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Sultan, encircled by a large body of troops and with the assurance that Russia is behind him, appears to be the only indifferent person in the whole tragedy. The only way. out, apparently, is for England to give Russia a free hand.
The final outcome of the Italian campaign in Abyssinia is such as to bring contempt upon the shabby and shallow Jingoism which has had such vogue in Europe during the last few years. The defeat and slaughter of picked Italian troops, the outwitting of skilled Italian generals, the retreat from an unjustifiable invasion, the loss of prestige, have been pointed out from time to time in these columns; but Italy has suffered a further humiliation. It has not only been compelled to admit its defeat and withdraw from its untenable position, but it has also been obliged to pay a war indemnity of two million francs to King Menelek. This sum is asked, not as a price of letting the Italians go out of the country, but is delicately solicited on account of the expense involved in the support of the prisoners of war taken in Abyssinia! It is a long time since any European country has been compelled under such conditions to pay an indemnity to a half-civilized country, and it marks the completeness of the Italian disaster. The Italians are also required to draw the boundary lines of their province of Erythrea with absolute definiteness, and to remain absolutely within those lines. All this is not too much to pay
for the disaster at Adowa if it forces the Italians and other European peoples to think seriously before they embark on further expeditions so devoid of moral justification and of military reasonableness as that which led an Italian army to its slaughter among the mountains of Abyssinia.
Little that is definite has been made public the past week about the supposed dynamite plot which ended in the arrest of Tynan, Bell (or Ivory), and others. The French Government has been formally requested to extradite Tynan, but it does not seem to be known whether the request is based on the old charge of his having been concerned in the Phoenix Park murders, or on a charge of engaging in the newly detected plot. Excitement in England over the arrests has subsided, and it is generally doubted whether the original statements about a plot between the Irish dynamiters and Russian Nihilists to blow up Balmoral Castle at the time of the Czar's visit will be confirmed. In fact, beyond the mere fact that the arrests have been made and that a place of manufacture for dynamite bombs has been discovered in Antwerp, which may or may not be connected with Tynan, there is nothing positively known about the matter. In this country there seems to be no sympathy whatever with the arrested persons, and the doubt has been raised whether Tynan is a genuine conspirator or a mere braggart. The day for a "physical force" party of Irish-Americans has passed away; a few wordy "patriots" remain who gather toll from the ignorant and vicious; perhaps here and there a would-be assassin may lurk; but the vast majority of Irish Americans abhor murder and detest dynamite.
The broken-down condition of the Irish dynamiters recently granted release from penal servitude has called. out a discussion in English journals that tends to offset the criticism which has been bestowed in that country upon our reformatory system at Elmira and other places. The London "Daily News," though apologetic in tone, declares that "the public is beginning to have a most uneasy feeling that the system hitherto in vogue simply takes the heart out of a man, and leaves him good for nothing in body and in soul at the end of his term." It appears from
the annual report of the Prison Commissioners that some improvements are being introduced, notably a partial substitution of productive for unproductive labor as in crankturning, etc.; but the "News" remarks, probably with an eye on America, that if this goes on the trade-unions will have something to say. There have been five cases of suicide in the year, and a considerable increase of cases of insanity in the jails. This may be due to the rigor of the law which makes doctors hesitate in certifying to lunacy, so that the jails tend to become receiving-houses for the lunatic asylums. However this may be, the "News" says that the suspicion has increased considerably that prison life, as administered under sentence to penal servitude, tends to produce insanity. As to the deterrent effect of imprisonment as conducted in England, it may be noted that, with an increasing population, the number of prisoners in jail has decreased from less than 20,000 in 1878 to somewhat over 14,000 at the last report. Since 1885 there has been no escape of any convict.
The present session of the Dominion Parliament, though called for a special purpose and with the prospect of a speedy prorogation, has been prolonged by discussions on matters of urgent importance, among them the question of Chinese immigration, and a retaliatory alien contract labor law to offset the restrictions imposed by our own law upon Canadian workmen. In regard to the former, Canadian opinion is passing through similar phases to those which resulted in the passage of the Geary Act. As might be expected, the center of disturbance is in British Columbia, where already there are 11,000 Chinese laborers as against 24,000 white. The members of Parliament from that Province are a unit in favor of excluding the Chinese by a heavy poll-tax; and the Dominion Trades and Labor Congress has just passed a resolution in favor of increasing the present tax of $50 per head to $500. In short, the problem of preserving the wage-workers of western Canada from being driven out by a horde of Chinese immigrants seems to have been suddenly precipitated in an alarming manner. It seems that Sir Henri Joly, the Minister of Inland Revenue, assured Li Hung Chang that "he would not abandon his countrymen," presumably meaning thereby that he would favor less restriction on Chinese immigration. This has provoked opposition within his own party, and also among the Conservatives. It is in the last degree unlikely that the present Liberal Government will do anything for the Chinese, and, if the tone of the best journalistic opinion means anything, the result is likely to be still further restriction. With regard to the proposed alien contract labor law far greater difficulties are encountered. The matter has been brought up in Parliament, and Mr. Laurier has spoken in a way which seems to admit the justice of the Canadian claim. It would be premature to say that he will introduce retaliatory legislation during the next parliamentary session; it is a delicate matter demanding the fullest investigation before taking such a course. Some interesting correspondence, straightforward and friendly in tone, has recently taken place between the Dominion Trades and Labor Congress and the American Federation of Labor. Mr. Samuel Gompers, on behalf of the latter, admits the hardship and injustice to Canadians resulting from the present law, but asserts that it is directed. not primarily against Canadians, but against Chinese and other workmen who are smuggled into the United States by way of Canada. He truly states that, under the rules governing international treaties, the "most favored nation" clause prevents the United States from extending privileges to one nation denied to another, and that if the Governments
of the United States and Canada had exclusive power to act, a satisfactory agreement could be arrived at. From the point of view of our workingmen the difficulty lies in not being able to distinguish, in many cases, between those workmen who come into the United States by way of Canana and those whose homes are in Canada. If in any way that difficulty can be removed, a satisfactory solution of this question can be gained. This, at least, seems to be the opinion of labor authorities on both sides of the line.
Surely no modern political community ever paralleled the amount of legislation in social and political reform which has been enacted by New Zealand within the past five years. In that colony the fusion of the Liberal and Labor parties shortly previous to 1891 enabled them to pass a series of radical and, thus far, apparently successful measures. The Agent-General of New Zealand, in an article in a recent English review, has summarized these reforms under five headings: Finance, Land, Constitutional Reform, Labor, and Law Reform. It is quite impracticable to indicate in a brief space the main incidents of the struggle which attended the passage of these measures, or even to enumerate the measures themselves, but the leading changes may be indicated. In the first place. the property tax, an annual impost of a penny in the pound sterling of every citizen's possessions, less his debts and an exemption of £500, was abolished, and has been replaced by a progressive land tax and a progressive income tax. Then came an act authorizing government leases of crown lands in perpetuity, with periodical revisions of rent. This measure has been very successful. Among the constitutional changes are the abolition of the life tenure of the members of the nominative Upper Chamber, and the substitution of a seven years' term. Then, again, the electoral principle of one-man-one-vote has been carried out to its ultimate issue by a registration clause providing that no voter can register on more than one roll. The greatest change of all has been the admission of women to the franchise, with results by no means alarming thus far, the women voting very much according to the political affiliations of their husbands, brothers, fathers, and sons. The labor laws have also been changed, mostly in the interest of the workingman. An Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Bill has also been passed. It is significant that few complaints are heard of ill effects from all this radical legislation, and that the prosperity and contentment of the people have apparently increased.
The successful operation of the tramways in Glasgow is full of encouragement to the advocates of municipal ownership and operation of street railways in this country. The Committee of Councils having charge of the matter report that for the second year of the experiment the receipts were $1,618,387, and the operating expenses $1,215,373; leaving a balance of $403,014, which was disposed of as follows: to interest on capital, $61,258; depreciation written off against capital, $86,198; renewal fund, $82,280; sinking fund, $51,023; general reserve fund, $78,695; and payments to former lessees, $43,560. This result has been achieved at the same time that the fares were reduced. For the 86,462,594 passengers who were carried, the average fare was 1% cents a passenger. The Committee report that its principal difficulty is to provide for the continuously increasing volume of business. Negotiations are now in progress looking toward the introduction of some means of mechanical traction. The tramways cover 35 miles of double track, and require 4,082 horses. The employees are clothed at the expense of the department, and a friendly
society has been established among them, with 1,474 members. In concluding their report the Council Committee say: "The financial results for the year's operation have been most encouraging, and prove beyond all question that the Corporation Tramways have the approval and the support of the citizens. From the accounts published herewith it will be seen that this new business undertaken by the Corporation is being conducted on sound commercial lines. All the plant has been fully maintained out of the revenue, and, after writing off capital an ample amount for depreciation, considerable sums have been placed to the general reserve fund and the reserve fund for permanent way renewals. The item of preliminary expenses remains at the original figure, as it is not considered necessary to write off this sum, the sinking fund itself being sufficient to wipe it out. Over and above the ordinary obligations to the city in the payment of taxes, water, gas, etc., the tramways undertaking is proving a great benefit to the general finances of the Corporation, and no pains will be spared to maintain the efficiency of the department now so successfully established."
The Alaskan boundary question has entered upon a somewhat acute phase, owing to the recent action of the Canadian surveyors in locating the one hundred and fortyfirst meridian so as to throw two hundred gold-mines, including the rich placer-mines contained in a strip from. three to eight miles wide, into Canadian territory. The Canadian Government has a force of mounted police there, and the regulations enforced by them are stricter than those to which the American owners and workers of these mines have been accustomed. Of course our Government may not accept the Canadian survey, and trouble may result from the resistance of our miners to a jurisdiction which they are not likely to recognize. The mounted police cannot enforce the report of the Canadian surveyors; but for that very reason our Government should hasten the progress of the question, so that the true boundaries may be defined, and the rightful jurisdiction of the United States and the Dominion respectively determined.
The disputed Presidential election in Chili has been settled, and without a revolution. The question was referred to Congress, which gave a decision in favor of the Conservative candidate-Federico Evrazuriz. The opposition of the Liberals was based upon charges of political corruption and intimidation against him; but, whatever the popular belief as to these charges, it found no adequate support among the Congressional majority. The Liberals were strongly tempted to rebellion, but the Government anticipated an outbreak and made military preparations. Montt, the President, who will shortly retire, has had a fairly successful term of office, and his administration has been free from scandal and corruption. The meeting of this crisis without bloodshed may prove an effective example during future disturbances of a similar kind.
It is too early to make any predictions with regard to the result of the political campaign, but several things have become much clearer during the past few weeks. It has become, in the first place, very doubtful whether the freecoinage movement has secured any large support among the farming and working people of the East. The Republican majority in Vermont might have been explained on the ground of the general conservatism of that State, but the equally phenomenal majority in Maine cannot be explained on any such ground. Maine, unlike Vermont, has passed through different phases of opinion on the currency
The greenback movement gained very serious hold there, and it is one of the Eastern States in which the free-silver movement might have been expected to gain many adherents. On the contrary, however, Maine has cast the heaviest vote in her history in favor of the Republican ticket. It has become clear, in the second place, that this is not a sectional fight, as a good many free-silver men have very unwisely attempted to make the country believe. The issue will not be decided by the East, but by the Central West. If the free-coinage movement is defeated, as we believe it will be, it will be because the Central West-that is to say, Indiana, Illinois, Ohio, and Iowa-refuses to support the Chicago platform and the Chicago nominees. The real battle-ground is not in the East, but in these great Western States. They are to be the arbiters of the question, and if free coinage is beaten it will be beaten by a Western and not by an Eastern vote. It is fortunate, from this point of view, that the three Presidential candidates are all Western men, and that no party can any longer consistently claim to represent either Eastern or Western sentiment exclusively. The result in Arkansas,
so far as it has any significance, would seem to indicate that the free-coinage sentiment is not to make a clean sweep even in the States which were practically conceded to it.
In spite of the speech of General Francis A. Walker in London, reported in these columns several months ago, it has been widely asserted that this eminent international bimetallist had become a supporter of the free-coinage movement. It seems hardly necessary to correct an impression which never had any basis in fact, in spite of the endeavor in many quarters to confuse the position of the international bimetallist with that of the supporter of free coinage. General Walker in his London speech declared that the free-coinage movement, which found its expression in the Chicago platform and the nomination of Mr. Bryan, would indefinitely postpone the introduction of international bimetallism, and there are no more vigorous and uncompromising opponents of the free-coinage movement in this country than those who, like The Outlook, believe in international bimetallism. In a letter published last week in the "Evening Post," of this city, General Walker protests against the frequently repeated charge
that the movement in favor of international bimetallism has been one of the most influential factors in the development of the free-coinage movement, and, after expressing his indignation at this accusation, says: "Many causes have contributed to the present ill-omened gathering of the discontented, in all parts of the country; but in no small degree is it due to the arrogance with which the gold monometallist press has dealt with the question of the use of silver; the studied insolence with which the views of economists, statisticians, and statesmen favorable to bimetallism have been treated; the outrageous abuse to which millions of citizens of the United States have been subject from the same source." The Outlook has more than once made essentially the same statement-namely, that the height to which the free-coinage sentiment has risen in some parts of the country has been due in no small measure to the narrow, bigoted way in which the questions of coinage, banking, etc., have been presented and discussed by a group of monometallists. It has been assumed that the attempt, for instance, to secure a freer banking system, such as obtains in France or Scotland, was essentially revolutionary and dangerous, although it is generally admitted that our own banking system is in many respects ill adapted to the present needs of commerce in this country. The first duty of the hour is to settle the free-coin
age question; the second will be to put our currency on a rational, intelligible basis, and to bring our banking system into conformity with the growth and the needs of the country.
The Democratic State Conventions in Connecticut and New York have indorsed the Chicago platform as well as the candidates. The Connecticut Convention nominated for Governor Mr. Joseph B. Sargent, the well-known tariff reform manufacturer of New Haven. The New York Convention with gross inconsistency nominated Mayor Thacher, of Albany, an opponent of the free coinage of silver, but nevertheless a supporter of the "regular" nominees of his party. Mayor Thacher is a close friend of Senator Hill, and his nomination was attributed to Senator Hill's influIn the West and South the most important political happenings of the week have been the negotiations for fusion between the Democrats and Populists. In North Carolina and in Kentucky there is now the prospect of a common electoral ticket, but the matter is still unsettled. North of the Ohio River, from Ohio to the Pacific, fusion seems to be everywhere an accomplished fact. In most States the electors are divided between Mr. Sewall and Mr. Watson in proportion to the votes cast by the Democratic and Populist parties at the last election. In Oregon and North Dakota, however, all of the electors favor Mr. Watson, while in California nine out of thirteen favor him. In Kansas, Colorado, and Idaho, on the other hand, all the electors favor Mr. Sewall. Mr. Watson's campaign speeches in the West, criticising Mr. Sewall as a monopolist, have in some places strained the relations between the two parties. Mr. Bryan continues to address immense audiences on his campaign tour, and Mr. McKinley continues to address immense delegations brought to his home in Canton. On Saturday night last there were nine of these visiting delegations at Canton, and the aggregate number of visitors was estimated as high as twenty thousand. Most of the delegations are, of course, from Ohio and Pennsylvania, but two of those on Saturday-the railroad. men and the telegraphers-came from Illinois. Mr. Bryan last week passed through Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, Virginia, and Maryland, delivering several speeches each day. His visit in the East is to be a very short one. He is to spend the entire month of October between West Virginia and Minnesota. This district is to be the real battle-ground of the campaign. The official returns from the Arkansas election make the Democratic plurality 55,000, as against 49,000 two years ago and 56,000 four years ago. The official returns from Maine make the Republican plurality 49,000, as against 39,000 two years ago and 13,000 four years ago.
The public schools of New York opened September 14. It was discovered at once that the pressure on the schools would be very much greater than in former years. This was due not only to the natural increase in the number of the children of school age, but to the enforcement of the compulsory school law and to the mercantile establishment inspection law, which went into effect September 1. The schools in the tenement-house districts, already overcrowded, were those in which the increase in the demands for school accommodation were greatest; the fact having been forced upon the attention of the ignorant, the indifferent, and the poverty-stricken parents that the State is a factor in the life of the child. According to the statement of Superintendent Jasper, ten or twelve school buildings, with a seating capacity of from twelve to fifteen hundred each, should be erected at once to meet the needs
of the children now crowded out of the public schools of the city. The overcrowding was felt at the schools at the top as well as the bottom. The seating capacity of the Normal College provides for an entrance class of 600. The entrance class of 1896 numbers 840. The total number registered was 2,300. At the City College 1,800 boys registered-300 in excess of any previous year. The Trustees of the Normal College have notified the Board of Education that additions must be made to the Normal College before the fall term of 1897. The new school law provides for the erection of high schools, and this part of the law is favored by the majority of the present Board of Education. It is quite probable that at least one high school will be erected during the next year. The pressure on the City and Normal Colleges is a most hopeful sign. It indicates the increased valuation put upon education by wage-earners. It shows also effort by the parent of limited means to increase the period of school life for his children.
The need of free baths under the control of the city authorities was proved most conclusively during the extreme heat in New York last August. At the People's Baths, erected and maintained by the Association for Improving the Condition of the Poor, the number of bathers for the first fifteen days of August was 9,864, or an average of 778 per day. Of this number over one thousand were children. The bathers pay five cents each for the bath, with towel and soap. The city authorities ordered the baths on the river front kept open all night. The numbers who availed themselves of this opportunity were so large that it required the services of policemen to keep the waiting lines in order. The Legislature last March appropriated $200,000 to erect free baths in the city. The site is selected, and there the matter rests. The citizens are responsible for the delay. An influential demand for the erection of these baths at once would compel the authorities to act. The delay in the matter of the small parks is proof of what may be expected as to the completion of the public baths if the subject is treated with the same indifference by the people, who alone can compel action by the responsible powers.
There is one more convincing evidence of the value to private citizens of having at the head of municipal departments men of high principles and integrity. The enforcement of the civil service laws in the police department in New York has resulted in the department appealing to young men of intelligence, character, and physical ability to apply for the vacant positions on the police force. Eight hundred appointments will be made within the next four months, and, for the first time in its history, the city is in the position of an employer of efficient labor, instead of that of a dealer who was bound to pay for the political service that degraded one of the most important branches, if not the most important branch, of municipal govern
The Christian Citizenship Union of New Jersey, which is composed of Christian Endeavor Societies, Baptist Young People's Unions, Epworth Leagues, and Order Leagues of New Jersey-about two thousand five hundred societies altogether-issued, through its Executive Committee, which met a few days ago at Trenton, the following sensible address to voters:
"In each of eighteen counties of New Jersey a Sheriff is to be chosen at the November elections. The Sheriff practically selects the grand and petit jurors, and is guardian of the public peace and safety. With the Grand Jury must originate nearly all processes in the interest of public morality and the enforcement of law. With the
petit jury rests the responsibility of rendering verdicts, and many citizens question the value and efficiency of the jury system, because of ignorant and manifestly biased jurymen selected.
Experience has taught the people of this State that in the maintenance of law and order the shrievalty is of prime importance. The race-track gamblers used to say, 'We got the Sheriff, and they can have the rest.' At this time persons hostile to law enforcement are working to secure the election of men to this office who will do their bidding.
"The Sheriff has officially nothing to do with National issues. He has no part even in local legislation. The Christian Citizenship Union of New Jersey urges affiliated organizations and all good citizens to combine at their party primaries for the nomination of candidates for Sheriff who can be trusted to execute the laws.
"In the event of the failure of any party to nominate a trustworthy man, members of that party are urged to vote for a worthy nominee of another party, or, if there be none such, to place in the field an independent candidate. Let no law-abiding citizen be content to support a tolerably good man for this office."
Righteousness Before Peace
In days of change and uncertainty such as society is now passing through, one constantly hears the expression of regret for the "good old times" when the social order was undisturbed, the financial world placid, and the temper of mankind calm and reposeful. As a matter of fact, there never were any such tranquil times; society has always been changing, men have always been tossed to and fro like the waves of the sea. There have been, it is true, brief periods of reaction when political interest has ebbed and society has become sluggish and lethargic; but these have been negative and uninspiring periods, when life was least worth living. The periods when hope has been high, faith in human possibilities great, and interest in action and achievement intense, have been periods of movement and times of change. These have been the productive epochs in exploration, thought, invention, art, and adventure; the epochs when men have accepted life at its full value, and have lived deeply and passionately in emotion, conviction, and action. There are periods of restlessness which are disturbing without being progressive, which make men anxious without making them great in achievement. But even these periods are better than the periods
of sluggish comfort and cowardly ease. It takes a great deal of movement to keep men morally and spiritually virile and vital; there is a tremendous sag downwards which must be constantly overcome by the invigoration of the higher nature. Men have never yet shown strength adequate to the temptations of easeful conditions; they have always visibly declined when the stimulus of danger and necessity has been withdrawn. In the Old Testament and in the history of all peoples God appears, not as a tranquillizer, but as a disturber of existing conditions: for the very good reason that conditions have never yet been what they ought to be. Those who long to be let alone cherish a vain hope; God will never let the human race alone until he has reorganized it on a basis of righteousness; until that time, so long as men have consciences, there will be stir, agitation, disturbance, and change. The fundamental gain of civilization lies in the fact that change, ' instead of being revolutionary and temporarily destructive as in earlier ages, has become evolutionary and constructive. In spite of many setbacks, false hopes, delusive schemes, and short-sighted efforts to accomplish artificially and arbitrarily that which can be accomplished only through moral reorganization, the world slowly moves forward and upward. That it does move is the evidence of a divine purpose behind its confused life, but in' its very movement are involved the disorder, uneasiness, and peril of which so
many complain as if they were new appearances in the life of men. In a progressive development stability is not to be sought in stationary conditions, but in the character of the change that is always taking place. The presence of God is evidenced by the fact that men are unable to rest so long as they are imperfect and the social order reflects their imperfection. Perfect peace can come only with perfect righteousness.
An Unburied Lottery
The State of Kentucky is still victimized by a lottery company. The State is not disgraced by it, because the State has done what it could for the lottery's suppression. In the new Constitution adopted five years ago the people of the State made the lottery an outlaw. But the Frankfort Lottery Company, enriched by a long-standing charter to impoverish and corrupt its patrons, sought and found refuge in the courts. In the county court at Louisville in 1892, with Mr. Carlisle for its attorney, it obtained a judgment in its favor in a suit brought by the commonwealth to prevent its further operation. This outrageous decision, directly violating the dictum of the Supreme Court of the United States that no government can make a binding contract inimical to public morals, was reversed on appeal by the Supreme Court of the State, Chief Justice Bennett declaring that the operation of a lottery was "in defiance of all law and order." The lottery company, however, did not submit, but appealed to the Supreme Court of the United States. In some way not accounted for, the case has been permitted to remain undecided, and the Frankfort Lottery Company continues to defy "all law and order."
When our attention was directed to this state of affairs, we asked for corroboratory evidence. It came to us in the form of sworn affidavits from Mr. S. P. Shepard, the General Agent at Louisville of the Bankers' Life Association of Minnesota, and Mr. Frank Converse, the son of the editor of the "Christian Observer." These affidavits set forth that in order to establish beyond doubt the continued operation of the Frankfort Lottery Company, Mr. Shepard and Mr. Converse, on the 25th of August, called at one of the Louisville offices of the Company and purchased a lottery ticket reading as follows:
That such a state of affairs should be permitted to continue in Louisville, in defiance of law, in defiance of the State Constitution, in defiance of the principle laid down by the Supreme Court of the United States, is a scandal of the first magnitude. From all over the country those who care for the suppression of the evils of the lottery, and those who protest against the still greater evil of the non-enforcement of law against moneyed institutions, ought to demand of the responsible authorities at Washington that the case against the Frankfort Lottery Company be pressed to an immediate decision.
The Higher Truthfulness
Mr. Lecky, in his "History of European Morals," speaking of different types of veracity, makes some noteworthy observations, which are in point at a time of controversy like the present. Society could not exist at all without A high veracity of some sort between man and man. value is therefore set upon it, as the cement of the social fabric. Accordingly, commercial veracity is strongly insisted on; the lack of it is visited with social opprobrium ; he whose word is as good as his bond obtains the highest esteem. It is not yet so with intellectual veracity or truthful dealing with ideas, especially argument or controversy. This, as Mr. Lecky says, is a higher type, and less common even among those who are scrupulous of truth in matters of a material and immediately practical nature. For lack of it controversy is blind, partisanship bitter, and those whose common interest is to know the truth are divided by misrepresentation and distrust into hostile camps. Theologians and churchmen have set the bad example, and it is no wonder that politicians and statesmen follow it.
Some one has well said, "Truth dwells underground;" it requires mining to get at it. A man who really values truthfulness as an element of character must gauge his interest in it by his effort for it. The real truth is rarely, if ever, all on one side of a controversy. To do justice to an opponent by looking from his standpoint at his side of the question, and in a temper which fraternally credits him with an honesty of purpose to reach the truth that is equal to our own, is a sort of gymnastic exercise; but it is indispensable to moral culture. For lack of it wars, persecutions, and all sorts of pernicious discords and delusions have been the retributive scourge of States and Churches. That it even now requires moral courage to cultivate intellectual veracity is humiliating evidence of the little progress which Christianity has made in this direction. A man who is disposed to look for whatever truth may be with either party to a burning question, and be impartially just to each, must be prepared for contemptuous epithets, as half-hearted and vacillating, a compromiser, a trimmer. But the final honor remains with him. An illustrious example is not remote in our history. The Senators who voted against their party for the acquittal of President Johnson in the impeachment trial doomed themselves. thereby to exclusion from political life, but they are now remembered for it as patriots who saved the country from a most perilous precedent.
To find pure truth in human reasonings, except in the exact sciences, is as rare as to find pure metal. In men who differ constitutionally, as well as otherwise, with various mental tempers and tendencies, it is found combined, as Dr. Holmes has wittily observed, with various "basic salts "as the "smithate" of truth in Smith and the "brownate of truth in Brown. This is a fact which Smith and Brown must in the end allow for in their effort