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Correspondence

Vacant-Lot Farming

To the Editors of The Outlook:

"Trades-Union Wages on the Farm" has recently attracted some attention, and a pamphlet will shortly be published showing how much can be made on the vacant lots cultivated by the poor people, and, under equally favorable circumstances, by the regular farmers.

It is claimed that unskilled labor on these vacantlot farms has made in many cases as high as $4 a day; but it must be remembered that the "PotatoPatchers," as they are called, had the advantage of the regular farmer because they worked upon valuable land. Land, whether used for agriculture, for mining, manufacturing, residences, or any other purpose, is valuable only when it enables the occupier to produce a great deal. For this reason, land on Wall Street has been sold at the rate of $12,000,000 per acre, although if put in crops it probably would not produce $25 a year. For the same reason the vacantlot farmers in New York have been able to make high wages, whilst the farmers, pushed out by the high prices to worthless land at a distance from the cities, find it hard work to make ends meet.

It is to be regretted that more extended figures have not been furnished by the nearly fifty towns and cities which are now pursuing this form of relief; but the conclusions from such figures as we have are most significant.

A careful examination shows that the ordinary

plot allotted to the vacant-lot farmers, one-third of an acre, will take less than ten days' full work of an able-bodied man in order to reach the full productiveness. This time would, of course, be decreased had he the use of a horse, and it would be greatly increased, with a corresponding increase of production, if he could have so simple an appliance as hotbeds. Without these appliances, however, and with the poorest and least skilled sort of labor, the cities report the following average rates as having been earned :

In New York.....

"Brooklyn...

"Boston...

"Buffalo.....

"Detroit...........

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ity which, like my father's, will not sell for one-fourth what they would thirty years ago, yet they are better improved, with better buildings. It seems to me that our financiers do not realize the struggle the thrifty middle class are making to keep from going under. A. C. P. B.

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Baton Rouge, La.

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Foreign Trade and Exchange
To the Editors of The Outlook:

For eighteen years, 1861 to 1878, we had a depreciated paper currency. Austria and Italy have for long been on a paper basis. Russia, Japan, China, Mexico, have silver only. Nearly all the South American States are on paper or silver basis. In all of these instances international trade proceeds without interruption. In the main, prices of commodities are set in London in terms of pounds sterling. Australian wool, Argentine hides, American copper, Indian wheat, are bought in London, wholly regardless of the kind of money or price terms used in buying them at their place of production. Whatever they bring in the world market is placed to the London credit of the banker who has cashed the

draft drawn by the exporter. The same remarks apply to New York, Paris, and other centers of international trade and exchange.

ever it be, will be such as to leave a profit when conThe prices paid at home in the local money, whatverted into sterling exchange. Competition may well be trusted to keep the profit at a minimum; but this is a matter wholly apart from foreign exchange. in domestic trade. It is a common mistake of the Competition regulates profits equally in foreign as

most careful economic writers to assume that business is done with mathematical accuracy, responddition. Quite the contrary; it is a comparatively ing with delicate precision to every economic conrough-shod affair. Much business is done at a net loss; small economies are overlooked; there is an element of speculation in nearly all business. Not uncommonly one market is much lower than another competing for the same trade. Even in normal times interest may be four per cent. in New $1.16 per day for each worker. York, six in Chicago, and seven in New Orleans on the same quality of paper. A share of railroad stock will be 60 to-day, 50 to-morrow, and 70 the day after, while the property itself remains unchanged. The volume of exports and imports is not regulated, probably not even influenced, by the variations in exchange. If a merchant require goods for his trade, his profits on them, and the need to maintain an unimpaired stock, are motives that put out of sight so trifling a matter as one or two per cent. difference in exchange. Larger price fluctuations due to other causes are a familiar matter. A persistent fall in prices will have the effect to make merchants carry less stock, but the transient ups and downs have no such result.

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While Omaha shows only 85 cents, and St. Louis gives the astonishing result of an average rate of wages of $5 a day.

The figures in the last two cities diverge so greatly from the average that there is probably some error, although it is explained that Omaha suffered greatly from the drought. It is not incredible that $5 a day or even more might have been earned, since we learn by the New York report that a man and his wife saved more than $4 a day off their plot on the Long Island farm.

Concerning the economic lesson to be learned, we quote the actual case of a farmer near Ghent, owning 160 acres of the average value of $20 per acre, making a total for the farm of $3,200. Of this 160 acres are cultivated. If this were to produce the same as the gross average of the New York vacant lots, viz., $83.52 per acre, the farmer would have $9,604.80, at the retail prices received by the vacant-lot cultivator. But, according to the United States Department of Agriculture, the farmer gets only 60 per cent. of the retail price, $5,762.88. Out of this he has to pay interest on mortgage, $78; taxes, $48; seed. $60; leaving $5,576.80 for wages, machinery, tools, food, clothing, insurance, repairs, and general expenses, and the reward of the two young men who do the work. That is what the farmer could get were he allowed to work the land which lies vacant and close to our cities.

Now let us see what he does get, after paying to the railroad" all the traffic will bear," and paying to the middlemen a big slice of what is left. The actual entire product of this farm, away from the center of population and probably badly tilled, was only $529, less $93 for the three items specified. Now these two young men are good, enterprising farmers, as farmers go, and that "profit" is the inducement that under present conditions is held out to the poor to go to the country.

BOLTON HALL.

Mortgages and the Currency To the Editors of The Outlook: About '63 my father mortgaged his farm in New York State. His children were small, and there was much sickness. Then the children had to be sent away to school, and the mortgage was not paid, but the interest was kept up, which satisfied the holder of the mortgage. The mortgage is still unpaid, my father is dead, and the mortgage on the home farm is the children's legacy. Is it justice, is it honesty, to compel the payment of that debt in the currency of to-day, dollar for dollar? This case is but one of many; there are hundreds of farms in the same vicin

But the conclusive argument is from experience, that international trade with countries having not only a different money standard, but a depreciated or an irredeemable money in their own terms, is just as active and satisfactory as with those having the same standard. IMPORTER.

The Question of Honesty

To the Editors of The Outlook:

I have read with much interest and attention the various editorials of The Outlook on the silver question, for they have seemed to me the most fair, reasonable, impartial, and patriotic of any of the current newspaper discussions.

I have also been interested in the "Notes and Queries" in your columns. The gold side seems to have had its "inning"-and a pretty long onelately, and it seems only just that the other side should have a turn in self-defense on the most vital feature of the whole thing, and that is the "Repudiation" phase of it. Dr. van Dyke has recently expressed in The Outlook the common Eastern view of it-to wit, that the mainspring of the silver movement is the wish on the part of debtors, mainly in the West, to defraud their creditors, mainly in the East, by paying them in depreciated dollars.

All this sounds very weighty, appeals to the instinctive desire of the American people to be honest, and doubtless to thousands of good citizens who may not be so directly affected either way, but who have the laudable purpose to maintain the National credit. So far has this idea prevailed that the term "sound money" has been appropriated by the gold men, without question-and in so doing they give a colossal example of begging the question, for the great point at issue is, which is sound money? It also seems to be assumed that Western debtors are generally actuated by the dishonest desire to repudiate about half their debts. The conviction that this wholesale assumption does injustice to the debtor class is my excuse for this article.

In the first place, the advocates of free coinage be

parity, and that there will then be no difference in the value of the two coins. But, without stopping to consider that, let us ask in what way free coinage could result in repudiation. Evidently only by hav ing a permanent discount of fifty per cent. on silver, and by giving debtors the privilege of paying their gold debts in that silver. But stop now and consider whether even that course would be really repudiation.

In what does the value of a dollar consist? Evidently in its purchasing power. Its face value is merely nominal; its purchasing power is the real thing. Now the next proposition is that a fall in prices represents a corresponding increase in purchasing power of money. A rigidly just system in payment of debts would therefore allow payment in a nominal sum diminished in exact ratio to the increase in purchasing power, or, in other words, to the fall in prices. So well recognized is this fundamental law of equity in payment of debts that Professor Laughlin, himself one of the great gold champions of the present time, has proposed a multiple standard, consisting of a unit compounded of the ruling prices of a dozen or twenty of the standard commodities. Thus a man might equitably pay a hundreddollar debt by paying a hundred and twenty or eighty dollars, or more or less either way, according to the variation of the nominal standard in purchasing power. He would be paying equitably because he would be returning the same purchasing power, though not the same nominal value in money.

A rise in prices represents a fall in the purchasing power of the dollar, and hence decreases the real value of the debt. Inflation causes a rise in prices, and hence does injustice to the creditor. Contraction produces a fall in prices, increases the power of the dollar, and hence does injustice to the debtor.

A change either way in the purchasing power of the standard does injustice to somebody. The great desideratum is a standard that will not vary. Obviously, if creditors should influence legislation to lower prices, they would be dishonest. If debtors

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should influence legislation to raise prices, they would be dishonest. Either course would be easily possible by legislative manipulations; either would be dishonest and subversive of government.

Now, passing these A B C propositions which nobody thinks of denying, how do they apply to the present situation? Have we a case of inflation or of contraction? Of contraction. Have we a case of rising or of falling prices? Of falling. Have we a case of increased or of decreased purchasing power of the dollar? Of increased. Have we a case of advantage to the creditor or the debtor? The creditor. To what extent? In the average, to just about the percentage in the fall of price of silver bullion.

Average prices have fallen just about fifty per cent. since the demonetization of silver, or since that act began fairly to produce its legitimate consequences. This is simply another way of saying that the gold dollar has appreciated in like ratio. Everything has fallen except gold. It, being the standard, has, of course, risen. Now, let us ask those who so sweepingly charge Western creditors with an attempt at repudiation, Who are the aggressors in this case? Instead of the silver movement being an aggressive effort on the part of debtors to pay fifty-cent dollars, it is a defensive movement on their part to prevent their creditors from making them pay twohundred-cent dollars. Let us ask Dr. van Dyke and others who are solicitous to preserve equity, in what respect is a two-hundred-cent dollar a whit more honest than a fifty-cent dollar? Does any one question that the debtor would be paying double the purchasing power that he borrowed? "Let facts be submitted to a candid world."

Most of the debts, mortgages, and bonds which now hang like a body of death over the newer portions of our country were contracted from ten to twenty years ago, since which time prices have fallen half. If a Nebraska farmer borrowed a thousand dollars twenty years ago, when wheat was worth a hundred cents a bushel, and other things in proportion, he was borrowing a purchasing power, expressed in wheat, of a thousand dollars, Now, if he is compelled to pay the thousand dollars in gold, when wheat is worth only fifty cents a bushel, he is practically paying a purchasing power of two thousand dollars. In general terms, it may be asserted that the Western borrower is compelled, under the gold standard, and the fallen prices which it causes, to pay twice the purchasing power in wheat, corn, wool, horses, labor, all the essential products of his life's work, that he borrowed. Hence, even if the free coinage of silver does result in a permanent fifty-cent silver dollar, and if the debtor pays his gold debts in that depreciated currency, he is, after all, paying back the same quantity of labor and the products of labor that he borrowed. Five hundred dollars in gold or a thousand dollars in silver is worth as much now as a thousand dollars in gold then. If these things be true, what becomes of the charge of repudiation so flippantly hurled against the hard-working pioneers of civilization in our great West?

Who is dishonest, the debtor who is trying to pay his debt in a form that commands the same purchasing power for himself and the creditor, or the creditor who seeks to take advantage of circumstances by which he can force payment in a form, even though it be nominally the same, in reality twice the burden to the debtor and twice the advantage to himself? Does it not rather appear that the sentiment which several of your correspondents express is making its outcry, not so much because it is in danger of losing half of its Western investments, as that it is afraid it will not succeed in doubling their real value through an artificial fall of prices? FAIR PLAY.

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Chapel Cars

To the Editors of The Outlook: Having seen in your paper several appreciative notices of the work being done by chapel cars under the auspices of the Baptist Publication Society, I thought it might be of interest to your readers to know the real facts in the case. Instead of being used to reach communities where the Gospel is not preached, so far as my observation goes, the chapel cars are used almost wholly as a means of sectarian propaganda in towns where there are already plenty of churches. S is a railroad town where there were Methodist Episcopal, Congregational, and Roman Catholic churches. Both the Protestant churches were small, one having less than fifty members. The chapel car comes, and another small church was started. Within a month a Congregational church of less than ten members was organized in a town of 150 people. By means of outside funds a small building is being erected. The chapel car is at work there. The only possible result is that a few may be prevented from joining what in many respects is a union enterprise. The car is then going to a town of seven thousand people, which has fourteen churches, to help in some mission work on the outskirts of the city. It has stopped at this city weeks at a time, within two blocks of the Baptist church, the evangelist helping in special meetings in

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the Baptist church, using the car as a lodging-place. This car once came to a town of 1,100 people, with five Protestant churches and, to my personal knowledge, not a single Baptist family, and held meetings The evangelist, a man who, I am glad to say, has been dropped from the work, reported in the denominational paper fifty conversions. The people in the place did not know of one. These are instances that I can vouch for as occurring within a radius of fifty miles. I have heard of others similar.

In justice to the excellent Baptist brethren, it is right to say that I have known of one Baptist Home Missionary Superintendent who did not believe in this kind of work, as it tended to multiply more weak churches than can be properly cared for.

In the interest of true religion and of church unity, ought not such facts to be known?

Colorado College

To the Editors of The Outlook:

E.

Having spent a month in this place, and having seen a good deal of the splendid organization and magnificent work of Colorado College, I wish to add my testimony to the claim of Colorado College upon the interest of all friends of Christian education at the present time.

There are all sorts of colleges and universities in the West; and some which appeal to Eastern friends for aid prove on examination to be mere land booms, or schemes for denominational extension, or the hobbies of individuals seeking office and position for

themselves. There are none of these defects about Colorado College. It is the oldest institution of its kind in the State. It is broadly, wisely, and soundly administered. Its trustees are the leading business and professional men of the community. Its Faculty are men of high scholarship and earnest devotion Its course of study is thorough and progressive. Its students are sturdy, industrious young men and women, representing a wide territory. The College stands for the highest ideals of religious character, intellectual training, and public service.

If its present usefulness is to be maintained, if its unequaled opportunities are to be improved, if it is to become the most powerful force for intelligent Christian character between Chicago and San Francisco, as it promises to be, the securing of the remaining sixty thousand dollars necessary to complete the Pearsons fund of two hundred thousand dollars before next January is an absolute necessity. I do not hesitate to commend this cause as the most solid, the most urgent, the most hopeful object to which persons intent on doing great and perma nent good at this present moment can consecrate their gifts. The College has influential and wealthy friends in Colorado; but the business situation is such as to render it next to impossible for them to withdraw money from their enterprises at the present time. A large part of this fund must come from the East now. Once on its feet, the College is sure to have abundant support from its own locality, as soon as business conditions here improve.

The officers of the College are overburdened with

anxiety and labor; and if some portion of this fund could come without the labor and expense of personal solicitation it would be a great encouragement and a great relief. In some way the money must come. The work already begun here cannot be suffered to decline; the opportunities before the College cannot be permitted to remain unimproved. WILLIAM D. W. HYDE.

Notes and Queries

1. In your issue of August 15, page 296, in speaking of Dr. Sanday's Romans, etc., you say, "Nearly all commentaries on Paul do lack imagination." Can you name some of those that supply this lack, with publisher and price? 2. Can you supply Henry W. Beecher's MS. on 7th of Romans, or who can? 3. Has Dr. Lyman Abbott any works on the Old Testament? 4. In answer to a query I noticed you mentioned a book on hymn-writers called "Laudes Domini." Please tell me where I can get it, and at what cost. 5. Which do you consider the best "History of Christian Doctrine" for a young minister to procure who can only afford one, and yet feels he needs such an authority? 6. In your answer to "X.," page 305, you say perfection (sinless), is attainable. If so, should we not attain it? What is sin? I don't understand your position on this. See 1 John i., 9; ii., 8; 1 Pet. fi., 21, 22. W. S. A. C. 1. We cannot, but can recommend, as not devoid of imagination, Dr. Matheson's book, "The Spiritual Development of St. Paul" (Blackwood, Edinburgh; imported by booksellers at about $1.75). 2. Fords, Howard & Hulbert, New York, have all of Mr. Beecher's writings now in print. Do you mean to say MS.? 3. Dr. Abbott has written no commentary on the Old Testament. You may like to see his article in The Outlook of August 15 last. 4. "Laudes Domini," a collection of hymns for public worship, is published by the Century Company, New York, at $1.50. 5. We have recommended Professor Adolf Harnack's recent book to such inquirers. Published by Funk & Wagnalls, New York. 6. As to perfection, the New Testament idea of it, as may be seen by comparing the A. V. and the R. V., is moral symmetry and maturity, rather than sinlessness, though

the latter is involved in the former. Our view as to its attainableness is that of St. Paul in such texts as

Ephesians iii., 19; iv., 3.

But this apostle regards it as a flying goal, which seems to advance as we advance; see Philippians iii., 12-14. As to sin, we hold with St. John 1, iii., 4, that "sin is lawlessness" (R. V.), or insubordination to the divine law. This, however, may result from either of two causes-defect of knowledge, as when good men think that to be right which greater enlightenment shows to be wrong, or defect of will to conform to what is known to be right, or to discover what is right in order to conform to it. It is to defect of the will to know and to do the right that the term "sin" strictly and properly applies. See Romans vii., 7.

The Rev. Andrew Murray, in his book "With Christ in the School of Prayer," teaches that any disciple who will seek the leading of God's Word and Spirit, and who prays in faith, can always expect definite answers to his requests. He admits that we cannot always know God's will, and must sometimes offer the prayer of submission, but claims that it will receive a distinct answer, though it may be a refusal, as with Moses when he desired to enter Canaan. No one need be in uncertainty as to God's will in prayer who truly seeks to know it. What is your opinion of this teaching? Are Christians limited in their intercession by the freedom of the will? How do you explain 1 John v., 16; Jeremiah vii., 13-16? E. B.

We agree with Murray, though with this reservation: owing to such constitutional differences among men as natural temperament, or certain physical infirmities, there are likely to be some hindrances to consciousness of an answer that is "definite" and "distinct." If we understand that the purpose of prayer is not to get God to do our will, but to enable ourselves to do God's will, and pray accordingly, we need not doubt that such prayer will obtain its an. swer in the consciousness that we are being led in God's way to the ends of his wisdom. In this view there can arise no such limitation as you refer to. The texts referred to show that, in the view of the writers, some sins were past praying for. But Jesus drew no such limit, neither can we.

1. What are some of the chief abuses of conversion? can they be classified? 2. Does such a text as 1 John i., 7, hinge forgiveness on sanctification? How can such texts be reconciled with the evangelical scheme? 3. How can you distinguish a genuine revival from a spurious one?

Y.

1. Conversion itself cannot be abused, but only the name of it. Understanding the question thus, we should say that the name of conversion is abused whenever applied to anything but a turning away from one's sins, which is both manifest and decided, and also progressive toward increasing purity and beneficence of life. It is abused when applied to any half-way condition, in which some sins are abandoned, but others suffered to continue without effort to conquer them, especially sins of the tongue and temper, and indifference to self-sacrificing effort for

others. 2. Not at all. No inconsistency is here. The idea is that in the effort to "walk in the light in fellowship with one another" we shall discover more of our sinfulness, but that this will be purged away in the struggle of the self-sacrificing life inspired by Christ-denoted by the phrase "the blood of Jesus." 3. The only decisive test is given in the words of Jesus, " By their fruits ye shall know them."

1. Is it Scriptural to speak of three types of conversion-nurtural, gradual, and sudden? Are the disciples examples of the second? 2. If perseverance is the proof of true conversion, must there always be an "if" in Christian life? 3. Why has the word "conversion" become so common in popular theology to describe a religious crisis? It seldom occurs in the New Testament. Would "repentance" be a better word?

1. We think that these types all appear in the Bible. Timothy seems to illustrate the first; the eleven disciples of Jesus the second, so far as we can judge by the record, which does not take account of individual differences; and Paul the third. 2. But perseverance is a proof, rather than the proof. There need be no "it." Witness Paul's experience. 3. We suppose because it is the first step that counts for most, according to the Greek saying, "The beginning is half of the whole." Conversion is a process rather than an event, and there are many steps to be taken before it is complete in the conforming of the entire life to the divine law. Making allowance for this, it is proper enough to refer to "the great surrender," by which it is often initiated, as the man's" conversion." We do not think "repentance" a satisfactory substitute for it.

Please mention the best modern works on John's Gospel, especially on the teaching of Jesus as found in John's Gospel. Is there any up-to-date commentary on John's Gospel? I am familiar with Beyschlag, Horton, Wendt in Biblical Theology; I know of Meyer, Godet, and Ellicott in commentaries on John. What is later? E. E. O.

Professor Stevens's "The Johannine Theology" is later, a recent work. We would also recommend Dr. E. H. Sears's "The Fourth Gospel, the Heart of Christ," and F. D. Maurice's "The Gospel of John."

Will you kindly give me some information on the following points? I. The names of the best writings on what is called the Reconstruction Period of our history. 2. The name of a history of the Civil War from a Southern standpoint. 3. To whom shall I send for further information with regard to the "Philafrican Liberators' League" in process of organization by Heli Chatelain? A. M. G.

1. McPherson's" History of Reconstruction," Pollard's "Lost Cause Regained." 2. Jefferson Davis's "Rise and Fall of the Confederate States," Pollard's "Lost Cause." 3. We do not know.

The writer of the notice of Dr. Bergstresser's books begs to assure "H. O, W." that he lives among Tunkers, that he is personally conversant with them, that he has attended their religious meetings "in barns," that he has listened to the public confessions of sin through long hours, and that the Tunkers, though generally well-to-do farmers, decline to erect a house of public worship. They also profess a belief in the immersion (baptism) of believers, which is a distinguishing tenet of the Baptists. They are mostly German or of German descent. A reference to Carroll's "Religious Forces of the United States" confirms in general the statements of the notice in question. Only it must be granted "H. O. W." that the reviewer, relying upon the information given him by the Tunkers among whom he resides, asserted broadly the use of barns, which is not universal. The reviewer disclaims any prejudice. He stated the facts that had come under his personal observation.

"H. F. B."-Your letter on "Historical Evidences of Christianity" is conclusive so far as this, that Jesus Christ lived, and became the founder of the Christian faith. But the remarks recently made in this column were concerned with a wider question, and in reply to skeptical difficulties that have been raised on the ground that heathen writers are silent in regard to the particulars of his life and work, so that for these the New Testament, especially in the four Gospels, gives us our only historical material. This, however, as we have said with sufficient plainness, we regard as fully adequate for all reasonable demands. What the heathen writers you quote have to say is only as to the fact that he lived and died and gained adherents, who, as Pliny says to the Emperor Trajan in your quotation, sang hymns to him as to a god.

Have any of The Outlook's readers a second-hand copy of Kingsley's "Social Choir "which they would be willing to sell (it is most likely now out of print)? If so, please address, stating price, J. A. Wilcox, Five Points, Akron, O.

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The Lewis Institute in Chicago

The Lewis Institute, opened in Chicago on September 21, marks another advance in the university extension idea of carrying the college to the pupils instead of asking the pupils to move to the college.

When Allen C. Lewis died in 1877, he left $550,000 for the establishment of an educational institution for boys and girls. Owing to certain complications with regard to the settlement of the estate, the real work of founding the school was not begun until July 9, 1895. At that time the Board of Trustees, made up of three prominent business men, prepared its report, which showed that the original endowment had more than tripled in its hands, the actual amount being something over $1,600,000. A handsome building costing $225,000 was erected at the corner of West Madison and Robey Streets, in the heart of the great west side of the city, where it would reach the greatest possible number of pupils in their homes. It is six stories high above the basement and fitted with class-rooms, laboratories, manual training rooms, libraries, studios, and a lecture-hall with a seating capacity of seven hundred and fifty. In equipment it will have every convenience that a bountiful endowment can supply. The Board of Managers include William R. Harper, of Chicago University; Albert G. Lane, Principal of the schools of Chicago; George N. Carman, Director of the Institute; John A. Roach, C. C. Kohlsaat, John McLaren, and Thomas Kane. A Faculty of twenty-six professors and instructors has been provided, and it is expected that at least five hundred pupils, half of the total capacity of the Institute, will be in attendance on opening day.

The aim of the Institute is to provide a high-grade secondary education at small expense to pupils. There will be many short courses of all kinds, and evening classes, instruction being given in mechanics, stenography, household economy, and manual training, in addition to the usual language, literature, and science courses. In every study instruction will be first-class as far as it goes. It is expected that a large number of young people who have neither the time nor the money to attend college will take advantage of this opportunity for obtaining an education. Being located in a populous district, pupils may live at home and take the courses, thus avoiding the largest item of college expense-that of board and lodging. The tuition is fixed at $60 a year. A graduate from the academic course of the Institute will be capable of entering those colleges and universities whose requirements for admission are the most advanced.

Robinson Crusoe's Island

The Madrid correspondent of the London "Daily Mail" writes: "In consequence of the violent earthquakes that occurred in the center of Chili, Santiago, and Valparaiso on March 13 and 14 last, a notice has appeared in Santiago, uncontradicted up to the present, that these seismatical disturbances have destroyed the island of Juan Fernandez, off the coast of Chili, to which the group of islands belongs. It is believed that these islands have disappeared. The island of Juan Fernandez, it will be remembered, is celebrated as having been the residence for four years of the shipwrecked sailor Alexander Selkirk, whose adventures inspired Daniel Defoe to write 'Robinson Crusoe.' A merchant vessel has seen, in the direction of these islands, enormous flames which shot out of the sea, causing a violent disturbance. The government of Chili has sent a vessel to ascertain whether the islands are still in existence. The inhabitants are said to be about a hundred fishermen."

"Mamma, what is heredity?" asked Bobby, shedding a few tears and laboriously tripping over the syllables of the long word. "Why, it is—it is something you get from your father or me," replied the mother. Silence of two minutes, and more tears. "Then, ma," he asked, "is spanking hereditary?"-Texas Sifter.

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About People

-Queen Victoria's chaplain-in-ordinary, the Rev. A. Robins, lately preached his five thousandth sermon at Windsor.

-Henri Durant, the founder of the Red Cross movement, is, it is reported, in a Swiss hospital, sick and in poverty.

-Frau Cosima Wagner has received from the King of Wurtemburg the gold medal of the Order of the Crown to mark the twentieth anniversary of the production of "Der Ring des Nibelungen" at Bayreuth.

-The Queen of Roumania is said to be the only living author who has written opera librettos in four languages-French, German, Swedish, and Roumanian. She has just finished an opera libretto in French, founded on a Turkish subject, for M. Jules Massenet.

-Dr. James M. Aldrich, who has just died in Fall River, Mass., at the age of seventy-nine, was prominent in the anti-slavery movement before the war. He severed his connection with the Society of Friends because they refused to open their meeting-houses for antislavery meetings.

-The handwriting of the late Rev. Dr. A. J. Gordon was singularly difficult to decipher. In the biography by his son the story is told of his answering some correspondent who wanted to know his views on some eschatological question. He wrote briefly, expressing his regret that he had no time to amplify. Some months later he received another letter saying: "It is certainly fortunate for me that your time was so limited. I have already spent nine weeks in attempting to decipher the handwriting of your note, and am not nearly done yet."

-The Boston "Transcript" says that this story of Daniel Webster has never before appeared in print: "He was once sued by his meat man. The man did not call upon Webster afterward to trade with him. Webster met him in the course of a few days and asked him why he didn't call. Because,' said the man, I supposed that you would be offended and wouldn't trade with me any more.' To which Webster replied: Oh, sue me as many times as you like, but, for Heaven's sake, don't starve me to death!""

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-A bust of Thomas Arnold, of Rugby, has been placed in Westminster Abbey. It is opposite that of Matthew Arnold, who was thus honored before his father, and is near the busts of Wordsworth, Keble, Maurice, and Fawcett. The Dean of Westminster said, in unveiling the bust, that they were trying to honor the memory of the great teacher to whose teaching they owed a debt which they could not overestimate. They were paying honor to the memory of the great Christian reformer of the whole life of English public schools.

-Miss Ella Collins, daughter of a New York tailor, will be the first woman of the United States raised to a throne by marriage. She will shortly become the wife of Colonel John F. Hoobs, who, under the name of Oumalea, reigns over the semi-barbarous people of the Jilka Islands, in the New Hebrides group. Colonel Hoobs was born in South Carolina, and after a wandering life full of strange adventure settled on one of the Jilka islands. Since then he has become the undisputed ruler of the 1,200 or more people who live there, under the title of king.

-Mr. Andrew J. Symington, a Scottish littérateur, under date of September 1, writes from Glasgow to a gentleman of this city: "I visited the Burns Exhibition and was introduced to the poet's granddaughter, Miss Burns, and to his great-granddaughter, Miss Hutchinson. I was surprised and delighted with the extent of the exhibition. It is, I think, the most marvelous homage ever paid to mortal man-more than a thousand editions of his poems, and three thousand volumes about him, with no end of MSS. and relics of the most interesting character, also numerous portraits, busts, statues, and wood carvings."

An Ounce of Prevention

s cheaper than any quantity of cure. Don't give children narcotics or sedatives. They are unnecessary when the infant is properly nourished, as it will be if brought up on the Gail Borden Eagle Brand Condensed Milk.

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MISREPRESENTATION on the part of our agents tolerated or of dealers or painters necessary. You know just what you are getting when you have painting done with

Pure White Lead

(see list of brands, which are genuine) and Pure Linseed Oil. Don't be misled by trying something else said to be "just as good." Any desired shade or color may be easily produced by using NATIONAL LEAD Co.'s. Pure White Lead Tinting Colors.

Pamphlet giving valuable information and card showing samples of colors free; also cards showing pictures of twelve houses of different designs painted in various styles or combinations of shades forwarded upon application to those intending to paint.

NATIONAL LEAD CO.,

1 Broadway, New York.

TAKE A COMBINATION BOX OF THE

LARKIN SOAPS

And get a "CHAUTAUQUA "

Rocker and Reclining Chair Free.

Our soaps are sold entirely on their merits, with a guarantee of purity. Thousands use them, and have for many years in every locality, many in your vicinity.

Chair can be adjusted to any position, and changed at will by the occupant while reclining. A synonym of luxurious ease and comfort. It is built of oak, polished antique finish, with beautifully grained threeply veneer back. The seat, head and foot rests are upholstered with silk plush in crimson, old red, tobacco brown, old gold, blue or olive as desired. It is very strong and perfectly simple in construction. It is fully guaranteed.

...

On 30 Days Trial. From Factory

To Family.

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Subscribers to

60 this paper may use the Goods 30 days before Bill is due.

After trial you-the consumer-pay the usual retail value of the Soaps only. All middlemen's profits accrue to you in a valuable premium. The manufacturer alone adds Value; every middleman adds Cost. The Larkin plan saves you half the cost-saves you half the regular retail prices. Thousands of readers of this paper know these facts.

Many people prefer to send cash with order - it is not asked - but if you remit in advance, you will receive in addition to all extras named a nice present for the lady of the house, and shipment day after order is received. Your money will be refunded without argument or comment if the Box or Chair does not prove all expected. We guarantee the safe delivery of all goods.

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Write your order like this TO-DAY, while you think of it, or cut this out and sign it: "You may ship me, subject to thirty days trial, One Combination Box of 'Sweet Home' Soap, with extras, etc., and the Chautauqua Reclining Chair, upon your own conditions, viz.:

"If, after thirty days trial, I find all the Soaps, etc., of unexcelled quality and the Chair entirely satisfactory to me and as represented, I will remit you $10.00; if not, will notify you goods are subject to your order and you must remove them, making no charge for what have used." Name......

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Mustrations of other Premiums sent on request. THE LARKIN SOAP MFG. CO., Buffalo, N.Y. NOTE.-The Larkin Soap Mfg. Co. make our readers a wonderful offer. Not only do they give you a box of excellent laundry soap and toilet articles of great value, but they also give each purchaser a valuable premium, and we personally know they carry out what they promise.-The Independent, New York

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