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laborer of his hire.
Material values given are no adequate measure for spiritual values received. Nor can they balance accounts with men who are not seeking to make their living so much as to make better living for other men, and who hunger to know that they have done it, as they hunger for their food. To give them such knowledge is to give them the soul-food they crave to support them in their work.
But natural reticence hinders, and so also does inconsiderateness. Yet remembrance of the heart-glow occasionally kindled, when grateful hearers have come forward, or have written, to speak of the clearing of their vision, or quickening of their faith, or girding of their will, makes him who has felt it plead that those who feel the impulse to such responses should oftener yield to it as the prompting of the Spirit whom we must not quench.
Among Christian people overcommunicativeness is not so common a fault as undercommunicativeness. "To do good and to communicate," says Paul, "forget not." Especially remember that the kind of good which the Gospel teacher tries to communicate is the kind that must not be left out in the reciprocal communication of the taught. The word in season from the pulpit should be balanced by another from the pew. Responsiveness is the thing the preacher thirsts for. Pastor or stranger, it ought not to be denied him. He gives thanks to God for the refreshment of it, and gratefully remembers it, as the words of the psalmist come to his mind, "He shall drink of the brook in the way; therefore shall he lift up the head."
J. M. W.
The Widow Malone and Her Pig
By Alice L. Anderson
The widow Malone and her seven children lived in a superannuated passenger-car left standing on the waste edge of the great train-yard of the J., O., and K. Railroad at Chicomantic Falls. The late Terence Malone, a servant of the aforesaid railroad in the capacity of section-hand, had pre-empted the car in the early days of his marriage, and, owing partly to the negligence and partly to the good nature of the yard-master, it had remained in the undisputed possession of the family ever since. There the seven children of the Malone household, "two pair o' twins and three single," as their fond mother described them, had first seen the light of day; they had been lulled to sleep by the roar of trains and the shriek of locomotives, and had played under the noses of the snorting iron horses without ever suffering injury to life or limb.
"We do be in the railroad business as a family, mem," the widow Malone often remarked, with pardonable pride, at the houses where she was accustomed to assist in house-cleaning time. "Me husband's feyther was a flagman at the Shawshine crossin'―a very raysponsible position, mem. Me own Terence was in the empl'y o' the railroad for siven year and a half as section-hand-till he was rin over by a ghravel thrain and lost his breath entoirely, he bein' a bit full at the toime. 'Twas his only failin', hiven rist him! Dinny, me oldest, is goin' to make a gra-ate railroad man, I'm ixpectin'. He's thrain-b'y already, and I'm tould he's a gra-ate favorite among drummers and such, he bein' so ceevil and obligin'. 'Twas so I brought him up. Mesilf, I does washin' for the thrain-hands, and they do say there's nobbudy else can suit 'em so well. And as for the leetle childer, they do be doin' what they can. The leetlest pair o' twins, they sits out on the step whin the big passenger thrains goes by, and they do be the sauciest pair o' colleens that iver was, though I be their mither that says it. It's many's the orange or banana that's thrown out to 'em when the through thrains sthop for the signal. Me own fam'ly was mostly in the empl'y o' the city, and I ain't a-sayin' that ain't a very rispectable business, but for mesilf I prefer railroadin'. It's more excitin”.”
Whence it will appear that the widow Malone, though deprived of the partner of her joys and sorrows, still considered herself comfortably and even desirably situated.
Rumor of possible trouble came to the Malone family one day in the news, told by Dinny, of the appointment of a new division superintendent, who was reported to have begun, after the manner of new brooms, a thorough overhauling and cleaning out of all the departments under him.
"Jerry O'Toole, he's tellin' everywhere that our old rat-trapthat's the very word he said-'ll have to go. The new superin
tendent won't have the yard cluttered up with old cars and squallin' brats. It's a disgrace to the road, that's what he said." So Dinny repeated the gossip of the train-yard when he came home from his day's work.
"Whisht there wid yer talkin'," commanded his mother. "Niver ye moind a wurrd o' his talk, the spalpeen. Is it likely the shuperintindent 'd be afther sphakin' his moind to such as Jerry O'Toole? He's wantin' yer place on the thrain, that's the flea that's bitin' his ear. As for us bein' turned out o' our home, and me Terence a section-hand, and his feyther a flagman, there's no fear o' that. The Road 'll niver sthand by and see it done."
Mrs. Malone always spoke of the road with a capital R. But, in spite of her apparent confidence, the widow was the prey of some secret misgivings concerning her tenure of occupancy, and when, one morning, as she sang and scrubbed at her tubs just outside the door of the car, with numerous young Malones playing in the dirt about her, she looked up to find herself frowningly observed by a tall personage with an air of authority, she knew that her time had come. She dropped a courtesy, and the tall personage said:
"What's all this?"
The widow favored him with another courtesy and replied: "If ye plaze, sor, I'm Molly Malone, widdy of him that was Terence Malone, formerly in the empl'y o' the Road, sor, and these, sor, are me childer, me and Terence's, or, as I may say, sor, your childer."
"Indeed! how's that?" inquired the man.
"The childer o' the Road, sor. We all belong to the Road; and as I take it ye're the new division shuperintindent, ripresintin' the Road, I make bould to call 'em your childer, sor." "Hum! how many children have you?"
"Siven, sor-two pair o' twins and three single. Dinny, me oldest, is thrain-b'y, sor, and I'm ixpectin' nothin' less than that he'll be conducther wan day, he's that smart and ceevil, sor. Niver a day but I says to them childer, · Childer, niver forgit that ye belong to the Road, and, childer, always ack so as to be an honor to the Road.' Nora, darlint, come out from ahint that thruck and make yer curt'sy to the jintleman. I bring up my childer to have manners, sor. Their feyther had the beautifulest manners ye iver did see."
"Your husband is dead, you say?" "Yis, sor. He was rin over by a ghravel thrain. He worruked on the section, sor, and his feyther-"
Drunk, probably," interrupted the superintendent.
"I ain't denyin' he'd taken a dhrop too much, maybe,” replied Mrs. Malone, with the air of one making a concession for politeness' sake, "but he was foine on the section, so his boss 'll tell ye-Thomas Eagan, sor, maybe ye know him. An' a kinder husband or a better feyther niver was. Och, me Terry! alack the day that I should lose ye from me hearrt, and siven childer." And Mrs. Malone, as if overcome by the remembrance of the virtues of her late spouse, threw her apron over her head and rocked herself to and fro lamenting. When she recovered herself and peeped forth, the superintendent was gone.
"He stoled away jist loike a thafe in the noight," said Mrs. Malone in describing the interview to Dinny, "an' niver a chanst did I have to tell him that me Terence's feyther was flagman at the Shawshine crossin', an' mesilf did washin' for the thrain-hands. He'll be afther wunnerin' what I mint by sayin' we all belonged to the Road, an' now I'm afeard he'll niver know. Alack the day if we should be turned away!"
But the second day thereafter Mrs. Malone's fears were all set at rest. A farm wagon drew up to the fence which separated the train-yard from the highway, and the driver called
"Is this Mrs. Malone's ?"
"Yis, sor, I'm hopin' so," replied the widow.
Whereupon the driver picked up a lumpish and very lively bag from the bottom of the wagon, and handed it over the fence, saying:
“Mr. Dunkeld, him that's jest been appointed division superintendent o' this here road, he's sent ye a pig from his farm out in the country, an' I was to say that he'd ruther ye wouldn't name it after him."
Great was the joy in the Malone household. For long it had been Mrs. Malone's secret ambition to own a pig, an ambition which had but been strengthened by the seeming impossibility of its fulfillment. Now the gratification of her heart's desire was doubly felicitous in that it contained an assurance of the superintendent's favor. Their home was to remain their own. The Road had recognized their adoption. Dinny gathered some old boards and built a pen for the pig under the car; small Terry, with his soap-box cart, made a tour of the neighborhood and secured promises of garbage to be had for the carrying away, and the other children took turns in hugging the pig and
examining his curly tail, his funny snub nose, and his little pink ears, much to his pigship's annoyance. Mrs. Malone laid plans for buying in the fall a pork-barrel, in which the pig, by that time grown to be a hog, should take up his winter quarters, thence to be transferred in small portions to Malone mouths through the long and hungry winter. There was not a member of the Malone household who did not hail the advent of the pig as a piece of good fortune, the very greatest that a bounteous Providence, represented by the Road, had in its power to bestow.
"But I can't think why the shuperintindent was unwillin' for us to name the peeg for him. Shure, I'd be proud to honor so foine a jintleman," said Mrs. Malone.
"Let's name it for the Road," said Dinny.
So the J., O., and K., shortened to Jokkie, the pig became, and a fine pig he was indeed. He grew apace, and developed an appetite which kept small Terry and his soap-box cart forever foraging. Moreover, he was possessed of an intelligence far above the most of his kind. No amount of fencing had power to restrain his roving spirit. Be free he would, yet he was never known to stray beyond the limits of the train-yard; nor, amid all the confusion of incoming and outgoing trains and engines back ing and shifting and running hither and thither, did he ever take the smallest injury. Truly he was a wonderful pig. "An', shure," said Mrs. Malone, the peeg takes to railroadin' by nacher. 'Cause why? It belongs to the Road." Jerry O'Toole, who was sometimes employed on odd jobs around the yard, continued to make vindictive remarks concerning the Malone family, and had even been known to throw stones—which never hit—at Jokkie, but the cause of his ill will was well known, being jealousy of Dinny's superior situation, and his course was universally frowned down by the other men, for all trainmen and station-men, section-hands and job-hands, united in a kindly disposition toward the Malone family, and in a disposition to overlook such a small irregularity as the keeping of a pig in the train-yard.
So the summer passed and the fall came. Jokkie had attained a size and rotundity which were beautiful to see, and the entire Malone household was filled with anticipations of a well-fed winter. Mrs. Malone had bought her pork-barrel and had laid in a supply of salt.
"We'll be afther killin' the peeg to-morrer, Dinny," she said. But the morrow brought grief to the Malone household. ing beside his trough, his two paws crossed over his stomach as if in pain, was the pig, motionless-dead.
"Alack the day!" cried Mrs. Malone, rocking herself backward and forward in the self-same manner in which she had mourned for Terence.
"It's that Jerry O'Toole !" cried Dinny, indignantly. And all the young Malones set up a wailing and mourning which were pitiful to hear.
"Howiver 'll I be fillin' these siven mouths all the could and dreary winther?" wailed Mrs. Malone.
At which the youngest pair of twins, who always spoke at once and said the same thing, piped up in repetition of the ofttold story:
'We belong to the Road, mither. The Road'll niver see us starve."
Mrs. Malone caught her darlings to her bosom.
"Blessin's on ye, me childer!" she exclaimed. "That I should be afther forgettin' that, me that's got everythin' to be thankful for! An', shure, 'twas the Road sint us this peeg, an' it can sind us another if it loikes."
Nevertheless, Mrs. Malone's heart was heavy within her as she went about her day's washing. Dinny forgot to whistle as he went to his work, and the little children sat about sadly, as if oppressed by the family trouble. It was a long and lonely day. Small Terry's soap-box cart stood idle, and the children went to bed at night missing sadly Jokkie's dozy grunting in his bed under the car, which had been their bedtime lullaby.
Early next morning Dinny was wakened by a familiar sound. He put his head out the car window, and there, hungrily rooting in Jokkie's trough, was a nice fat pig, larger by a half than the lamented Jokkie.
"Get up, mither! The Road has sent us a pig!" he cried. Mrs. Malone started up and put out her head. "The saints be praised!" she said, devoutly.
b'y, make haste wid ye an' loight the fire an' pit the kittle on. We'll pit him in the barrel afore that Jerry O'Toole has a chanst at him."
Immediately there was bustle and excitement in the Malone household. Mrs. Malone and Dinny rushed about preparing for the slaughter, and the little children hung around admiring the pig. Scarcely was the mother able to persuade them to come in to breakfast, and indeed they had hardly begun when the youngest pair of twins, moved by one impulse, slipped out
again to look at the pig. On the instant came a cry: "Oh, mither, come quick! The Road has sent us another pig!" Mrs. Malone rushed out. Sure enough, there, rooting among the weeds under the car, was another pig, larger and fatter than the first; and, behold, while they stood staring, around the corner of the car sauntered the third pig, which, in lieu of breakfast, began familiarly to devour the apron of one of the smallest twins. Mrs. Malone held up her hands and gazed at the sky.
Howly mither! do it be rainin' peegs?" she cried.
Just then a man came hurrying by, and as he passed he called :
"Pit 'em in the barrel, widdy, as fasht as ye can. The town 'll be full of 'em soon. There's a hog-thrain wrecked jist down beyant the crossin'.
At the word the whole Malone family sprang to action. The fire burned, the water boiled, and Mrs. Malone, her sleeves. rolled up and glory on her brow, slaughtered and scalded and scraped throughout the livelong day.
Weary but blissful, they sought their beds when the work was done. Three empty pork-barrels stood in a row at one end of the car, waiting to be filled on the morrow. Three stark carcasses hung, head downward, on the outside of the car in the later stages of their transition from pig to pork.
"Me childer," said Mrs. Malone, raising her nightcapped head and gazing around at the seven heads variously distributed about the car, "niver forgit, the longest day ye live, that ye're the childer of the Road. Always remimber to ack so as to be an honor to the Road. Bless ye, me childer!" And the Malone family fell asleep.
1. I'm a monster of the deep.
3. Once I sailed o'er mountains deep.
1. I'm a number measuring years.
2. I'm the center that adheres. 3. I am sought by engineers.
1. To music's service I belong.
2. Of old I graced the minstrel's song.
3. And I'm an Indian, straight and strong..
1. I'm what travelers like to use.
2. I am often in your shoes.
3. I'm the fish that some would choose.
Seek me with a keen and careful eye
In March, October, April, and July;
My first belongs to February,
My second to January,
My third to November,
My fourth to September, and
My fifth to October.
My whole may be found in all, and belongs to winter.
My first protects from cold
Effie Gait eats lemons right Three words of equal length Describe the pleasant sight That may be seen throughout our land Thanksgiving noon and night.
The Religious World
The Friends' General Conference
The third General Conference of the Society of Friends convened at Swarthmore College, Pennsylvania, August 19, and adjourned on the 26th. There were two sessions each day of the week, held in a huge tent, with an average attendance of about three thousand. Papers and discussions were grouped under four heads-First-Day Schools, Education, Religion, Philanthropy; and on Sunday large meetings for worship were gathered in the tents and the College Meeting-House, the churches of the neighborhood suspending their services to attend. About fourteen hundred guests were lodged and cared for as guests of the Philadelphia Yearly Meeting, and hundreds of others stayed in the village, while special trains from Philadelphia and West Chester brought daily many car-loads. Subjects were presented by leaders in various lines of thought or work, in papers requiring twenty or thirty minutes to read, and the discussion usually opened with two prepared talks of five minutes each. Probably the greatest interest centered around the topics of education and religion, the attendance at the Conference devoted to the latter being the largest of all. In the First-Day School Conference one of the most suggestive papers was read by John William Graham, an English Friend. It outlined the methods and purposes of the English adult schools, and proposed plans by which American Friends, and others too, could engage in similar work. These schools are primarily Bible classes for workingmen—that is, mission classes held generally early on Sunday mornings, taught by some man of good education and standing, but self-governed. There are also women's classes taught by women, and mixed classes. In all the schools Christian living is encouraged and religious thought developed, not only by the direct teaching of morals, but also in the less apparent method of co-operation and brotherliness. Savings-banks, libraries, sick funds, and Saturday afternoon rambles furnish opportunities for that best teaching of all-personal influence affecting character. Referring to the uses of these schools here, Mr. Graham said: "You may well stand appalled at the strange un-English material which is unloaded at New York; but here they are, and here they are somehow to be made into citizens of a free republic, and welded into a homogeneous nation. . . . There can be no method of elevating such a man so potent as a personal friendship with an American gentleman." Much interest was also shown in a new development of the Society's organization among its young people, called The Young Friends' Association, and one evening was devoted to a consideration of its work, the feature being a stereopticon-illustrated lecture by William W. Birdsall, of Philadelphia, upon "Some Phases of Early Quakerism," dwelling upon the labors and persecutions of the early Friends in England. During the entire Conference there were numerous expressions of pleasure in the success of these Associations in holding the allegiance and winning the activity of the young, and it was felt by many that they are one of the causes which are regenerating Quakerism.
Topics of Interest
The first paper in the Conference on Education was read by Joseph S. Walton, of Pennsylvania, and it advocated the use of public schools for Friends' children in sparsely settled districts, on the ground that the moral training of children in early years is really given at home. In discussion this view was hardly approved, and the use of the Society's schools in all practicable cases was urged. The discussion on athletics favored more and better exercise for women, and seemed to favor the approval of intercollegiate and interscholastic sports, both President De Garmo, of Swarthmore, and President Sharpless, of Haverford, speaking to the subject on that line. Dr. De Garmo, in a paper on “The Influence of the Higher Education upon the Religious Society of Friends," said : "The higher education is the comparative study of all knowledge important for the conduct of life. . . . Among the early Friends it was largely confined to classical and Biblical learning, which was of great service in expounding and defending their doctrines. As a whole, the public service of the Society consisted in helping to secure for all men liberty of conscience in thought and belief. The principles for which they struggled are now established and need only to be applied." Aaron M. Powell, of New York, presided over the Religious Conference, and opened its exercises with a most eloquent address; in the course of it he said: "The mission of Friends is not yet ended. They believe literally in the filial relation between the individual human soul and the great Over-Soul. Their religion is a religion of service, and makes for righteousness and peace." Dean Elizabeth Powell Bond had a remarkably effective paper upon "Spiritual Religion and its Application to Every-day Duties." She said: "Perfect oneness with the Father is to be found only in that feeling of brotherhood manifested to its fullest extent in the life of Jesus, which knows no mine and thine, which gives of the strength of the strong to supply the weakness of the weak." In the discussion upon silent meetings it
was felt that there was too much stress laid upon a desire for preaching in meetings, and Robert M. Janney, of Philadelphia, voiced a longtreasured principle when he said: "Vocal ministry has its place, but is the outgrowth of worship, and is not itself worship." The discussion upon "How May We, with Quakerism, Make Christianity Reach the Masses?" presented many new applications of modern Quakerism, and numbers participated in it, activity in this line of work being encouraged. Tobacco and intemperance were discussed with a feeling that Friends were clearer than ever before of these evils; social purity meetings were held for men and for women and were largely attended; and the Negro, the Indian, the Poor, and Prison Reforms received the recognition Friends have usually accorded them. Peace and arbitration were subjects also dwelt upon, and a vigorous protest made against the spread of militarism in our public schools, and as a means of Christian training in the form of boys' brigades. The Conference adjourned the 26th, to meet in the West in 1898, and the members parted permeated with a feeling that the mission of the Society is still open, although much progress has been made, and with a renewed faith in the power of its main principle-the indwelling Christ—to guide and direct all men.
Dr. Stevenson, for so many years Secretary of the American John McMillan Stevenson, D.D. Tract Society, died at his home at Hawthorne, N. J., on August 22, at the ripe age of eighty-four years. Born in West Alexandria, Pa., and growing up in Ohio, he graduated from Jefferson College sixty years ago. Studying theology for a while at Lane Seminary under Dr. Lyman Beecher, he spent some of the earlier years of his active life in teaching. He served two terms in the pastorate, first at Troy, Ohio, and then, after an interval of service as Agent of the American Tract Society, a longer term at New Albany, Indiana. From this place he was called in 1857 to be a Corresponding Secretary of the Tract Society, with headquarters at New York. Here for thirty-five years he was active in directing the work of that Society. For the last four years he had been Secretary Emeritus. In all, just one-half of his life had been given to this work. Dr Stevenson was a man of much executive ability; he was a forcible and highly acceptable preacher, a clear and strong writer, and genial and friendly in his intercourse with others. His domestic life was a very happy one. In 1837 he married Miss Cecilia H. Gillespie, of Dayton, Ohio, a woman of a spirit thoroughly congenial with his. They had celebrated their golden wedding before death entered the family. The two sons died within a year after that event. The two daughters, with their mother, survive-the elder the wife of the Rev. Oliver A. Kingsbury, of New Hartford, N. Y., the younger the wife of President Patton, of Princeton University.
The English Wesleyan Methodist English Methodist Conference Conference, which met this year
at Liverpool, among other important issues took action with regard to the question of the itineracy. After considerable examination, the committee to whom the matter was referred reported that they were unable to discover any methods more convenient than those already in operation for extending the ministerial term in exceptional cases beyond three years, without an appeal to Parliament. Afterward the Rev. Hugh Price Hughes. offered this resolution: "That, in the judgment of the Conference, the time has come when it is desirable to apply to Parliament for a Private Bill to repeal those portions of Clause XI. of the Deed Poll which prohibit the appointment of ministers for more than three years successively to the use and enjoyment of any chapel and premises.' Then in a forceful speech he urged the Conference to express an opinion on the question embodied in the resolution. He argued that the progress of Methodism in the British dominion depended in part on the absolute separation of Church and State-that the Church should be altogether free from the control of the State. Other resolutions in connection with this one requesting reasons why an act of Parliament should be applied for, that the people might vote intelligently upon the question, were offered. After a general and vigorous discussion, Dr. Hughes's resolution was adopted by a vote of 248 to 149. This indicates the trend of English Methodism on the question of ministerial itineracy.
A Missionary Circuit
The Rev. A. McLean, Corresponding Secretary of the Foreign Christian Missionary of the Globe Society, has just returned from a year's missionary circuit of the globe. The General Christian Missionary Convention, in session at Richmond, Va., in October, 1894, asked him to make the trip as their representative, feeling that the knowledge gained would be of incalculable value to him as Secretary, and that, through his greater efficiency and personal knowledge of the field, the work in general would take on new vigor and life. Mr. McLean started from the headquarters in Cincinnati in July of last year, where a great farewell reception was tendered him by the Disciple Churches
of that city and visiting delegations from a score of churches or more from surrounding cities. Large and representative gatherings in St. Louis, Kansas City, Denver, and San Francisco greeted and wished him God-speed on his journey. Sailing from the port of San Francisco early in August, his itinerary included the mission fields of Japan, China, India, Turkey, Egypt, Europe, and England. Mr. McLean is a man of long experience and single-hearted interest in the cause of world-wide evangelism, and a deep student, closely observing all that relates to this great work. In a private letter, speaking of his observations while abroad, he says the following seem to his mind the most impressive:
1. The fact that missionaries are found almost everywhere in China, Japan, India, Turkey, and Egypt, bearing witness on behalf of Christ. In some cases it was a group of missionaries, in others a single man or woman heroically holding forth the word of life all alone. 2. The results are as great or even greater than we have any right to expect. While only a beginning has been made, the results are gratifying. Most of the work thus far has been in the nature of preparation-learning the language, translating literature, opening schools, and training teachers and preachers for their work. There is a feeling on all sides that a nation must be evangelized by its own people and not by foreigners. The missionaries feel that the most important work they can do is to train and equip native teachers and preachers to do the work. 3. The widespread use of the English language is not only impressive but is full of promise in evangelism. Wherever he went he found some one who could speak in the English tongue. And he prophesies that within thirty or forty years English will be the language of Japan, India, and a large part of China. The natives are anxious to read our literature. In the civil service, the army, and the navy the official speaking English commands the highest salary. This language carries with it many ideas of manhood and of civil and religious liberty not found in any other language. The knowledge of English paves the way for the acceptance of the Gospel. 4. England's control of so large a part of the Eastern world is a great help to the missionary cause. Wherever England's flag floats you find civil and religious liberty, good roads, a chance for honesty and industry, and the manifestation of public spirit. In the British cities of Singapore and Hongkong there are Chinese merchants worth their millions; one of them has built a hospital for the afflicted of all nations. 5. Non-Christian faiths degrade woman with an infinite degradation; but the Gospel assigns her her rightful place in society wherever it is preached 6. In Turkey, Mr. McLean says, he found that the missionaries during the recent Armenian troubles stood by the afflicted and rendered every assistance in their power, and for their heroic, self-sacrificing services they deserve all honor and praise.
A unique method of evangelism is the The Gospel on Wheels portable Church and Rescue Gospel Service, systematically prosecuted both in this country and Russia. The Holy Synod of Russia, finding it im'possible to erect churches within reach of the people in sparsely settled countries of the Empire, has constructed five church cars, fitted up with the complex arrangements necessary to the Greek Church service, which, with two priests on each car, are sent out to traverse a particular section in the interest of evangelism. Each of the cars is expected to visit two settlements per day, which, for the five, is an average of seventy settlements and seventy services per week. The people have time-tables, the cars are scheduled, and therefore when -the cars arrive the people are on time, so that all possible speed is made in the work. At the suggestion of Dr. Wayland Hoyt, the Baptist Publication Society took up the idea of chapel-car service, and in May of 1891 the chapel car " Evangel" was dedicated, which has traveled some twenty-five thousand miles, visited about two hundred places, and in it some thirteen or fourteen hundred religious services have been held. In the report of 1895 it is stated that the "Evangel has witnessed 1,210 conversions, the formation of 21 Sunday-schools, -the organization of 19 churches, with pastors provided; its workers have visited 787 families, and from it Bibles, tracts, periodicals, pamphlets, etc., have been liberally distributed, with excellent results. Indeed, so successful was the work that within two years the second "Emmanuel," was dedicated to the same work. Mr. Charles N. Crittenden, the famous founder of Florence Mission, saw the advantages of chapel cars for the establishment of rescue work in the great centers of population in the West and South. The "Florence Crittenden Rescue Car, Good News" was the first put into operation, and is now associated with some three or four others busy all the time, going from place to place, in the work of rescuing the fallen. The railroads generously furnish free transportation, coal, water, oil, etc., and in this way help the good work very materially. Another plan, somewhat similar, is that of using large tents or portable houses. The best recent example of the portable house, perhaps, is the one built for the Rev. E. W. Dorst (Disciple), city evangelist of Chicago, which was built of corrugated iron so as to be easily taken apart in sections and removed with but little labor from place to place.
ginia, South Carolina, Alabama, Mississippi, Texas, and Kentucky, and over 100,000 in Tennessee, Arkansas, Missouri, Illinois, and New York. This shows the Baptist strength to be largely in the South. The Methodists have over 200,000 in North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Tennessee, Texas, Ohio, New York, and Pennsylvania. Dr. Carroll puts the Roman Catholics at 6,257,871, instead of 10,000,000 as was recently claimed. They have over half of all the church members in New York, Massachusetts, Louisiana, California, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico, Wyoming, Colorado, Montana, and Minnesota. This is due largely to the foreign element. The Catholics have over 1,000,000 members in New York, over 600,000 in Massachusetts, over 500,000 in Pennsylvania, about 500,000 in Illinois, over 300,000 in Ohio, over 200,000 in Louisiana, New Jersey, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. Speaking of church growth in the Forum," Dr. Carroll says: The most remarkable instance of growth in five years is that of the Disciples of Christ. This denomination, which is particularly strong in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee, Missouri, and Texas, was so little known to the rest of the country when Mr. Garfield became President, that it was for years thereafter spoken of as the denomination to which President Garfield belonged. It is in spirit, doctrine, and practice not unlike the regular Baptists, from which denomination the Campbells and many others withdrew when the Disciples of Christ came into existence in the early part of the present century. It was organized as a movement to restore the lost unity of believers, and so of the Church of Christ, by a return, in doctrine, ordinance, and life, to the religion definitely outlined in the New Testament. It has no human creed, taking the Bible as its rule of faith and practice. Like the Baptists, the Disciples hold to immersion as the proper mode of baptism, and to the baptism of believers only. It is not easy to arrive definitely at the secret of its growth, although the fact of its growth is clear enough. In 1880 it reported 350,000 members; in fifteen years thereafter it had considerably more than doubled itself. The increase is at the rate of nearly one hundred and sixty-four per cent. Their own idea of the secret of their success is because their plea is for Christian unity, their basis a Scriptural union basis, their zeal in evangelization, and their plain, direct preaching."
Miss Agnes E. Slack, honorary Miss Slack's Visit to America Secretary of the World's Women's Christian Temperance Union, and honorary Secretary of the British Women's Temperance Association, arrived in America a few weeks since upon the invitation of Miss Frances E. Willard to attend the annual Convention of the W. C. T. U., which will meet at St. Louis in October. Previous to that Convention Miss Slack will speak in a number of large cities, and will address several of the State Prohibition Conventions, including that of New York, which will be held in Brooklyn in October. She spoke at the Chautauqua Assembly on "Temperance Day," amid the hearty applause of all who heard her. Besides being an enthusiastic temperance advocate, Miss Slack is a strong member of the Women's Liberal Federation Executive Committee, and of the Executive Committee of the Central Suffrage Society. She is very popular in England as a speaker on temperance and political platforms, and frequently she occupies some of the prominent pulpits in Britain. It is Miss Slack's opinion that the United States is much nearer the prohibition of the liquor traffic than the United Kingdom; but she believes that very much needs to be done here before temperance will universally prevail. She is a strong advocate of woman suffrage; but perhaps some of her best work has been done in causing many reforms in the workhouses and jails of the United Kingdom. No doubt she will receive a hearty welcome to many pulpits and platforms in America.
Mrs. Louise S. Houghton and Mr. Jacob A. Riis A Worthy Cause have just made an appeal through the public press of New York in behalf of the tenementhouse work carried on by the Tenement-House Chapter of the King's Daughters and Sons of that city. The Chapter was originally organized to help the physicians of the Board of Health in their summer work, by supplying delicacies, flowers, and fresh-air privileges. Its rooms are at 77 Madison Street, near Chatham Square, and in the six years of its existence it has done a good work. At the headquarters it maintains several clubs, two sewing-schools, a kindergarten, and a library of 2,000 volumes; and in the summer it does fresh-air work. A visitor is employed all the year, who co-operates with the Charity Organization Society, investigating charity cases and distributing delicacies, medicines, and aid in general. The cost of the work is about $5,000 a year, of which one-fourth is pledged annually and the remainder is raised by voluntary offerings. Just at this season of the year many poor people in the tenements suffer intensely, and it is for this class of unfortunates that the appeal is made. Certainly the names of Mr. Riis and Mrs. Houghton are a sufficient guarantee that the object is worthy. Miss Clara Field is the Treasurer, and her address is 7 Madison Street.
Books and Authors
History of Christian Doctrine 1
This work is, by its special design, strictly limited to the size of a compend. On a theme of such weight and extent, a compend can give to individual topics only a severely restricted discussion. Yet to the student or to any thoughtful reader this volume brings more of the essentials of its subject than are found in many extended treatises of high repute. Its perusal may even occasion a regret that more of the mighty treatises had not been compends, and will surely occasion the wish that the larger amount of critical comment" which the author mentions as excluded from this volume may be given to the public in another-the wish being, not for a more adequate treatment, but for more of a treatment so adequate.
One of the most important and perilous fields of scholarship is entered by such a history. It demands not only broad historic knowledge, supplemented by laborious research in a multitude of special lines, but also a mind at home in keenly analytic and discriminative thought, and with a habit of precise weighing of terms. It demands further, or rather before all else, that delicate sense of honor, rooted in "the charity of Jesus Christ," to which any misreport of the brethren or of any man through bias or through negligence would be as a slander or a lie. All these demands would be made concerning a mere record of dogma "-record of the authorized tenets of the Church or of its chief divisions, such as is Dr. Adolf Harnack's admirable History. With emphasis, then, must these demands apply to a history of doctrine which, like the book now in view, records theological thought, not only as it has gained a place in the legislation of corporate churches, but also as, taking voice in the experience or the speculation of individual thinkers, it has waked an echo audible and prolonged in the general Church. It is to be said of this book-though, in view of the author's previous works, it scarcely needs be said that, as far as concerns every one of the demands above noted, it meets the severest standard: there is fullness of knowledge, thorough research, keenly analytic thought, exact and felicitous use of philosophic terms, an unvarying equilibrium of the scales used in judgment; and-rarest enrichment for a positive, profound, and learned critic-there is an interpretative and revealing sympathy which finds its way to the vital point in a doctrinal system, and thence discerns its origin, meaning, bearings, and effects.
This gracious sympathy, leading the way for a strikingly vigorous and unflinching criticism, is a very notable characteristic of this work. It is a decisive element in two features whose full development, as in this case, gives great moral authority to theological criticism—the two features, fairness, and what may be called humanness; fairness in stating all sorts and conditions of doctrines, and humanness in tracing their inmost meaning and force. The fairness, the absolute discharge of prejudice or bias, has become in modern days the usual aim of theological historians, denying themselves the furtive delight of him who thinks to advance the kingdom of truth by gently twisting a term, or innocently turning a phrase, or deftly shifting an emphasis. But in Professor Fisher's work there appears no conscious aim at fairness; the candor of statement is so entire and unfailing that aim and effort seem never to have been needed; an unprejudiced thought simply took wing in words. The fairness, however, does not with him pass into a vice, as with some other writers of highest culture and careful thought, who have gradually assumed toward the universe and all persons and facts that are therein an attitude daintily dispassionate, so judicially cool, so utterly above all prejudice or bias, that it is above, also, all assured convictions. In this book fairness is not thus conceded as from a superior, and never is it sublimated into theological indifference.
Allied to this feature is another of the noteworthy characteristics of the work-the humanness of the aspect in which it shows us the doctrines of all the Christian centuries, evidently because it was in such human aspect that the author himself saw them. This also is due to the sympathy above referred to. Beliefs, both in his record and in his criticism of them, appear as thoughts indeed, fully amenable to logic, but not as products of a mere thinking machine. They are thoughts generated in some more or less worthy experience of man's spiritual being, flowering in emotions, and sentiments fruiting in actions, and bearing the seeds of further spiritual experience: the critic of them, therefore, is to send not his analytic intellect alone into the old centuries as an inquisitor to examine and bring report;
History of Christian Doctrine. By George Park Fisher, D.D., LL.D., Professor of Ecclesiastical History in Yale University. Vol. IV. in the International Theological Library, edited by Charles A. Briggs, D.D., and Stewart D. F. Salmond, D.D. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. $1.50.
he is to go himself, and in his total spiritual personality. Moreover, doctrines, being thus seen as vital products, will naturally be interpreted under the laws of human personal life. Hence, to this critic, consolidated systems of belief, or laborious schemes of the universe, or far-flying theories, are not divine miracles, or freakish mental formations, or intellectual accidents. They are touched by him firmly, every one at its vital point, with words few and precise; and are discriminated from their connected or resembling systems and theories. Many of the most important are traced back to their hidden germs or their remote origin. We recall no other eminent historical critic of doctrine who is found so constantly as is Professor Fisher seeking the sources of theologies in some spiritual experiences, or, failing these, in some uses which were desired in practical Christian work.
The reader cannot fail to be impressed with the marvelous. weight of the material packed within this comparatively small volume. Condensation is complete. The long sentences are very few. Shadings of thought and angles of perspective that the attentive reader can readily supply are left to him; the style-similarly left to be cared for by the thought-has the fine effect of lucidity and directness quite without efflorescence ; the movement, though never hurried, is unpausing, with steady refusal of all dallying to be eloquent, or picturesque, or impressively wise. These items of the style and treatment are here brought to view lest foregoing remarks on the weighty intellectual and ethical features of the treatment might give an impres-. sion of laborious and long-drawn discussion. Let it then be understood that the characteristics before pointed out are not mechanically developed; they are of the atmosphere in which the whole criticism moves with an unconscious ease.
In a body of historical criticism so animate with human sympathy, an element of compromise or else of indecisiveness would naturally be expected in a day like this, when theological compromise is a fashion, and indecisive thinking has been reduced to a science and labeled Christian charity. In doctrine, bound-aries are now often blurred, or declared to be imaginary lines.. In philosophy, the tendency has been toward a knowing that all that man can know is the fact that he knows and can with cer
tainty know nothing. But here is a treatise whose whole spiritual movement is in a sphere of charity, and whose whole intellectual movement is with fullest liberty, and yet in whose method intellectual compromise and indefiniteness are unknown. The abundant moral charity never lessens the severe exactness of statement, nor blurs the distinction between opinions that actu-.. ally differ. The great themes of Threefoldness in the Unity of God's Being, of Original Sin in Man, of the Atonement in Christ, supply specimens of an intellectual method in criticism thus rigid, precise, and penetrating.
On many a point whose historic dispute is here recorded, the author leaves his own tenet to the reader's inference; he is not advocate, nor is he debater. The liberal breadth of his Christian fellowship is well known. But on the fundamental historical Christianity, and in the apostolic confession of Jesus as the Christ,. the Son of the living God, man's Redeemer and Lord, he holds firm stand throughout. The first words of his Introduction are these: " Christianity is the revelation of God through Jesus Christ whereby reconciliation and a new spiritual life in fellowship with Himself are brought to mankind. The religion of Christ is inseparable from the life and character of its Founder, and from his personal relations to the race, and to the community of his followers. He appears in the character of a second head of the race, the author of a new spiritual creation." On page 4 we read: "In the New Testament it is constantly assumed, where it is not expressly affirmed, that mankind in character are alienated from God, and that Christ is the De-liverer through whom reconciliation is made and a filial relation re-established. The substance of Christianity is expressed in the word Redemption,' with its postulates and results." It is the author's habit to cite warrant from the Scriptures for a positive assertion of principle. His theory of their inspiration is not suggested; they are simply treated as authority. Dealing with the relation of theology to science, he refuses, and in few words refutes, the Christian agnosticism which, while conceding the great facts of the spiritual universe, deems them beyond reach of our thought, and thus outside the domain of true "science." Kant, who as a theoretical philosopher "organized skepticism," and led in his train Sir William Hamilton and Mansel with their watchword, "Faith without Science," has no leadership for this author. He finds no place for the theory that captivated Horace Bushnell" that theology can never be a science, on account of the infirmities of language ;" and he shows that such a principle. would render void, also, ethics and political science.
Setting aside the theory that "faith" is merely a preparatory stage to knowledge, also the Hegelian view of "faith" as an unscientific grasp of truth which philosophy has power to evolve in its pure form, he declares that "the faith of the Christian