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The Spectator has been taking a look through his own eyes at American life as it was thirty years ago. That is, he has not been studying somebody's picture of it, but has been looking at the life itself as it was reflected in its own editorial mirror-a reflection which no picture of it, deliberately drawn for reproduction, can equal in vividness or accuracy. Many small details, significant of things that have passed away in unnoted forgetfulness, stand out sharply, and remind one of characteristics and events blurred so slowly that the process itself was unobserved.
It was purely by chance that the Spectator
came to take this look at the almost immediate
past. In the library one evening he picked up "Critical and Social Essays, Reprinted from the New York Nation (1865-'66)." As he opened it, his eye lighted on this sentence: "Every one in this nation knows that Blow Ye the Trumpet, Blow,' was John Brown's favorite hymn, sung on his scaffold and at his burial." The fact that everybody thirty years ago was supposed to know something that almost nobody knows to-day interested the Spectator. He started to glance through the essays to see what else there might be of common knowledge then, now wholly forgotten. He found, among many things of the same sort, the comparison of the worth of a certain kind of review to "exactly its weight in Confederate paper;" a representation of the rich man in the act of giving, as holding out his "portemonnaie "-a word hardly ever heard now, and referring (he thinks) to the pocketbook used for those old-time " "shinplasters;" a statement that certain people are not found to "lag behind the age,' as the phrase is," when to-day one would say, if one were dropping into the colloquial, that such persons "keep up with the procession;" and, in an article speculating on some of the possibilities for the invention of sewing-machines, the hardly fulfilled prophecy: "Twenty years hence hand-sewing will be as curious a sight as is now hand-spinning."
The comments in these essays on dress and personal appearance struck the Spectator as odd evidence of unconscious change in thirty years. "The love of black broadcloth," says one of these essays, "is perhaps that weakness of the Yankee character which is best known to foreigners, and has afforded to foreign tourists the most opportunities to make little jokes in their diaries on the personnel of the American traveler." Who can tell when this habit of wearing black-to which Dickens not infrequently refers-was given up, and the ordinary, almost universal, dress of business men of to-day supplanted it? The same essay also deprecates the prevailing habit of wearing the hair long, pointing out, with no little solemnity, how long hair, especially if it be greased, soils the coat collar, and "is not pleasing, to say the least." Included with this protest against
business clothes of black broadcloth and unbarbered locks is another against the exposure of too much shirt-front. It is noted that "no class, probably, wear so few buttons on their waistcoats as street-car conductors "-something peculiarly offensive because, from the conditions of the case, their exposed linen must be begrimed with a disproportionate share of dust and dirt. When one contrasts
this with the almost universal custom to-day of uniforming conductors, one is impressed by the no small advance that thirty years have made in minor æsthetics.
The conventional marks of material progress have long been the same as where the essayist says that "a man need not be very old to remember the time when there were no railroads, no steamships, and no telegraph wires," and adds elsewhere (as a surprising instance of what could be done): "Secretary Seward telegraphed the other day to a United States Consul residing not far from the Pyramids." But within a very recent time these conventional marks have been changed, almcst imperceptibly. The Spectator listened
to a sermon on progress the other Sunday, in which the preacher referred to the present as the age of "bicycles, telephones, and trolley railroads, steamships, and telegraph, which cars," making no reference to the conventional have done duty so long.
Turning to the higher questions of the life of thirty years ago, the Spectator was interested to note how different was the popular attitude toward, for example, the doctrine of evolution. One essay is very severe in its censure of the late Professor Agassiz for closing a popular lecture on Darwinism with an appeal to prejudice in the words: "We are the children of God, not the children of mononly be compared for irrelevancy and inconkeys." "This appeal," says the essayist, "can
clincher: 'Do you want your daughter to marry a nigger ?". clincher," as -on which " the Spectator recalls, Anna Dickinson once wrote a characteristic story entitled "What Answer?" Both "clincher" and story have passed into as complete eclipse, have been as completely outgrown, as if they had never existed. Coming to the sphere of art, the Spectator was reminded that certain questions then had as lively an interest as they have today, by the remark: "Somebody may, perhaps, improvement on our realistic school of writing by and by, invent something which will be an fiction." Yet at that time Howells was an unknown novelist and critic, and the school of romanticists was as little in evidence as the school of impressionists. In art, these essays say, America had reached "the period of in"in the period of promiscuous and often silly discriminate censure," while literature was still
clusiveness to the well-known Democratic
There were two essays in the book which particularly interested the Spectator. One is on the tinkering of hymns, as a "crime against letters," having for its text the sixty-five "additional hymns" which had just been added to the Prayer-Book of the Episcopal Church. The prediction is made that "the leading and intelligent minds of the Episcopal Church will not accept these mutilated and injured hymns," but that there will be a re-revision." contrary, many of them, it is curious to note, have become so familiar in their mutilated
Speaking in a general way of the impression left upon him by reading these essays, the Spectator was struck by a certain conspicuous note of provincialism in them. It is not only that the social critic of the "Nation" then commented on various things which would to-day be hardly considered worth his attention, but that he commented on them with no little seriousness. There are also lacking throughout the book any but passing allusions to the great subject of "journalism," which to-day fills so large a space in all comments on social conditions. The theater, too, is barely noticed, if at all. Thirty years ago the
New Series of The Christian Union Copyright, 1896, by The Outlook Company. Entered as second-class matter in the New York Post-Office.
The Outlook is a weekly Family Paper, containing this week forty pages. The subscription price is Three Dollars a year, payable in advance.
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Notes and Queries
Is it a common practice among Christian families to ask "grace" at the table before eating? To me it seems a "vain repetition," and because of the frequency of meals it becomes merely a form. I have seen occasions when it has been somewhat embarrassing to invited guests who were not expecting and not accustomed to it. Please let me know what your ideas are on this subject. For myself I prefer to have all family devotions embraced under the observance of daily family reading and prayers. A CONSTANT READER.
Apart from the spirit the form is vain, but with the spirit the form goes as its natural expression. Our observation finds that the practice, though less frequent than formerly, is still common. It would be a pity to do away with it because of guests unaccustomed to it. Hotels and boarding-houses impose restrictions on it. One should, at any rate, cultivate the habit of a silent thanksgiving. If this is done, the outward form will tend to spontaneous expression upon favoring opportunity. It was Christ's practice, and there is not less but more cause amid the distractions of our daily life for imitating his example. If frequency breeds formalism, it is our fault.
What is the meaning of "unlimited coinage of silver
The present silver dollar weighs as much as sixteen gold dollars. The silver dollar weighs 412% grains; the gold dollar 25 8-10 grains. The free coinage of gold and silver at the ratio of 16 to 1 means that whoever brings to the mint 412% grains of silver or 25 8-10 grains of gold shall receive a dollar for it. This was the system prior to 1873, and the advocates of free coinage claim that the fall in the price of silver bullion since that date has been due to the change in the law, and that the restoration of the old law will restore silver bullion to its old price, and permit the use of both metals for the expansion of the currency. International bimetallists accept this reasoning, but urge that all the leading nations must reopen their mints to the free coinage of silver if its former value is to be restored and silver and gold circulate together at par.
1. Are certain accusations formulated against Brigham Young justified, that pertain to his having ordered or permitted murders for the sake of profit? 2. Did he order the famous wholesale murder of a band of settlers, and did he derive benefit therefrom? 3. What is the most impartial history of the life of Brigham Young and of the Mormon Church?
Young was Governor of Utah and commander of its militia when the massacre of one hundred immigrants was committed by a Mormon force in 1857. The guilt of this rests in part upon him, as at least privy to the deed. It was not for profit, except as in support of Mormon policy. "The Mormon Delusion" (Congregational Publishing Society, Boston) is probably as truthful an account as there is.
Will you give the author of these lines:
"Night has dropped its curtain down,
tails than the United States Histories used in the schools. SUBSCRIBER.
"The American Commonwealths Series" (Houghton, Mifflin & Co., Boston) will meet your desire.
I have seen a quotation which runs something like this: "Ye believe in Christ, ye must accept his words." Can you give the quotation correctly and its source? A. M. C.
We refer this query to our readers.
I find in a volume of "Parnassus," edited by Ralph Waldo Emerson, the lines asked for by "M. F." in The Outlook, entitled "The Babe," being translated from Calidasa by Sir William Jones. The
verse is given in your issue of June 20, but with many errors in wording. It is found in "Parnassus" F. L. L. under the heading of "Human Life."
The lines beginning, "Hail to the coming sing
ers," desired by "M. A. B.," are by Whittier, and the poem is called, I think," My Triumph." The poem desired by “J. D. M," beginning, The Mas ter has come over Jordan," is entitled" Christ and the Little Ones," and is by Julia Gill. K. R.
Sickness Among Children
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Hair Brushes, Clothes Brushes, Combs, Mirrors, and all other needful toilet articles in silver, of the choicest patterns, heavy, strong, and well made.
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THE HAIR 26th Ed., 25 cts. (or stamps).
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The Business World
In the stock markets there was a The Week week of falling prices, culminating on Monday of this week in a decidedly sharp drop which was arrested only by a renewal of buying on English account. Whatever the ultimate cause, the immediate reason was undoubtedly an absence of anything like a genuine demand for stocks; even at low prices there was little activity, except speculative. The railway stocks which suffered most were St. Paul, Burlington, Missouri Pacific, and Louisville. The unfavorable statements for May of the first two named roads, although anticipated, had an undoubted effect on the general market. Gold shipments were also an element in the depression. The failure of the market to show any great buoyancy in response to the nomination at St. Louis and the currency declaration in the Republican platform is now explained, by those who hold that all present stock fluctuations are due to the political situation, by the statement that the market is affected by the strength of the silver faction of the Democratic party, and in particular the past week by Mr. Whitney's frank declaration that he saw little hope of bringing about a compromise between the gold and silver advocates at Chicago. In other than railway stocks the greatest activity was in sugar, which, after falling several points last week, on Monday again fell 35% per cent. from Saturday's prices. Indications of more active trading in silver bullion are ascribed to speculative possibilities of trading on political movements. In general trade the usual summer dullness is now noticeable. The Fall River and Providence and other mills have either restricted production or are seriously, discussing a reduction. Prices of agricultural products and iron and steel are slightly lower. The general feeling seems to be that no improvement in trade can reasonably be looked for until the fall season opens. The crop out look is, as a rule, favorable. Exports of wheat were slightly less than the previous week, but nearly 800,000 bushels larger than in the same week of last year. "Bradstreet's" reports 218 business failures for the week, as compared with 265 the week previous, and 215 for the same week of last year.
Advances in Coal
An immediate general advance in prices for coal seems certain. The Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company have announced an advance of twenty-five cents per ton, bringing the price of broken coal at tide-water, "f. o. b.," to $3.75 gross; that of egg coal, $4; that of stove coal, $4.25. The other leading companies will no doubt follow this example. This is the third distinct advance in price made this year. The possibility of bringing about these advances has been in the mutual agreement of the great coal-producing companies to restrict their output. The production from January to May this year has been about a million and a quarter tons less than for the same month last year. There has been no formal agreement upon this policy, but a general understanding and mutual interest have brought it about. It is stated that the total tonnage for the six months to come will be about twentyfive million tons; this would be larger than the output for the first half of the year; the policy of keeping the output down in the first half of the year and increasing it in the latter half, when the demand is greater, is shrewd and wise from the point of view of the trade. Of course the consumer cannot be expected to be pleased with any advance in price.
Preliminary statistics of Our Foreign Trade foreign trade for the month of May and the eleven months of the fiscal year ending therewith have been issued by the Chief of the Bureau of Statistics of the Treasury Depart ment. The figures, which are corrected to June 13, show (as summarized in "Bradstreet's") that for the eleven months ending with May the exports were valued at $815,971,764, which represents an increase of over $63,400,000 as compared with the corresponding period of the preceding fiscal year. Of the total exports of merchandise $17,705,292
worth were classed as foreign, as compared AMERICAN FIRE
with $12,915,829 in the corresponding eleven
There is still a strong de-
In an interesting newspaper
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FOR SALE Beautiful Camp and Cottage Site, south shore of Lake Winnipesaukee, N. H.; about half acre, hill and beach; small grove; icehouse (filled), boat-house, boat, canvas canoe, tent, etc. Photos may be seen at Outlook Office. F. A. OBER, Orange, N. J. 15 Tremont Avenue.
To tent, house at "The Hamiet," Hulett's Landing, occupied by owner until this year. On edge of lake; 10 rooms; finely furnished; boats; bathing house: tent, etc., just as used by family. Rent moderate. Inquire of SALTER STORRS CLARK, 58 William St., N.Y.City.
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The great Summer Resort for Health and Pleasure.
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CREST VIEW GREENWICH, CT.
CHELSEA INN and COTTAGES Hampton Hill, Conn., Windham Co. Location on one of the highest and most picturesque hill-tops in the State; connecting farm supplies fresh vegetables, milk and cream; all kinds of berries; a great variety of wild flowers. Cottages to rent in part or entire; rates from $8 to $12 per week. Parties seeking a cool, quiet, healthful and restful place in the country, write for circular. F. E. WHITTAKER.
Muskoka & Georgian Bay Navigation Co. Pequot House
GRAVENHURST and TORONTO
IN VERMONT AND ON THE SHORES
OF LAKE CHAMPLAIN
NEW illustrated book, describing this unequaled summer resort section, offering the BEST TABLE BOARD, hospitable people, outdoor pleasures, fishing, boating, or perfect rest. Climate and scenery unsurpassed. Prices from $5 per week upwards.
Mailed free, on receipt five cents postage, on appli
A. W. ECCLESTONE, or S. W.CUMMINGS,
OW PRICES FOR BOARD in Attractive Pass. Dept., Portland, Maine. Full summer service in effect June 21st to White Mountains, Bar Harbor, Rangeley Lakes, Moosehead Lake, St. Andrews. Guide-books, folders, and full information on application.
LSW PRICES Fs. Write the Maine Central R.R.
Ty'n-y-Coed Portable Camping Houses
Beautiful scenery; gigantic cliffs; delightful drives; golf links. For rates, circulars, etc., address
JOHN A. SHERLOCK, Eastport, Maine.
AN ENCHANTED ISLE HOTEL MADOCKAWANDO and Annex on Heron Isle the Enchanted, will open June 20th. For circulars address E. ROGERS, Heron Island, Maine.
Eagle Rock House Kennebunk Beach,
On elevated ground. Spacious verandas. Table firstclass. Open June 10. Apply to J. D. WELLS, Mgr.
CHARLES S. PATTEN
Send for illustrated booklet
For Recreation and Health. Electricity, Massage, the Rest Cure. Send for circular. C. F. HAMMOND, M.D
The Edgemere PEMAQUID,
The thing to take to the Seashore or Mountains
All sizes. Moderate in price. Good floors and roofs. Nicely finished.
Send 4c. in stamps for Illustrated Catalog.
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"BERKSHIRE HILLS."-Old Homestead Farm,
head Pontoosuc Lake. Boating, fishing; fine bicycling: two mails daily. On main road from Lenox to Williamstown. Write for circular. CARRIE R. DOW, Lanesboro, Mass.
Marblehead Rockmere Point
Will open Ninth Season. For health, pure air, fine views, unequaled. Prominent headland; grounds and beach for bathing, boating, and fishing private for our guests. Special rates for June. Address J. R. GILES.
THE ISLAND OF NANTUCKET
30 Miles at Sea
High elevation: bay and ocean view: boating, bathing. If you would stay at the leading hotel,
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POPHAM BEACH, MAINE THE SPRINGFIELD
THE ROCKLEDGE FINEST VIEW ON THE ATLANTIC COAST A thoroughly modern first-class hotel. Excellent Cuisine, fine Orchestra, perfect drainage, grand beach and surf bathing. No hay fever. Rates reasonable. Address J. D. FORSYTH, Mgr.
Send for a copy of our illustrated pamphlet, "On Summer Seas," which gives full information.
C. H. MOWRY, Proprietor
THE HIGH ROCK OGUNQUIT, VERANDA HOUSE LANDET
The leading house. Good location; good beach; boating, bathing, fishing, and pine woods. J. H. Littlefield.
"THE BAY VIEW" Ferry Beach,
Bay View, Saco, Me.-A unique summer resort; seashore and country combined. Pure spring water; perfect drainage; accommodates 200. Send for illustrated booklet. Mrs. E. MANSON & SON, Owners and Managers.
SUMMIT HOUSE SOUTH BRISTOL,
MAINE and Brambletye Cottage. Beautifully located. A delightful summer home. Open June 15 to Sept. 30. Send for circular. N. W. GAMAGE & SON, Propr's.
WEST BALDWIN, Me. Pine Grove Cottage. One of the most desirable summer resorts in Maine, charmingly situated in a grove of fragrant pines; elegant. large, airy sleeping rooms; pure spring water; fine drives; on M.C.R.R.: fishing and gunning. Address S. P. MURCH.
Will open June 15th. High, healthful; fine ocean views. Pleasant, homelike house, accommodating about 100 guests. Mrs. S. G. DAVENPORT.
AWAY OUT TO SEA Write to Highland House, North Truro, Mass.
Good roads abound. A morning drive along the ocean front is exhilarating. (The Prescott faces the sea.) A comfortable summer resting-place. Mrs. F. H. GOULD, Lynn, Mass.
PERU, BERKSHIRE CO., MASS.
MAPLE GROVE FARM Among the
PASSACONAWAY INN Now open for boarders.
C. M. HATHEWAY.
We make all kinds of Frame Houses, large or small, Club Houses, Churches, Chapels, Cottages, &c.
AND COTTAGES, BETHLEHEM, N. H. Located on the highest point in town;, wide lawns thorough heating for late guests; accommodates 150. Send for guide to Bethlehem. F. H. ABBOTT, Prop.
An Ideal Mountain Resort
Jerusalem Spring House
CANAAN, N. H.
Terms moderate. Special rates for June, Sept.. and Oct. Jerusalem Spring Water challenges the world for its medicinal qualities, purity, and excellence. D. H. MAYNARD.
SENTER HOUSE Centre Harbor, N. H.
On beautiful Lake Winnipesaukee. A modern hote well equipped. Excellent cuisine. Location offers al advantages of both mountain and lake. Fine bass fishing. Pure water supply from belknap Spring; temperature of water, 44°. Write for illustrated booklet. A. W. EAGER, Manager.
Forest Hills Hotel
HEART OF THE WHITE MTS. Golf link, wheel track, casino. Up to date in every respect. MAY TO NOVEMBER. J. W. DUDLEY & CO., Proprietors, Franconia, N. H.
NEW MARLBORO INN PROFILE HOUSE AND COTTAGES
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Van Deusenville StatION, N. Y., N. H. & H. R. R., The GRAMERCY BETHLEHEM, N.H.
SEASON, JUNE 1 TO NOV. 1 Address for terms, &c., PECK'S INN, Great Barrington, Mass.
1,600 feet above sea-level. Delightful summer home for families. Send for booklet. E. STIMPSON.
WHITE MOUNTAINS, N. H. OPENS JUNE 29. CLOSES OCTOBER 1. Address Hotel Vendôme, Boston, or Profile House N. H. TAFT & GREENLEAF.
(For other advertisements in this department see following pages.)