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Episcopal Church to catholicity. This Church, he says, a century ago was the dominant one in more than half of our States, but to-day it holds but one-twenty-fifth of the aggregate membership of American Protestant Churches. The author believes that the desire of certain men for an elaborate ritual will be gratified when the Church Universal is established, but the Church Universal, he holds, will establish unity by allowing a large measure of diversity. (Eaton & Mains, New York.)
Elements of Psychology, by George Groom Robertson, edited by Caroline A. F. Rhys Davids, is a condensation of notes upon lectures delivered by Professor Robertson at University College, London, between 1870 and 1892. Miss Davids was assisted in her work by twenty-five former students under Professor Robertson, who lent her the notes they had taken of his lectures. (Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.)
Nature and Christ, by Joseph Agar Beet, D.D., is a series of lectures delivered by the Professor of Systematic Theology at Wesleyan College, Richmond, England, before the Ocean Grove Summer School of Theology in August of last year. The thought of the volume is that the revelation of God in nature, in Christ, and in our own souls is essentially one. (Eaton & Mains, New York.)— -The Perfect Whole, by Horatio W. Dresser, is a deeply religious essay upon the conduct and meaning of life, by one who has experienced the peace and joy that come from the belief that one Divine Spirit is working in all things and through all things. The volume lays no claim to originality of thought, but there is always original thought where there is such freshness and depth of feeling. (George H. Ellis, Boston.)—The Inspiration of History, by James Mulchahey, S.T.D., is a series of essays upon the inspiration of history in man's sense of his relationship toward God. The history which has been thus inspired is not confined to that chronicled in the Old and New Testaments, but continues wherever religion is truly "the life of God in the soul of man." (Thomas Whittaker, New York.) Through Egypt to Palestine, by Lee S. Smith, is based upon the author's letters to the Pittsburg "Christian Advocate." The volume is amply illustrated from photographs he took during his travels. (Fleming H. Revell Company, New York.) The Evolution of an Empire: A Brief Historical Sketch of the United States, by Mary Platt Parmele, is a healthful attempt to describe the development of the United States without encumbering the mind of the reader with a mass of chronological detail. Memory, the author holds, is intended to be the handmaid of the higher faculties, but in the study of American history it has been enthroned above the other faculties. She endeavors to discuss only those events which have really influenced the life of the people of our country. (William B. Harrison, New York.)
New Essays Concerning Human Understanding, by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz, translated, with notes, by Alfred Gideon Langley, embodies the labor of years on the part of the translator and editor as well as the philosopher whose criticism upon Locke is now presented to English readers. We shall give the book further notice hereafter. (The Macmillan Company, New York.)
The Holy Spirit in the New Testament Scriptures, by William Campbell Scofield, is a commentary upon the two hundred and fifteen passages in the New Testament in which reference is made to the Holy Spirit. (Fleming H. Revell Company, New York.)—Evolution or Creation? by Professor Luther T. Townsend, D.D., is a review of the scientific theories of creation from the standpoint of one who believes in the absolute accuracy of the Mosaic narrative. Professor Townsend finds much encouragement in the waning hold of naturalism upon the leaders in the scientific world. Even if missing links shall be discovered, they will not, he believes, revive the naturalism which seemed in the ascendency a few years ago, but will merely furnish further evidence of a plan along which all the workings of nature are ordered. (Fleming H. Revell Company, New York.)
The Epworth League Reading Course for 1896-97 consists of four volumes entitled respectively The Vision of Christ in the Poets, by Charles M. Stuart; The Social Law of Service, by Professor Richard T. Ely; Torch-Bearers of Christendom, by Dr. Robert H. Doherty; and In League with Israel, by Annie Fellows Johnston. "The Torch-Bearers of Christendom " is a brief but clear review of the history of Christianity down to our own times. "In League with Israel" is the story of the conversion of a Jew through the work of the League. Professor Ely's book on "The Social Law of Service" and Mr. Stuart's on "The Vision of Christ in the Poets" are books of value to mature minds. Mr. Stuart's volume is an admirable collection of the best religious poems in our English and American literature. Most of them are by the poets of our own half-centurythe Brownings, Tennyson, Whittier, Longfellow, and Lowell-and the religious life they breathe is the religious life of to-day. Professor Ely's "Social Law of Service" is, in an equal or even a greater degree, a book expressive of the religious life of our own times. It presents to the conscience of Christians one pointed question after another regarding their duties toward those to whom they are bound by the modern political and industrial organization of society. The book is one that should and will be read by pastors and adult laymen quite as much as by members of the Epworth League, for whom it is written. (Eaton & Mains, New York.)
The Story of France, as told by Thomas E. Watson, the People's party candidate for Vice-President, is an exceptionally entertaining narrative. The muse of history in her South Georgia costume signally lacks her customary dignity, but is so full of life and sympathy and humor that she gains an unwonted fascination. The author touches nothing that has not a vital interest either as illustrating the life of the age he is describing, or as affecting the life of the ages that follow. By means of concrete pictures rather than abstract generalizations he depicts the history of civilization. His own intense sympathies with the cause of the oppressed, and his constant finding of parallels between the battles against privilege in ages gone by and those to-day, make
the description of the dead past read like a description of the living present. The volume before us virtually concludes with the story of Joan of Arc. It is understood that Mr. Watson took up French history because of his interest in the French Revolution. If the volume describing that epoch shall be as dramatic and as eloquent as the chapters upon the medieval deliverers of France, the knowledge of French history may become more general on the Southern farms than it is to-day in our Northern universities.
-W. H. Mallock is to edit a new London weekly modeled after the Spectator."
-Mr. Arthur Waugh writes to the "Critic" from London:
Mark Twain, who has been staying for the last few weeks in seclusion in Surrey, is occupied upon a volume recounting his adventures during his tour round the world. He works upon it continuously, and hopes to see it published in December. There are so many people who feel that the peculiar humor of Mr Clemens has of late been wasted upon fields uncongenial and difficult, that the announcement that he is once more returning to the form of literature which he has made so insistently his own will be greeted with a hearty welcome.
—“There is some possibility," says the London Echo," "that Count Tolstoï may visit England this Christmas. At any rate, he is thinking of going to Sweden some time in the autumn, and an effort will certainly be made to extend his visit to this country. Fortunately, the veteran Russian novelist and prophet, who has lately abandoned his long novel to write a semi-religious book for children, speaks English pretty fluently."
Literary items of recent news are cabled by the New York "Tribune's" London correspondent:
Mr. Ruskin's health has improved during the summer to such an extent that he is now revising some of his earlier works at his home among the lakes. Mr Andrew Lang's biography of Lockhart, on which he has been at work a long time, will be published in October. Lockhart, while best known as the biographer of Sir Walter Scott, was intimate with famous men of his time, and in correspondence with many of them. He left a great mass of literary material, of which Mr. Lang has made full use. Dr. Conan Doyle has finished at Haslemere, where he is building his future home, the manuscript of a new historical novel of the French Empire. It will have the title of "Boulogne: A Story of the Empire."
Benedict, Anne K.
Waite, Carlton. A
Spahr, Charles B.
For the Week ending September 11
BAPTIST PUBLICATION SOCIETY, PHILADELPHIA
ARENA PUBLISHING CO., BOSTON
HENRY T. COATES & CO., PHILADELPHIA
An Essay on the Present Distribution of Wealth in the
EATON & MAINS, NEW YORK Beet, Joseph A., D.D. Nature and Christ. 75 cts. Maxwell, Ellen B. Three Old Maids in Hawaii. $1.50. Leavitt, John McDowell, D.D. The Christian Democracy. $1.50. Epworth League Reading Course, 1896-97: The Vision of Christ in the Poets, by Charles M. Stuart; The Social Law of Service, by R. T. Ely; Torch Bearers of Christendom, by R. H. Doherty; In League with Israel, by Annie F. Johnston. $3.80 for set.
Dresser, Horatio W. Farjeon, B. L. The Bible Illustrations.
GEORGE H. ELLIS, BOSTON The Perfect Whole. $1.50.
R. F. FENNO & CO., NEW YORK
Betrayal of John Fordham. $1.25. HENRY FROwde, new YORK
GINN & CO., BOSTON
Humphreys, Willard. Selections from Quintus Curtius's History o Alexan der the Great.
HARPER & BROS., NEW YORK
WILLIAM B. HARRISON, NEW YORK
(The Duchess). A Lonely Maid. 50 cts.
LONGMANS, GREEN & CO., NEW YORK Lyall, Edna. The Autobiography of a Truth. 30 cts. MACMILLAN & CO., NEW YORK
Leibnitz, Gottfried Wilhelm. New Essays Concerning Human Understand-
Putnam, Irene. Songs Without Answer. $1.
FLEMING H. REVELL CO., NEW YORK
Townsend, Prof. L. T., D.D. Evolution or Creation? $1.25.
Scofield, William C. The Holy Spirit in the New Testament Scriptures. $1
CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS, NEW YORK
Holland, J. G. Arthur Bonnicastle. 75 cts.
Stories by English Authors. The Sea. 75 cts.
Hibbard, George A. Lenox. Illustrated by W. S. V. Allen. 75 cts.
Burnett, Frances Hodgson. That Lass o' Lowrie's. $1.25.
The Religious World
A brief dispatch from Rome announces that the Anglican Orders Pope has issued a decision upon the question of the validity of Anglican orders. He says: "After long study, I must confirm the decrees of my predecessors that all ordinations made under the Anglican rite are absolutely invalid." It is stated that Leo XIII. embodies in his decision a perfectly natural but, under the circumstances, almost ludicrous appeal to the English clergy to return to the Roman Church, and thus obtain that validity of ordination which, as he believes, cannot otherwise be had. The whole subject has been under discussion for centuries, but, as our readers know, has recently been actively revived. When a more complete account of the Pope's declaration reaches America, we shall comment fully on this important topic.
American Board Meeting
Many great leaders of religious thought in America will be in attendance at the eighty-seventh annual meeting of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, which convenes in the First Congregational Church of Toledo, O., October 6. Dr. Richard S. Storrs, of Brooklyn, will preside over the deliberations of the body, which will be in session three days. Among the delegates to this meeting will be: Dr. William Hayes Ward; President Franklin Fisk, of the Chicago Theological Seminary; Dr. Washington Gladden, of Columbus; Dr. Daniel Bradley, of Grand Rapids; Dr. N. Boynton, of Detroit; Dr. E. P. Goodwin, Dr. F. P. Noble, and others. Between five hundred and seven hundred visitors are expected, among whom will be found prominent corporate and honorary members, missionaries, many well-known mission workers of the Woman's Board of the Interior, and no less than one hundred clergymen. The annual sermon will be preached by Dr. Edward N. Packard, of Syracuse, N. Y., Tuesday evening, October 6. Among the matters that will doubtless receive attention will be the Armenian massacres and the destruction of the missions and educational institutions at Harpoot. Mr. C. H. Whitaker is Chairman, and the Rev. George B. Brown Secretary, of the local committee of arrangements.
The Jewish Holy Season
For two weeks past the Jews have been celebrating their holy season. Beginning with the 7th of September, their religious New Year, the synagogues have been crowded with devout worshipers, assembled for what may be well termed their annual revival. According to Jewish tradition it is 5,657 years since the creation of the world, this calculation having been made from the genealogies found in the Bible. The celebration of the day was most solemn, as it is considered sanctified by the memories of the year just past, together with the idea that on this day God sits in judgment upon the deeds and thoughts of men. Nine days thereafter are observed as semi-holidays, being called the "Days of Penitence," all of which form a preparation for the climax of these holy days in that holiest of Sabbaths, the Day of Atonement. It is on this day that the destiny of men is sealed by God, in accordance with the judgment passed upon the faithful and the faithless. The universality of the observance of this holy season is its most striking feature. The most orthodox and the extreme radical alike listen to the stirring blast of the cornet and the traditional melodies of the fast-day, pitched in a minor key. Many of these airs are thousands of years old, and are marked by a weird harmony especially affecting to those associating them with previous days of similar tenor. As a reaction from this period of fasting and humiliation, the Feast of Tabernacles follows, four days after the "Day of Atonement." It is the Harvest Festival or Thanksgiving Feast of the Jews. While they are commanded to erect booths of evergreen as a reminder of the mode of life in the Wilderness, the special characteristic of the Feast is the distribution of large sums in charity, the more fortunate giving of the abundance with which they have been blessed in recognition of God's goodness displayed towards them. By these fasts and feasts the new season of religious activity is opened, to be followed by the regular observance of the weekly Sabbaths and occasional festivals which succeed.
In the death of the Rev. Dr. William C. Dr. William C. Young Young, which occurred at Danville, Ky., on September 16, Center College loses a brilliant President, the Presbyterian Church a strong preacher, and the cause of education in the South a prominent leader. He was, in fact, one of the most prominent educators in the South, and had done much to make Center College the famous institution she has become. Dr. Young's education was thorough, and he was carefully directed through youth and young manhood. His father, Dr. John C. Young, like himself, was once President of Center College, and
was also a Moderator of the Old School Presbyterian Assembly. His mother was a daughter of the famous John J. Crittenden, United States Senator from and Governor of the State of Kentucky. After his graduation from Center College and Danville Seminary, Dr. Young served with distinction in the pastorate at Madison, Ind.; Chicago, Ill., in the Fullerton Avenue Church; and in Louisville, Ky. In 1892, after an exceedingly sharp contest, Dr. Young was elected Moderator of the Presbyterian General Assembly at Portland, Oregon. He was a strict conservative in matters of Biblical criticism, and his opponents refused to make his election unanimous. He was one of the main participants in the Briggs case in those days that tried so many Presbyterian souls. He had not been able to attend to the active duties of his office for more than two years, and his death was not unexpected.
Church Membership of the General Theological Library
There are now eighty-four perpetual church members of the Theological Library at 53 Mount Vernon Street, Boston, the pastors of which can use the library forever free of charge. These churches are located in the States of Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and Connecticut. Of Congregational there are 31, Unitarian 15, Episcopal 12, Methodist 11, Baptist 6, Universalist 3, Reformed Presbyterian 2, Presbyterian, Reformed Episcopal, Disciples, and New Jerusalem 1 each. These memberships are being multiplied, and ere long will include the greater part of those in Boston and vicinity, and eventually the larger part of those in New England. A church may be constituted a member by its own contribution, or by an interested friend, in many cases making it a memorial of some departed friend. The Library now numbers about fourteen thousand volumes, chiefly on religious and theological literature, and the reading-room receives regularly one hundred periodicals on like subjects.
Is the appropriate name of the home for ex-convicts which Mrs. Ballington Booth is establishing on the high ground lying between the Harlem and Hudson Rivers on the upper end of Manhattan Island. It is a lovely old frame dwelling-house, and in location and general arrangement is admirably suited to the special purpose for which it is being fitted up. Several weeks ago The Outlook spoke of Mrs. Booth's purpose to found a home for released prisoners where they might receive much-needed sympathy and help in securing the means of making an honest living. Hope Hall will be their temporary home, and it has, perhaps, no exact parallel in this country. Mrs. Booth's prison work is divided into two parts, the first being carried on among the men in prison. So far has this work gone that a prison league has been established among the inmates at Sing Sing for spiritual purposes. Each member of the league (600 in number) subscribes for “The Gazette," the Volunteer organ; and many good books are being read by them. A marked change has come over many of them who are beginning to see that some one has sympathy for them and will give them help. If effort for their spiritual, moral, and material welfare should cease at the prison gates, it would, perhaps, in most cases fail of ultimate good; for it is when the poor ex-convict faces an unfriendly, unsympathetic world with his awful burden of shame and disgrace that the severest trials come. It is almost impossible for him to secure employment, because no one will trust him or cares to have him about. He needs sympathy, encouragement, and help. There is no place where he can go in the assurance of finding it, and this is indeed a pitiable fact. It is the testimony of prison officials that eighty to ninety per cent. of released prisoners go forth with the determination to lead honest, respectable lives, but most of them are driven back into crime for lack of a friendly, brotherly hand to help them. It is just on this unoccupied ground of needed helpful Christlike service that Hope Hall will stand. Here Mrs. Booth's "boys," as she fondly calls them, will find a warm welcome, when released from prison, if they are determined to live right and seek honest bread. A careful record will be kept of their whole history, and, when they deserve them, recommendations will be made to business men seeking help. Meantime they will be employed about Hope Hall so as to help make their living. Mrs. Booth is now making an effort to secure contributions with which to fit up and maintain Hope Hall, and would be pleased to receive anything that might be serviceable either in furnishing this home, or of use to the men who will occupy it. Carnegie Hall has been secured for a great mass-meeting on the evening of November 9, when a special appeal will be made for this enterprise. Certainly such a noble Christian ministry will not be crippled for the want of converted gold and silver to help it forward.
That the authorities of the Roman Catholic Catholic Schools Church are taking a deeper interest than ever in the education of the children of their denomination there appears to be little doubt. Attention has been called in these columns to Archbishop Ireland's establishment of free parochial
schools in his diocese, to be supported from voluntary contributions by the faithful. Another equally significant sign of the times is the action of the convention of the priests of the Archdiocese of St. Louis, which met for the first time in forty years to revise the rules that govern both the clergy and laity. It was the declaration that hereafter no Roman Catholic children shall be sent to the public schools, unless excused for good and sufficient reasons. Accompanying this declaration as a corollary was the order that schools must be built in every parish in the diocese. The reasons for not sending children to them must be submitted to a commission appointed by the Archbishop. Unless the excuse be considered adequate, non-compliance with the requirement will carry a penalty. When asked what this penalty would be, the Archbishop replied: "I am not prepared to say. It is a matter which remains with the confessor," he added. "If he learns that one of those for whom he is responsible disregards the mandates of the Church, he may feel that he can no longer be responsible for him, and refuse him absolution. It is something that will have to work itself out." A general enforcement throughout the country of the rule adopted in the diocese of St. Louis would draw away a considerable population from the public schools, and might eventually raise the question for practical decision whether parents taxed for schools they do not patronize should not be exempt from the burden. It is rumored, apparently on good authority, that Dr. Chauncy J. Brewster, rector of Grace Episcopal Church on Brooklyn Heights, will in all probability be chosen by the Diocesan Convention, to convene shortly at Buffalo, to the Bishopric of Western New York, as successor of the late Bishop A. Cleveland Coxe, who was consecrated Bishop in 1865. This is an important diocese, embracing fourteen large counties, in which in 1890 there were 1,104,796 people living. It is an interesting fact that Dr. Brewster is a lineal descendant of the eldest son of Elder Brewster, pastor of the Pilgrim Fathers. He is forty-eight years of age, a native of Connecticut, a graduate of Yale and Berkeley Divinity School. He has served churches in Westchester County, N. Y., Baltimore, Md., Detroit, Mich., and Brooklyn, his present charge. While in Michigan he was chosen to represent the diocese of that State in the General Convention of the Church. Many clergymen have expressed themselves as favoring Dr. Brewster for Bishop because they consider him just the man for the place.
Dr. Brewster and the Bishopric
Ian Maclaren's readers will be interested to know that there is a vacancy here, and a competition for it. Drumtochty does not appear on the map, but the place immortalized by that name is Logiealmond, a little village of Perthshire, in the heart of Scotland, about six miles from Methven, the nearest railway station. Here, with a decreasing population, now counting but 500 with women and children included, the number of kirks has been increasing, and at present there are four of them. It is the United Presbyterian, colloquially known as the “U. P.,” which has become vacant, and its congregation has petitioned the Presbytery of Perth to "moderate in a call,” i.e., to authorize the call of a pastor. The petition states that the church numbers sixty-five in full communion, and guarantees a stipend of £70, besides a manse reckoned at £14, with a garden and "a small green field." There are a number of unemployed U. P. "probationers" to whom this is not uninviting. A salary of $400, parsonage included, is probably the Drumtochty equivalent of twice that sum in rural America. But the sectarian divisions the call reveals, and the resulting enfeeblement, are as deplorable in Scotland as in this country.
The Boys' Brigade in Canada.
To see the chief executive-the Governor-General-of a nation as strong as Canada has now become, standing with uncovered head in the midst of a hollow square of boys, talking to them in deep earnestness about the aims and purposes of the Boys' Brigade, was to obtain a fresh and interesting view of this many-sided organization. It was recently, in the charming little city of Sarnia, Ontario, that I heard the Earl of Aberdeen making this address. He spoke simply, earnestly, effectively, of the noble standard the boys of Canada should have before them, and showed how practical the work of this organization was made in molding character and habits for the future. It was the first visit of the Governor-General to the place, and while there was civic recognition of the arrival of their distinguished guest, yet the main interest centered in the exercises attendant upon the work of the Brigade.
The Boys' Brigade movement has attracted much attention in Canada. It has steadily gained in strength, too, since the first company was organized in St. John, N. B., in May, 1889. The annual meeting of the national organization has just been held in the city of Toronto, September 9-10. The report of Captain T. W. Nisbet, Brigade Secretary for the Dominion, showed that there are now in Canada 134
companies of the Boys' Brigade, with 416 officers and nearly 5,000 members. The organization is divided into five battalions-St. John, N. B.; Hamilton and Toronto, Ontario; Montreal, Quebec, and Vancouver in British Columbia. There are two colored companies, and two composed wholly of Indian boys.
The Brigade in Canada has, perhaps, a slower growth than in the United States, due to two main causes-the smaller population and greater conservatism. But the splendid principles of the organization are being more and more widely recognized all over the Dominion, and the growth is steady and stable.
There has been liberal recognition of the movement among men who stand high in the political life of the country. The GovernorGeneral is at the head of the Brigade movement in Canada, being the President of the organization for the Dominion, and Vice-President for Great Britain. That he takes a practical as well as a sympathetic interest was shown by the recent financial report, which credited him with a gift of $300 annually for the maintenance of the Brigade headquarters office in Sarnia. Many members of Parliament and many men prominent in the commercial as well as the political life of the country contribute to the support of the organization, and lend their influence to its advancement.
On the recent visit of the Governor-General to Sarnia, the members of the local Company turned out in a body to escort him from the railway station to the Brigade Headquarters. About $15,000 has been expended in erecting and fitting up the Sarnia headquarters of the organization. There is a fine system of baths, a large and wellequipped gymnasium, reading-rooms, recreation-rooms, assembly hall, and so on. The Governor-General gives annually a silver medal, suspended from the dark-green plaid ribbon which is the insignia of the Scottish clan of which he is a representative, to the boy who during the year has had the best record for good conduct and efficiency.
During the year closing with the annual meeting just held, fifty-nine companies have been organized, showing a quite remarkable growth during the twelvemonth.
The organization, established but a little over a decade ago by the young Scotsman, W. A. Smith, of Glasgow, has been rapidly spreading over the world. The firm and steady growth in Canada is excellent proof of its vitality. W. S. H.
The Protestant Episcopal Church Congress will hold its next meeting in Norfolk, Va., on November 17.
The Rev. F. G. Alger, formerly located at Oneida, Ill., has accepted the call to the Congregational church of Blackstone, Mass.
The Rev. Dr. Adam Clarke Bledsoe (Methodist), who has just died at Charlottesville, Va., was one of the noted Methodist preachers of Virginia. He was popularly known as "the sweet singer of the Virginia Conference."
The new Episcopal Cathedral of the diocese of Tennessee, at Memphis, will cost $100,000, and will be built of stone taken from the quarries of the State. The exterior will be of rough-hewn stones, and the interior will be polished stone and marble.
Princeton Theological Seminary opened a new school year on September 17 with the largest class in its history. The class has seventy-five candidates for the ministry. At the annual convocation on the 18th Professor B. B. Warfield delivered the principal address.
The thirteenth annual Convention of the Christian and Missionary Alliance will be held in the Gospel Tabernacle, New York, September 27 to October 11, except that Sunday services on September 27 and October 4 will be held in the American Theater, and on October 11 in Carnegie Hall. The Alliance has three hundred missionaries in the foreign field.
A mob attacked the American Presbyterian church at Agnas Calientes, Mexico, on the night of September 15, broke windows and doors with stones, and also attacked the house of the pastor, the Rev. D. H. Sharp. The next night all the windows of the Morelos College in the same place were broken. Several arrests have been made, and Minister Ransom has been appealed to to secure the punishment of the offenders.
The Harvard Christian Association sends a cordial greeting to all newcomers to the University. Members of the Association will be at the Association rooms in Holden Chapel from Monday, September 28, to Thursday, October 1, between 9 A.M. and 1 P.M. They will be glad to be of any assistance to students in securing boarding-houses, looking after baggage, and by giving any information helpful and interesting to newcomers.
The Rev. Dr. Elwood Worcester, who has recently accepted the rectorship of St. Stephen's Church, Philadelphia, which the Rev. Dr. S. D. McConnell left to take charge of Holy Trinity Church, Brooklyn, became chaplain and professor of philosophy at the Lehigh University in the fall of 1890. He leaves that place for his Philadelphia charge. Dr. Worcester is scarcely more than thirty years old. He holds the degree of Ph.D. from one of the German universities, and is a graduate of Columbia University and the General Theological Seminary in this city. He has made a close study of Biblical criticism, and is generally accounted a Broad Churchman.
The Rev. John C. Logie, a missionary of the United Presbyterian Church, died at Bwemba, Congo Free State, on July 15. He was born in Dundee, Scotland, about 1865. Three years ago he entered the mission field. He prepared for the work in the East of London Institute, then volunteered for the Congo Balolo Mission in Central Africa. The field of his work was among the widespread Balolo people in the vast forested region south of the northern bend of the Congo, where the Batwa dwarfs were discovered. Mr. Logie rapidly acquired the language of the country, and did good work among the natives. In some of his missionary tours of the southern tributaries of the Congo he went where no white man had ever been seen before. He finally fell a victim to the climate, being the seventh out of twenty-five missionaries in that field to die within the past year.
The Home Club
Women's Clubs' Programmes
In this department, in the issue of The Outlook of August 22, a request was made that secretaries of women's clubs who had arranged their winter programmes should forward to The Outlook the programmes, with a view to the exchange of information on this extremely important work. A number of programmes have been received, and we hope that our readers who are in a position to aid us in this effort to bring women's clubs into closer relation will forward their programmes as soon as they are ready. The Fortnightly Club of Bennington, Vt., makes its sixth annual announcement for the winters of '96 and '97. This club opens October 3 with Vacation Experiences; October 17, Current Events; October 31, An Afternoon with Sculptors; November 14, Literature; November 28, Social Science; December 12, History and Travel; January 2, Education; January 16, Current Events; January 30, Art (a special department of art of this afternoon is music-Schubert's "Songs of Nature"); February 13, Literature; February 27, Social Science; March 13, History and Travel; March 27, Education; April 10, the annual meeting; April 24, Current Events. The programme is beautifully printed on roughedge paper. The membership of the Club is about one hundred and seventy-five, and embraces some well-known names.
The Whittier Literary Club of London, O., sends in its programme for '95 and '96. This is a mixed club. The dues are fifty cents a year, which meets the expenses of the programmes. The meetings, like those of the Fortnightly, are held bi-monthly. The constitution is simple. Each meeting closes with a conversation. The meetings are held in the evening, for the convenience of the male members of the club. The ministers connected with all of the Protestant churches in the community are members; also several professionals, teachers, and others, are represented in the club. The club was organized in 1892. For October of 1895 the subject was "The Age of Johnson," but one man taking part in the programme for the month. The conversation for the month of October was on "Rasselas;" for November, The Letters of Junius and their Influence; other topics were: the Orators, Pitt, Fox, and Sheridan; an Essay on Edmund Burke; on the Trial of Warren Hastings, with music. The second meeting of the month considered the writings of Oliver Goldsmith, with the historians and poets of his day. The subject of conversation was "Nature in Burns's Poetry." "Horace Walpole and His Day" was the subject of the meeting for the first evening in December; "Walter Scott" for the first meeting in January. A second meeting in January was given to the consideration of Thomas Moore, with readings from Southey's "Battle of Blenheim." The conversation was on "Lalla Rookh." Byron, Shelley, Lamb, and De Quincey, with conversations on "The Prisoner of Chillon," made up the programme for the first meeting in February. Wordsworth, Walter Savage Landor, and Campbell were the poets considered on the second evening in February, with conversation on the current events of this age. Macaulay was the chief theme of the first evening in March, the subject being varied by papers on Agnes Strickland, Mary Somerfield, and Anna Jameson, Hugh Miller and the scientists. The second meeting in March considered John Stuart Mill, Sir William Hamilton, the Bronté sisters, and there was a debate on the question, "Does Bulwer excel Scott as a novelist?" The conversation was on Heroes and Hero-Worship. On the last evening in March the Brownings were the principal subjects of the evening, with a sketch of Charles Kingsley and a conversation on "Hypatia." April 14 considered George Eliot, Charles Dickens, and Thackeray, with conversation on "Daniel Deronda." At the last meeting of the club the subjects for discussion were an imaginary visit from Samuel Johnson to the Whittier Club, "What was the matter with Carlyle ?" and "Would Dickens find
any characters in our club ?" A dinner closed the year. Mr. S. W. Durflinger, President; Mrs. MacToland, Vice-President. The club has aroused a community interest, and has been unusually successful.
The President of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore, Md., sends a very interesting letter, which we are glad to publish :
Dear Outlook: In your issue of August 22 you in vite a discussion "on the subject of the club's relation to the life of the community," making special inquiries as to the legitimate field of work for a woman's club, asking, "Shall the club confine its
discussion to one field? Shall the club consider the problems of the community, the schools, the street, the health of the town? Are the establishing of classes for the training of servants and the attempt to co-operate for the solution of the domestic servant question feasible?" etc., etc.
The trend of these inquiries lies in the direction of woman's work, as distinguished from culture or literary and artistic work, and any one of the topics you have mentioned may properly occupy the attention of any association of women calling itself a club, but their work will be of value in the community only in proportion to the fitness of the members to deal with the topic chosen, and according to the earnestness with which they pursue their object. Such an association may undoubtedly "consider the problems of the community, the schools, the streets, the health of the town," with profit to the community, providing that it brings the science of these subjects to its aid and considers them seriously. Nor would it be "a step backward" for such an association "to devote a winter's work to the subjects of domestic science," as you further inquire.
To accomplish results of any value the aims of an association should be in harmony with the wishes and gifts of its members, and should be clearly understood by them; any division of the subject should be placed under the care of a competent chairman who would take a special interest in the class of details it involved, while the leader of the association should be equally interested in the success of the various committees. The rules or code of every as. sociation should be as few and simple as the attainment of its ends permits, but every member should carefully uphold these rules.
I think it unlikely that results of permanent value will be obtained in a club where too many objects, or those not closely kindred, are combined; also, the strongest intellectual work is probably produced in associations where the membership is limited, as was shown in a recent general Convention of Women's Clubs.
In reply to your remark, "The woman's club that confines itself to a discussion of literary topics only is almost a thing of the past," and your question as to whether this is "a gain or loss in the measure of value of the club to its members," I may say that the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore, over which I have the honor to preside, is now in its
seventh year; it deals exclusively with literary topics,
or with thought which enters into culture, and this it endeavors to present upon its literary side as in art, music, education, philanthropy, etc., in the hope of stimulating wise and helpful opinion that may produce intelligent action beyond the club, and a broader application of true culture to life. The interest of our members has greatly increased from year to year, as proved by the large, constant attendance, the careful thought with which many papers that are offered in our general gatherings are
prepared, and the serious library and committee work which are gladly undertaken in the presentation of some of our subjects
Ours was the first woman's club to organize in Maryland, and while we have always steadily kept to our aim, opinions have been brought forward which have stimulated studies in directions leading
to practical activity not distinctly contemplated in the coming together of the founders of our literary association, and from us, as the mother of clubs in our State, have grown The Arundell, The Quadriga, the Baltimore Branch of the Folk-Lore, leaving us the smaller membership and the unity of atmosphere most conducive to literary production.
The refreshment and pleasure which our members find in our meetings, especially those literary workers whose names are known beyond our limits, is not only a proof of our vitality, but has been a matter of comment to visitors from other cities, who have frequently asked the secret of our full gatherings, and what penalty we impose upon members for nonattendance!
I send with this a copy of the President's address, delivered at our last annual salon, as it embodies the attitude of our club in its literary studies. Hoping that you may find these suggestions re
sponsive to your inquiries, and helpful in organizing other associations that may be productive of the quiet pleasure we have found in our own clubs, I am very sincerely yours,
MRS. LAWRENCE TURNBull, President of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore.
Public Sentiment and the Law The Health Boards of the several cities. are making every effort to protect consumers from the greed and ignorance of dealers.. Women's Health Protective Associations are making every effort to compel butchers and grocers not to expose their stock on the street, where there is always more or less pollution from dust and dirt. The transit of food products through the streets could be improved. The wagons are frequently open, and we are all familiar with the grocers' and butchers' baskets deposited on the sidewalk while the small boy indulges in a game of marbles or a What fight. Milk wagons are rarely clean. we should do is to refuse to trade with any dealer who does not protect his food products from every danger of contamination. The man who sells will meet the requirements of those who buy; his standards are regulated by the demands of his customers. Every woman who buys the products of a bakery should have a copy of the report of the Factory Inspectors of New York State on bakeries. She should also have a copy of the new law which is based on this report, and the testimony of the journeymen bakers. The knowledge of the conditions that exist, and the protection given by the law, which can be enforced only when public sentiment demands it, will remove one of the most prolific sources of disease.
Books for Women
We are frequently asked to furnish lists of books for reading circles, girls' clubs, and boys' clubs. A book has been published that should be owned by every reading circle and girls' club-"A List of Books for Girls and Women, and Their Clubs," edited by Augusta H. Leypoldt and George Iles. The titles of the books are accompanied by descriptive and critical notes, so that any group will find themselves well guided through the labyrinthine paths of a winter's reading. (The Library Bureau, Boston. 50 cents (paper) and $1 (cloth).
"X." gave a receipt for the making of grapejuice which was published in The Outlook of August 15, 1896. Will "X." kindly answer some questions which have been asked by members of this Club? Did "X." mean by bottles with patent stops the kind used for the bottling of lager-beer? Will "X." kindly send to the Club for publication some of her receipts for using grape-juice in cooking? Will "X." kindly inform other readers whether Concords are the only grapes to be used successfully in the making of grape-juice? Cannot Catawbas, Isabellas, and other grapes be. used with equal success?
A Nugget of Wisdom Overdoing is undoing. A cake burned to a crisp is as much a failure as a cake half baked. An audience wearied, confused, and vexed with too many points in a sermon, or too many addresses at an anniversary, is an great faculty to "make things go," but one of audience hindered instead of helped. It is a the ways to do it is to stop before going too far. The Sunday-School Times.
Rye Bread in Germany
The increase in the consumption of rye bread in Germany is brought to the attention of the farmers in this country by the commercial agent of the United States at Weimar. The thrift of the Germans leads them to obtain for their money the best return.
The New York "Medical Times " says that onions are the best nervine known; that they are useful in coughs, colds, and influenza; that they whiten the complexion if eaten every other day.
By Alix Thorn
In merry June the daisies stand
And birds the broad fields over.
In black and yellow splendor,
I think the sun's too loving rays
The Prize Contest
For the Little People
In The Outlook for July 11 two prizes were offered for the best corrections of the errone. ous answers submitted at a school examination. The first-prize paper is published below: "Who were the Pilgrims?" "A dirty, filthy set who lived under the ground."
The Pilgrims were the people who were forced to leave England because they could not worship as they believed right. They went first to Holland, but finally, in 1620, came to America, landing at Plymouth, where they established a colony. The answer given is wrong (1) because the Pilgrims were not a dirty, filthy set who lived under the ground; (2) because it tells nothing of whom the Pilgrims were.
"Name a domestic animal useful for clothing, and describe its habits." "The ox. He don't have any habits, because he lives in a stable."
The sheep. It is a herbivorous, ruminant quadruped. The answer given is wrong because the writer does not understand the mean
ing of the word "habits" as applied to ani
"If you were traveling across the desert, where would you choose to rest?" I would rest on a stool."
I would rest at an oasis. The answer given is wrong because one would not be likely to find a stool in a desert.
"Describe the white race, and show that it is superior to other races." "A white man will nod at you when he meets you on the street."
The white race has fair skins and straight hair and regular features. They are very intelligent, and have attained a higher degree of civilization than any other race. The white race is superior to other races in that they lead all other races in education, manufactures, commerce, etc. The answer given is wrong because (1) the writer did not describe the white race; (2) nodding in the street is no mark of superiority.
"Of what is the surface of the earth composed?" "Dirt and people."
The surface of the earth is composed of land and water. The answer is wrong because people do not compose the earth's surface. The term "dirt" is ambiguous.
"Name a fruit which has its seed on the outside." "A seed-cake."
The strawberry is a fruit having its seed on the outside. The answer is wrong because a cake is not a fruit.
"Name five forms of water." "Hot water, cold water, faucet water, well water, and ice water."
Ice, snow, frost, dew, and steam are five forms of water. The answer given is wrong because only one form of water, the liquid, is given.
The sense of taste is located in the tongue. The sense of hearing is located in the ear. The sense of touch is located on the surface of the body, but is most delicate in the ends of the fingers. The answer given is wrong because the senses are not named at all nor located correctly.
'Who were the mound-builders?" "History cannot answer these questions. Science only can.”
The mound-builders were a race of people differing from any known race in their characteristics. The only traces of them are the mounds which lie in the valley of the Mississippi. They lived in prehistoric times. The answer given is wrong because it does not answer the question.
"Define flinch,' and use it in a sentence." "Flinch-to shrink. Flannel flinches when it is washed."
The men did not flinch from their duty. The answer given is wrong because flinch means to shrink in the sense of to withdraw, not to grow smaller.
By what is the earth surrounded, and by what is
be eaten cold twice.' What are the errors in these statements ?"
The error in the statement that French women in cooking "clarified their own fat" is that they clarify the fat used by themselves and not the fat of their own bodies, as the statement implies.
The error in the statement that every kitchen used as a cooking-school "should have room for six or eight girls to cook at once "is that every kitchen should have room for six or eight girls to do cooking at once.
The error in the statement that a certain dish "could be eaten cold twice" is that one dish can never be eaten but once.
Nep and Betty were the warmest friends.
it lighted?" "It is surrounded by water, and lighted They played together, tumbling over each by gas and electricity."
The seal, polar bear, walrus, reindeer, muskox, and wolf are animals of the Arctic zone. The answer given is wrong because the writer has only named two different kinds of animals.
"What is yeast?" 66 Yeast is a vegetable flying about in the air, hitching itself onto everything." Yeast consists, essentially, of collections of small cells of a vegetable nature known as yeast cells. They have the property of very rapid reproduction. The answer given is wrong because yeast does not fly about in the air, hitching itself on to everything.
"Why do you open the dampers in a stove when lighting a fire?" "To let the oxygen in and the nitrogen out."
lighting a fire to produce a draft, which causes You open the dampers of a stove when the fire to burn more readily. The answer given is wrong because opening the drafts produces no such change.
"What did the Constitution do for the country ?" "It gave the President a head."
The Constitution defined the departments of the Government and pointed out the powers of the several States and the United States; and it regulated the financial, commercial, foreign, and domestic affairs of the country;
in short, it is the foundation of our Government. The answer given is wrong because it would be impossible for the Constitution to give the President a head.
"What are the last teeth that come to a man?" "False teeth."
Wisdom teeth are the last teeth that come to a man. The answer given is wrong because false teeth are not real teeth, they are a manufactured article.
To these pure patriots, who,
The error in the epitaph is that a stone could not be raised and inscribed by one of those who had gone to their graves, etc.
"The examination of a set of papers presented by the pupils in a cooking-class revealed some astonish
ing things; namely, that French women in cooking
'clarified their own fat,' that every kitchen used as a cooking-school 'should have room for six or eight girls to cook at once,' and that a certain dish could
other, jumping, barking at imaginary intruders, and rushing off yelping as if nothing less than the largest kind of deer were in the trees up the road. The people who knew them became greatly interested in their performances. Then the misfortunes of Nep's life began. one gave him candy. He liked it. Ever after he begged for the candy which came so easily for the begging. One day Betty, very sad and lonesome, came alone to the house. She was restless, and refused to respond to any of the attentions which were lavished upon her. The people began inquiring for Nep, and every one was sorry to hear he was ill. One day Betty, more sad than ever, appeared, and soon word came that Nep was dead. Then the children who loved Nep had a funeral, and the chief mourner was Betty. How she knew that there was to be a funeral no one could tell. She walked sadly along with the children, and sat by till the grave was filled. Then she went a little way off and sat there to watch the grave. Candy was the cause of Nep's departure. It is dangerous for a dog to be greedy. Betty plays about now, but not with her old freedom. Her companion is Dandy. This is a true story.
She was Remembered
I saw it on the bulletin-board at a hotel in the mountains. It was only a brown piece of paper, and almost lost amid the notices of hours of meals, rules and regulations for the management of the house, and business cards. This was what caught my eye:
In Memory of BLACK BEAUTY.
For fourteen years the pet cat of this house. She was affectionate and kindly, and performed her duties faithfully.
That last meant, doubtless, that rats and mice were scarce where Black Beauty lived.
While we were at dinner, I felt something rub against my skirts, and there was another Black Beauty, with a white silk tie about her neck.
Cats were loved, you see, at that house.
A Pair of Orphans
A hunter in the Rockies shot a mother bear. He was very sorry when he found a little brother and sister bear without a mother. He took the baby bears home in his arms, and cared for them. When they were large enough to be left alone, he gave them to a man who owned a circus. The circus man gave them to the menagerie at Central Park, New York, and they are there now very happy, and have forgotten all about their baby days in the Rockies. Their names are West Knuttsford and Miss Primrose Knuttsford.