatherhood of God.

By simply reflecting upon the fact that a child is none the less his father's son though he be too young to be conscious of it, or so wayward as to forget it. The passages you refer to speak of sonship to God as realized in consciousness and conduct, and refer to the divine agencies by which the filial spirit (or "the spirit of adoption ") is brought to birth and effective power.

Give the names of two or three of the best books on trades-unionism, the publisher's name, also price. G.

Richard T. Ely's "Labor Movement in America" (T. Y. Crowell & Co., Boston, $1.50), and Sidney and Beatrice Webb's "History of Trades-Unionism" (Longmans, Green & Co., New York, $5).

Can you put me in the way of getting the "white list" of employers in New York City stores who treat their employees with humane consideration? H. D. M.

Address Miss F. J. Pomeroy, 101 Park Avenue, New York City.

Can any one tell me where I can find the poem beginning:

"To the wigwam and forest O would I were back, For I hate the proud paleface that crosses my track."

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