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Books and Authors
The Pilgrim Fathers in New England'
The last few years have witnessed a revival of interest in the subject of Puritanism. That interest is manifested in the books which have appeared on the subject, treating of the Puritan Revolution and its causes; of the great figures of that crucial epoch of the world's history; of the characteristics of the Pilgrims and Puritans, and what they have respectively achieved on both sides of the sea. Perhaps the most notable indication of this revival is in the prospective publication of "The History of the Plymouth Plantation," by Governor Bradford. The manuscript, our readers will remember, disappeared from view for many years, and was last seen by Governor Hutchinson, whose "History of Massachusetts " appeared in 1767. It was deposited in the New England Library in the tower of the Old South Church in Boston. It did not appear again until it was found in the library of the Bishop of London's palace at Fulham about 1855. This work is the foundation of the most thorough study of the history of the Pilgrims. Its republication at a great expense by a photographic process illustrates the widespread interest in Pilgrim and Puritan history.
Another sign of this interest is in the latest book of Dr. John Brown, of Bedford, England, entitled "The Pilgrim Fathers in New England." Dr. Brown is widely known as the author of "The Life of John Bunyan." He is pastor of the famous John Bunyan Church in Bedford, and his biography of the great dreamer is the highest authority on that subject. For thirty years he has ministered to the same people. During most of the time his studies have been along the lines of Pilgrim and Puritan history. He is one of the most eminent Congregational ministers of Great Britain. The highest position in the gift of the Independent Churches has been occupied by him, and his addresses from the chair of the Union on "The Historic Episcopate" and "The Historic Christian People" will long be remembered. Dr. Brown has given us the best book that we know on the causes which led up to the sailing of the Pilgrim Fathers and the first years of their residence in this country. He does not undertake too much, but wisely limits himself to a definite and not too extended period. His style is singularly picturesque and perspicuous, and now and then contains traces of quaintness which suggest his studies in the Bunyan literature. The chapter on "The Precursors of the Pilgrims" shows how the modern movement of government by the people began; that it was the child of the Reformation; that the two principles by which the power of Rome was assailed and really the modern movement inaugurated were, free inquiry as opposed to the absolute authority of the Church, and the universal priesthood of all believing men as opposed to a clerical caste of priests. Dr. Brown shows that American self-government was not the sudden birth of the Declaration of Independence, but that it really sprang from the organization which the Pilgrim Fathers gave to the first colony, an organization which determined the shape and character of the State Constitution which followed. He proves beyond question that the modern movement in the direction of freedom and the sovereignty of the people had a distinctly religious origin. Step by step he follows the growth of the two governing principles to which we have referred, from before the days of Wycliffe to the sailing of the Pilgrims. Scrooby and Austerfield, the early homes of the Pilgrims, are vividly described. The period of the exile in Holland is treated with equal clearness. The chapter on "The Writings of John Robinson" contains an analysis and exposition of a somewhat difficult subject, while the chapter entitled "Where Lies the Land?" treats of the growth of the conviction that it would be impossible for the Pilgrims long to remain in Holland. He brings out a point which may be new to some readersnamely, that the stay of the Pilgrims in that country was not altogether satisfactory to the Dutch, who desired to retain the friendship of King James as their ally against Spain. A copy of the compact in the cabin of the Mayflower, with the names appended, is given in full. One of the most interesting chapters is that which treats of the arrival of the colonists of Massachusetts Bay, and their gradual growth toward Independency. While the Puritans of Massachusetts Bay came to this country as loyal Anglicans, they had already declared themselves in favor of principles which, sooner or later, would necessitate the step which they so quickly took. Francis Higginson even in his last days had made a stand for purity of fellowship, and refused to allow immoral persons to come to the Lord's Table. In other words, he had declared in favor of the truth that only the regenerate should be members of the Christian Church. The
The Pilgrim Fathers in New England. By the Rev. John Brown, D.D. The F. H. Revell Company, New York. $2.50.
second principle which they had affirmed was that the whole Church might be trusted with the power which Christ had given to the same. Thus those Puritans of Massachusetts Bay came protesting that they were heart and soul loyal to the Church of England; but already they had adopted two of the foundation principles of Separatism, and those principles soon worked to their legitimate conclusion. One difference between the men of Salem and the men of Plymouth was that the former retained the State Church principle in spirit, while the latter did not.
Dr. Brown's conviction concerning the Pilgrim Fathers may be inferred from the following extract from his concluding paragraph:
"Still, when all this has been said, and allowance has been made for all possible drawbacks, there remains about these men a certain moral grandeur. They had great and high qualities, the solid virtues on which stable commonwealths are founded, and they created such colonies as no other men in those days did: colonies that grew into a great nation, which has not even yet reached the summit of its greatness. There was in these makers of New England a grand, masterful sincerity, a noble courage of conviction, an overwhelming sense of the authority of righteousness in human life, and an ever-present consciousness of God's personal rule over the world, in spite of all its confusions."
The book is one hard to criticise. It is a clear, luminous, and satisfying account of a period of history which every wellinformed English or American man or woman should know by heart. It is not intended to be an exhaustive study, but a popular presentation of the results of such study. As such it will be of interest to scholars, who will admire its accuracy and fullness of knowledge, and to the common people for the interesting and inspiring way in which it treats of the heroic period of New England. Dr. Dexter wrote for students and theologians; Dr. Brown, with equal fidelity to facts, has written for all who are interested in the beginnings of our history.
The Idea of God and the Moral Sense in the Light of Language: Being a Philological Inquiry into the Use, Rise, and Growth of Moral Concepts. By Herbert Baynes. (G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York.) It has been assumed since the days of Epicurus by the materialistic school of philosophy that religion was, and is, a product of materialistic evolution; that the ideas of God, of the soul, and of morality have no better foundation than dreams, fancies, and fears, hardened into custom and then into conviction. It seems to have been Comte who, in his brilliant generalizations, invented the "theologic stage" of human mental history, and put it early in the process of the development or evolution of the human race. This theological stage is a product of the imagination of a philosopher. Underneath this assumption of the positivists lurked the further notion of the atheism of primitive man. Now, there is not a vestige of proof for any of these assumptions. The facts are against the theory. The truth is that Comte, and Spencer after him, have been pursuing, not the inductive, but the deductive, method of reasoning with reference to this matter. They took their premises for granted. Mr. Herbert Baynes has undertaken to investigate the origin of religious concepts, and has followed a strictly inductive method. The primitive ideas lie embedded in the languages of the peoples. An examination of the "theogonic process" in the history of the human mind demonstrates that the religious ideas arose not from fear, nor from nightmare, nor from a desire to propitiate the angry ghosts. Mr. Baynes is entirely right in his demonstration of the intuitive nature of religion as a fundamental feeling. That is an assertion that both languages and psychology will bear out. But he goes a little too far in dissociating the ideas already mentioned from religion. As a matter of fact these motives have always existed, and while they did not give rise to religion, they have formed theology. This is the excuse for the mistake of the materialists. With a great deal of linguistic lore, the author traces to its radical the name of God in every language under the sun-in some no longer under the sun, for they are dead. The English name, God, Mr. Baynes derives from an old Persian "verbal adjective, meaning self-evolved or self-determined." Probably the author does not wish to be taken quite literally when he writes that the English divine name is derived from this Persian word; he no doubt intends us to understand that it comes from the same root whence the Persian verbal adjective came. The Russian name for God, Bog, is traced back in Aryan languages to a radical meaning "to bestow." Hence it is to be inferred that the ancestor of the Russian thought of God as the Bountiful, as the ancestor of the Teutons thought of him as the Self-existent. It is not a new statement that Dyaus, the Aryan word whence the Romance names of God derive, means the "bright sky." In the same way it is found that the African races think of God as the "Ancient of days," as Heaven," as the "Red-morning," as "One-who-has-a-name," or as "That-Great-One." The Mongols generally have thought of God as Sky." The Samoyede name of God, Jilibeambaertje, means "Protector-of-the-living." The Abkasians call God Anka, "Mother." It is in the Hamito-Semitic race, including Egyptian, Hebrew, Aramæan, Assyrian, Phoenician, Arabic, Kara, Æthiopic, etc., that the idea of God as a being to be feared, most strongly is expressed in the names that are used. From this examination of the radical meanings of the names of God it does not appear that Lucretius's assertion,
Timor fecit deos, is borne out. Mr. Baynes's own private prepossessions have been given him by Kantian philosophy, and particularly by Kantian philosophy as expounded by T. H. Green. At the same time Mr. Baynes's method is, so far as the reviewer can detect, strictly inductive. In discussing the origin of the moral concepts Mr. Baynes has done a valuable piece of work. He has set up a firm support for ethics. Evolutionary ethics, after all that was said, lacked sanction, lacked authority, lacked coherence. In the course of this discussion the writer affords his readers an excellent example of literary analysis and study; for he takes up the hymns of the Rigveda and exhibits their ethical development. This is a fine piece of literary study-a bit of solid work in the way of the science of comparative religion. While this is indeed a book for scholars, it is clear and clever. The clergyman who has not ceased to be a student will find in it much useful material. In short, it may be regarded in the light of an aid to faith. Incidentally the work is at the same time a rich contribution to the study of comparative philology. There are a few misprints, not easily avoidable in a work using so many languages and such various and unwonted characters. The errors will not, so far as one can see, cause the reader serious trouble, for they are obvious. In the transliterations the author has sometimes followed the characters of the foreign language and sometimes reversed them. This is observable in the Semite tongues. The transliteration of the Assyrian, Egyptian, Hebrew, and that class, ought always to be in the same direction, or at any rate to follow one mode.
Social Rights and Duties: Addresses to Ethical Societies by Leslie Stephen (The Macmillan Company, New York; 2 vols.), strikingly illustrates what seems to us to be the radical, if not fatal, defect in the school of philosophy of which Mr. Stephen is an exponent. That defect is exactly the reverse of that dogmatism which has too often characterized religious thinking, and is indeed probably a reaction from it. There is a lack of positive convictions. The essays lead to no definite conclusions; they ponder and weigh problems; eliminate by a sifting process certain answers; reduce the question in some instances to its lowest terms; but they reach no conclusion. It is hardly conceivable that any congregation should get from these addresses much light on the questions considered, or any strong motives for practically dealing with them in actual experience. Let us take, for example, the first address-"The Aims of Ethical Societies." Mr. Stephen eliminates first "make believe" as a factor in human regeneration, next authority apart from and independent of the reason, repudiates the old creeds, declares that "we are very far from being agreed as to what should replace them," and finally leads up to what is really a very good statement of the problem of religion, or, we should rather say, life: "You no more teach men to be moral by giving them a sound ethical theory, than you teach them to be good shots by explaining the theory of projectiles. A religion implies a philosophy, but a philosophy is not by itself a religion. The demand that it should be is, I hold, founded upon a wrong view as to the relation between the abstract theory and the art of conduct. convert the world you have not merely to prove your theories, but to stimulate the imagination, to discipline the passions, to provide modes of utterance for the emotions, and symbols which may represent the fundamental beliefs-briefly, to do what is done by the founders of great religions. To transmute speculation into action is a problem of tremendous difficulty, and I only glance in the briefest way at its nature." Now, says the reader to himself, I have reached the heart of the matter: what does ethical culture propose in order to effect this transformation? He turns the page-and the address is ended. Our preacher has stated the problem, repudiated all former solutions-alike those of the Roman Church, the Salvation Army, and the modern Christian thinker-alike authority, emotion, and rational faith-but he has no solution himself to offer, and leaves us hardly with a philosophy, certainly not with a religion, with a distinct recognition that appeal to the motives is vitally essential, but without indicating that there is any possibility of such an appeal. We turn to the essay on "The Morality of Competition." All we get is an endeavor to show that some measure of competition is unavoidable, that there is some moral good in it, that it is not a panacea, that, in short, both Socialism and Individualism are wrong. But what truth there is in Socialism and what in Individualism, and how the two forces of competition and co-operation can be so combined as to produce a healthful individual and social state, the author does not even suggest. It would be equally difficult to ascertain from his essay on Punishment on what principles he would have society proceed in punishing and preventing crime. In short, none of his essays leads to a conclusion, or even toward one. We lay down his book overwhelmed by the perplexity of life without getting any clear guidance toward living, and rather discouraged than inspired with any hope of taking effective measures toward a practical solution.
He will be a singular person who reads through Mr. Martin Hume's book and lays it down without reflecting and concluding that Elizabeth, Queen of England, is the greatest female monarch that history records with any degree of certainty. There are traditions of Zenobia, Cleopatra, Catherine de' Medici, Catherine of Russia, and Christina of Sweden, but in certain and detailed matters we know that Elizabeth excelled them all, for she was a born diplomat and monarch. Her powers would probably never have had play in this century in England. She belonged to an age of intrigue and autocracy. She was the real ruler of England. At a time when any misstep in the international egg-dance of Europe would have meant national disaster, Elizabeth did not make the faux pas. Her affections, if she had any, her personal wishes, her comfort, she subordinated to her official position. Before all else Elizabeth was Queen of England. In no part of her career is this officialism, this self-ordination to the affairs of state, more strikingly displayed than in the several matrimonial projects of
the "good Queen Bess." Mr. Hume has taken up this subject with research and with a philosophic temper. If he holds a brief, we do not discover it. Consequently, The Courtships of Queen Elizabeth: A History of the Various Negotiations for Her Marriage, by Martin A. S. Hume, is a work of special interest and real value. With care for details, he describes what he terms "the longest and most eventful comedy in the history of England "--the negotiations for the marriage of the Virgin Queen. Elizabeth may have wanted to marry, but she was too good a statesman to do so, unless-but the story of a secret marriage is founded on the slenderest conjecture. (Macmillan & Co., New York.)
With an incredible amount of labor, searching among many books which are no longer read, and reading beneath the letter of ancient chronicles and folk-lore, Mr. Park Benjamin has traced The Intellectual Rise in Electricity from the earliest times to the discoveries of Franklin, which demonstrated the identity of lightning and electricity. The account is set forth without the use of technical terminology, and is intended for popular reading. It is the declared intention of the writer to show that the science of electricity is not, accurately speaking, in its infancy. Mr. Benjamin examines carefully all the earliest accounts of the properties of amber and the loadstone, and seems to take the account of Alexander Neckham, Abbot of St. Alban's, born 1157, as the earliest trustworthy description of a mariner's compass. The author grants that this may be a description of the recovery of a lost art. It may be that the English sailors got their knowledge of the polarized needle from the Lapps whom they encountered in Wisbuy of Gottland. The Lapps and Finns may have derived the same from Mongolia―a name having a sufficiently wide connotation. Peter Peregrinus, at the close of the thirteenth century, differentiated the poles of the magnet, stumbled upon the principle of the dynamo, and constructed the first mariner's compass that could constantly be used to steer by. The book is so closely written and so replete with compressed material that it is not practicable to attempt a summary of it. The subject is ever and anon leading Mr. Benjamin into diverting excursions into the regions of magic, folk-lore, and theology. Interesting pictures, some fine reproductions of old prints, illustrate this valuable work. (D. Appleton & Co., New York.)
It is a pity that so many books are well written simply to sell. is a perversion of the purpose of books. One does not feel that it is kind to be hard upon so charming a book, so prettily printed, as In India, which Mr. William Marchant has neatly translated from the French. What is the use of the book? There is little in it but skill, and the clever personality of the artist-writer. We are protesting against books that are all form and no substance. There is some substance, though little, in this book of M. André Chevrillon. For instance, the French literary artist sees in Shelley an instance of the first stage of the Hindu Yogi's mental attitude, and in Amiel the second stage in progress toward perfection, when the individual becomes one with Brahm. There is an intellectual pantheism in Shelley, but Amiel's Journal does not reveal that insensibility to the external world that M. Chevrillon assumes. The best thing that M. Chevrillon says in the book is this (and it is worth noting by students of comparative religion): "Take all the beliefs of the world, all the religious observances which express these beliefs, Christianity, Islamism, Buddhism, ancient polytheism, fetichism, the worship of the forces of nature, the worship of ancestors, of demons, of the sparrowhawk, of animals; plunge all this into a philosophic pantheism, and you will have that extraordinary whole, made up of contradictions and incoherences, which is called Hinduism." After all, the book will tickle the imagination of a jaded reader, and it is certainly smart and a little eccentric in choice of words. (Henry Holt & Co., New York.)
Topical history furnishes the solid basis for general history. Historical scholars are ever more and more tending to specialize their work. The investigation of single streets in a great city would furnish volumes of most accurate and useful historical material. This has been understood by Mr. Arthur Irwin Dasent, who has contrived to give us an uncommonly interesting History of St. James's Square and the Foundation of the West End of London, with a Glimpse of White Hall, in the Reign of Charles II. (Macmillan & Co., New York.) Henry Jermyn, Earl of St. Albans, received from King Charles II. the warrant for the original lease in 1662. Lord St. Albans was a real estate merchant. St. James's Square soon became a place of fashionable residence, and has continued such down to the present time. Mr. Dasent gives an account of the principal houses on the Square and of all the eminent men who at any time during the two succeeding centuries have resided therein. Maps, plates, and appendixes enrich this historical monograph, rendering it a valuable essay on local history, and a suggestive contribution to the social and literary history of London.
The mystical element in the mind of the late Dr. Romanes appears plainly in the posthumous volume Mind and Motion and Monism, by the late George John Romanes. M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. (Longmans, Green & Co., New York.) The author revives and adopts the theory of Giordano Bruno, that mind and motion are identical. He believes that this hypothesis will reconcile materialism and spiritualism. He gives himself first to the refutation of materialism and then to the refutation of spiritualism, and concludes that truth is to be found in the identification of the two. He touches upon many points interesting to the theologian and the philosopher, among which we may instance this assertion as an example: "Whatever the connection between body and mind may be, we have the best possible reason for concluding that it is not a causal connection;" and again: "It becomes a mere matter of phraseology whether we speak of the will determining or being determined by changes going on in the external world."
We earnestly desire to recommend to those who wish to know the origins of the new religious thinking, a small book by Edwin S. Carr
on The Development of Modern Religious Thought, Especially in Germany. While it is a book much easier read than Pfleiderer's, for the average student it answers even better for all practical purposes. Mr. Carr really has two purposes to pursue in his work, the one to account for the form of the prevalent faith and the other for the prevalent unfaith. Starting with the earliest Christian writers, the writer comes down in his first period to the beginning of the modern intellectual movement with Wolfe, Leibnitz, and the men of what is called the Aufklarung. The only fault that we would find with this book is that the writer at times betrays his antipathy to the opinions that he discusses, or displays an unnecessary amount of caution. This manner may be premature for himself; certainly it is unscientific for his readers. (Congregational Sunday-School and Publishing Society, Boston.)
[The books mentioned under this head and under that of Books Received include all received by The Outlook during the week ending June 19. This weekly report of current literature will be supplemented by fuller reviews of the more important works.]
A translation by Professor Frank Thilly of Alfred Weber's History of Philosophy comes from the press of Messrs. Charles Scribner's Sons (New York), and is made from the fifth French edition. The special value of this work is in its clear and compact exposition of the development of thought. It covers the whole field.- -The proceedings of The American Conference on International Arbitration, held in Washington, D. C., in April of the present year, have been published in book form by the Baker & Taylor Company, of this city, and will well serve the purpose of a text-book for popular education in one of the great and most promising reform movements of the day.A revised edition of Dr. Paul Čarus's Primer of Philosophy bears the imprint of the Open Court Publishing Company, of Chicago.
Mr. W. H. Hutton's Philip Augustus (The Macmillan Company, New York) is the latest addition to the Foreign Statesmen Series, and in a condensed form tells the story of one of the striking personalities of the Middle Ages.- -The new edition of Pepys' Diary, edited by Henry B. Wheatley (same publishers), has reached the eighth volume.
-Two little volumes in the Oxford Manuals of English History, edited by C. W. C. Oman, are devoted to the King and Baronage, covering the period from 1135 to 1327, and The Making of the English Nation, from 55 to 1135, the first by Mr. W. H. Hutton, the second by Mr. C. G. Robertson. (Same publishers.)
The Book of Deuteronomy, edited, with introduction and notes, by Professor Moulton, has been added to the Modern Reader's Bible. (The Macmillan Company, New York.)-From the same publishers comes a study of The Education of Children at Rome, by George Clarke—an interesting contribution to the history of education.- To the series of "Questions of the Day" Messrs. G. P. Putnam's Sons (New York) have added a volume containing three papers: one on The United States and Great Britain, by David A. Wells; one on The Monroe Doctrine, by Edward J. Phelps; and one on Arbitration in International Disputes, by Carl Schurz.
The Teacher's Key to Introductory Cooking Lessons is a book intended for those who wish to give simple economic lessons in cooking to girls of from ten to fourteen years of age. Emily Huntington, the author, is the head of the New York Cooking-School, and is an acknowledged authority in this department of education.A series of essays, by Roy Devereux, on woman in every conceivable relation are bound together and published in The Ascent of Woman. (Roberts Brothers, Boston.)-Oswego Methods in Geography, by Amos N. Farnham (C. W. Bardeen, Syracuse, N. Y.), is a text-book for the fifth and sixth grades. The book is specially designed for use in the Oswego State Normal and Training School.
The late Henry C. Bunner never wrote anything more charming in style than the collection of sketches of city and country life just published under the title Jersey Street and Jersey Lane. (Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.)-Mr. Caldwell Lipsett is, to us at least, a new writer. The volume entitled Where the Atlantic Meets the Land contains many short stories relating to Ireland. They have neither the delicacy of art nor the sympathy of feeling which mark the stories of Jane Barlow and Katharine Tynan. Some of these tales are distinctly horrible in the subject matter. It must be admitted, however, that all show originality and force. (Roberts Brothers, Boston.)-Two new volumes have been added to the series of Stories by English Authors, of which we have already spoken. The subjects are Italy and Africa. Among the writers are Mr. Doyle, Mr. Haggard, Mr. James Payne, W. E. Norris, Laurence Oliphant, and Anthony Trollope. (Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.)To the new edition of John Galt's novels, now being published, have been added The Provost and the Last of the Lairds. While these stories are not so well known as "Annals of the Parish" and "Sir Andrew Wylie," they possess the same homely humor and present the same intimate acquaintance with rural Scotch life. (The Macmillan Company, New York.)-Christmas Stories, by Charles Dickens, has appeared in the excellent moderate-priced edition of Dickens's works published by the Macmillan Company, of this city. This volume completes the set, and gives occasion for us once more to say that the edition is one which is eminently satisfactory as regards type and form generally, while the price ($1 per volume) is of the lowest. -In the Mohawk Edition of the Works of James Fenimore Cooper (G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York) appears a story rarely read in these days, The Sea Lions; or, The Lost Sealers.A ring picked up in the Bois de Boulogne by a would-be novelist begins and ends the story of The Riddle Ring, by Justin McCarthy (D. Appleton & Co., New York). This is not a novel of isms, nor is it a sugar
coated pill of sociology or theology; it is a love story pure and simple, which leaves the reader contented and happy.
-Professor Joseph Wright, of Oxford, is bringing out the first part of his great Dialect Dictionary.
-There is to be at Glasgow, from July to October of this year, an exhibition of portraits, MSS., and other relics of Robert Burns.
-Mr. R. L. Ottley's "Incarnation," mentioned in our last issue under the head "New Books," is published by the Macmillan Company, not, as erroneously stated, by D. Appleton & Co.
-A new edition of Byron's works, edited by his grandson, the Earl of Lovelace, which will be published soon, will contain some family correspondence-letters between the poet and his wife-which will throw new light upon their relations.
-The circumstances in which Harold Frederic's new novel came to have one title here and another in England (as was the case with Hawthorne's "Marble Faun") are set forth in the London "Chronicle." A curious accident was the cause. The writing of the book was extended over five years, and a copy of the first half was sent to this country as long ago as 1893. For purposes of identification it bore the "Damnation of Theron Ware" title, which was one of many then under consideration. After the final choice of "Illumination had been made, no one remembered, until it was too late, that the American publisher had not been informed of the decision.
-The following description of the recent exchange of literary amenities between MM. Zola and Deschamps is from the New York Evening Post :"
The literary as well as the political duello continues to flourish in France, if we may judge by the exchange of shots now in progress between Zola and Gaston Deschamps. The latter, in a review of "Rome" in the "Temps," gave some examples of the way in which the novelist had documented" himself for his work. The documenting, in fact, had in some cases gone perilously near to slavish and literal copying of authorities, of which Deschamps furnished several delicious examples. Zola made a furious return-fire in " Figaro," disdaining to mention his adversary by name, but calling him an "assassin," a "scratcher of paper," a "library rat," and other sweetly reasonable things. It is rather amusing to find him admitting, or rather boasting, after all this fanfaronade, that Deschamps was quite right in accusing him of plagiarism. There was much more of it in "Rome" than had been charged. Of course he had read books about Rome, and of course he had been at no particular pains to see that phrases, passages, or perhaps whole pages were not transferred bodily to his novel. That was "the right of a novelist." As for those vermin of critics, when they had done the work and won the fame that he had, it would be time for them to open their heads. Deschamps, in his turn, argues that there are rights of critics as well as authors, quotes from a private letter of Zola's, on another occasion, fulsomely praising the critic whom he now reviles, and serves notice that the great man will hear from him further in this matter.
For the week ending June 19
Farnham, Amos W. Oswego Methods in Geography. 50 cts.
BOARD OF EDUCATION OF THE REFORMED CHURCH IN AMERICA, NEW YORK
Nehrling, H. North American Birds. Part XIV.
THE JOHN CHURCH CO., NEW YORK
Coonley, Lydia A., and George F. Root. Our Flag. (Patriotic Cantata.)
LUTHERAN PUBLICATION SOCIETY, PHILADELPHIA
Wordsworth, William. Poetical Works. Edited by William Knight. Vol. IV. $1.50.
Tennyson, Alfred, Lord. Poetical Works. Idylls of the King. IV. and V. (People's Edition.) 45 cts. each.
Clarke, George. The Education of Children at Rome. 75 cts. Deuteronomy. (The Modern Reader's Bible Series.) Edited by R. G. Moul ton. 50 cts.
Dickens, Charles. Christmas Stories. $1.
Pepys, Samuel. Diary. Edited by H. B. Wheatley. Vol. VIII. $1.50.
PRESBYTERIAN BOARD OF PUBLICATION, PHILADELPHIA
The Sabbath-School Blackboard. (Series of Charts.) Published Quarterly. $3 a year.
G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS, NEW YORK
Wells, D. A., E. J. Phelps, and Carl Schurz. America and Europe: A Study
ROBERTS BROS., BOSTON
Lipsett, Caldwell. Where the Atlantic Meets the Land. $1.
CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS, NEW YORK
Victorious King Smile
By Katharine Newbold Birdsall King Scowl sat on his leaden throne Beside his wife, Queen Frown; His face was black and thundering, His mouth turned sharply down. His Pages, Cross and Discontent, Her Ladies, Whine and Fret, And Lords of Rage and Quarrel-why, They might be reigning yet,
For the Little People
Had not King Smile, from Pleasant Land,
For then Lords Happy and Content,
And caused them all to flee.
By L. E. Chittenden
"Teacher told us," said Dick, quite out of breath from running so fast," to bring a fact to-morrow to school to tell about." "A fact?" said his mother. for?"
"What is that
So we will know how to use our eyes, and tell things afterwards," explained Dick, stretching his own eyes very wide open. Mother laughed, and said, "Well, Dick, it's a fact that I'm very glad you are home, for I need your help very much to run down town to the market, to the post-office, and to the dry-goods store."
When Dick got home with all these things in his express-wagon, supper was ready, and after supper he helped his mother with the dishes, so sister could study her geography. Then it was bedtime, and the next morning he was so busy that he forgot all about his fact until he was almost at the school-house.
He stopped to think about it, and just then a window in a little white house across the street flew open, and a voice cried out, " Dicky boy, come here; I want to show you something."
There were some dear friends of his lived here, and it generally meant delicious sugary cookies when they called to him, so he went in very willingly, for the school-house clock told him he had plenty of time.
Miss Amelia could not walk without crutches, and Dick felt very sorry for her. She was in her wheel-chair now, and she rolled it over by the window while her mother went to get the cookies, and there on the sunshiny pane was a great crimson and black butterfly. "I found this," said Miss Amelia, taking a brown pod from the mantle-shelf, "last fall in the porch, and I threw it into my work-basket. Last night I could not sleep, for I thought a mouse was scratching, and this morning we found the pod open and this lovely butterfly. This pod is a cocoon, Dick." Oh, I'll have that to tell for my fact!" said Dick, stuffing his pockets with the cookies. "Thank you."
So, when the teacher called for facts, Dick stood up very straight, and said: "Miss 'Melia, my friend, who gives me cookies, found a 'coon in the porch last fall, and when it was in her basket a long time, it turned into a mouse, and then to a butterfly."
The scholars laughed a little, but they were much interested when the teacher explained about the caterpillar, the cocoon, and then the butterfly. Dick had not understood.
Johnny B. and the Whistle
I wish you could have seen Johnny B. He met me at the station. Johnny B. had on a dear little sailor suit; he has the dearest little fat legs. His hair falls in light curls about his face, and he looks at you out of two roguish blue eyes. This world is such a friend
ly place to Johnny B.! Everybody in it is his friend. I had never seen him before, and so did not expect that Johnny B. would be particularly friendly, but he put out his chubby hand, and, what was much more interesting, he laughed a dear, friendly laugh, as soon as he looked in my face, and we were friends at once. Now, Johnny B. lives in a great big house on top of a mountain. All about it are the woods, except just in front, and when you stand in front you look over field and meadow and river and bay for miles and miles; and while Johnny B. says nothing when he looks at this view, he makes you feel that he thinks it is beautiful. This day, of which I write, Johnny
B. met me at the railroad station. He made
me understand in a few minutes that he dearly loved the railroad cars, and when we finally drove in sight of the track and a train came along, Johnny B. fairly shrieked with joy. I wonder if Johnny B. is going to build locomotives when he is a big boy, or make cars, or what he is going to do. About Johnny's neck was a thick white cord, and on the cord was a
whistle, and Johnny B., with his grandma's help, discovered it. He put the whistle in his mouth, and by accident he blew right, and the whistle
sounded. Oh, what a delighted boy he was! He had just found the fairy in the whistle, and then began such a half-hour's fun, for the fairy somehow escaped from the whistle. Every little while she would not respond when Johnny B. blew. The reason was that Johnny B. almost swallowed the whistle, he put it so far in his mouth. He would push it with his tongue and blow again, and then the whistle fairy called out. All the long drive through the woods the fairy was lost and found. When she was lost, Johnny did not cry, he simply was puzzled-looked all about the whistle; and when it was suggested to him that perhaps the fairy had run off in the woods, he looked for her. The next morning I saw Johnny in the rose-garden. He had his little hands in his pockets, and was wandering about from bed to bed in great joy. Some People's Page and tell us what he thinks about day Johnny will write a letter to the Little
a whistle and where he thinks the sound comes from.
Up in Alaska
Up in Alaska there is a school where the young Eskimos are taught how to care for and raise the reindeer. Their teachers are Laplanders. Each herd of reindeer has a Laplander with a dog in charge. The dog is somewhat like our collies. These Lapland dogs have no tails. The reindeer furnishes milk and cheese to the Eskimos, and its skin provides them with clothing and shoes. The reindeer earn money for the Eskimos by becoming beasts of burden, and transporting goods from one place to another. The reindeer was introduced into Alaska by the United States Government, in order to help the people to better modes of living. In Central and Arctic Alaska there are mines, and the question of the transportation of the output of these mines from one point to another, and of supplies, is a very important one. Last winter was a very severe winter, and in these mining camps so many dogs died that the most ordinary dog costs two hundred dollars. Dogs are the only animals that the Eskimos have for carrying. A reindeer has the hauling power of six dogs; he needs no provision; he lives on the dry moss and grass of the country through which he is traveling. With the dog teams, one team is required to transport the goods-the pack team it is called-and a second team must transport the food for the dogs; so that the cost of the care of the dog is very much greater than the cost of the care of the reindeer. The Government is making an effort this summer to get a herd of reindeer to each of the mining camps. It is said that in Alaska there is pasturage for nine millions of reindeer. From Lapland and the northern part of Norway last year there were shipped into Europe thousands of reindeer hams and tongues, and in Norway
there are canning factories which put up reindeer meat as beef is canned in this country. In the schools in Alaska the native pupils are taught how to use the resources of their own country, and are also taught to read and write, and they are taught arithmetic; the teachers say that they are really quite intelligent when one remembers how little opportunity for education has ever been given to the natives of Alaska.
Kite making and flying have become a sciflown which stood twenty-one feet high, and In New Jersey recently a kite was clothes-line. There has also recently been flown required a windlass to control the cord, a long on the coast of New Jersey a kite which carried up a light camera. To this camera was attached a slow-burning match, which at a certain elevation lifted the shutter, and an instantaneous photograph was obtained of what was below.
Another experiment was made by one of these expert kite-manipulators
by inclosing a letter in a keg, then attaching a
line from the keg to a large kite. So nicely adjusted was this kite to the direction of the
wind that the keg was landed but a short distance from the point the kite-flyer intended. A boat has been towed across Long Island kite. The kites that accomplish these marSound from Port Jefferson to Bridgeport by a vels are, of course, very large and strong, but it is worth while making experiments with small kites to discover what a small boy can do. The kite should be covered with silk paper well smoothed out. The secret of success lies in perfectly balancing the kite, and this cannot be obtained by direction, but is the result of intelligent experimentation.
He was a little boy. He had been spending the day in the country, and was waiting at the station for a train to bring him back to the city. Opposite the station is a hennery. It has a high wire fence. In what you might call the second story of the yard of this hennery there is a large flock of pigeons. them chickens!" exclaimed the small boy, pointing to the pigeons. "Those are pigeons," explained the lady who was with him. He looked puzzled for a minute, and then he said, triumphantly, pointing to the chickens on the ground, "Them's condensed milk chickens, anyway." The lady was astonished; what did the little boy mean? She asked him, and he answered by asking another question: "Don't chickens make condensed milk?" Then the lady told him about the cow, and the milk she gives so freely; she explained that condensed milk was cooked milk. He listened, and then, with a very decided shake of his head, he said, "That may be your condensed milk, but my mamma's condensed milk is made by a chicken, and its picture is on the can."
The Adopted Seal
Out in Oregon is a gentleman who is making a collection for a park. Recently he received a baby seal one day and a half old. No one knew how to take care of it, and the gentleman, who was very anxious to keep it alive, was greatly puzzled as to how he should feed the little stranger. He owned a beautiful retriever dog named Belle, who had a family of her own. She heard the bark of the seal when he grew hungry, and, like a dear little mother, she started out, leaving her own family, to discover who this baby was who needed a mother. When she saw the seal she walked around and around it, very greatly puzzled. At last she stood still, and the seal began flopping towards her very feebly. As it came nearer it raised its head as if asking her help, and then the dear dog laid herself down and the seal came up to her and began taking its breakfast, and now the seal and the baby dogs are all one family.
The Home Club
Science in the Service of the Schools Boston a year ago employed for service in the public schools a number of physicians at a small annual salary. Their duties were to visit the schools under their personal care each morning, and examine the children who gave any evidence of physical disturbances. The result was that 14,666 children were examined. Over 9,000 of these were found sick, 1,800 out of them ill enough to be sent home; 437 cases of infectious diseases were discovered, including 70 cases of diphtheria, 110 of scarlet fever, and a great many of measles. Among other important discoveries was that of children suffering from impaired hearing and sight. This physical condition was not suspected by either parents or teachers. In Utica tests of the eyes of children were made by the teachers, under the direction of an oculist, and it was discovered that one-sixth of the children in the Utica public schools were suffering from defect of vision. Some of these cases were extreme. A number of the children were practically blind in one eye. Tests were made as to the sense of hearing. The result of these physical examinations was a rearrangement of the seating of the children, those suffering with defect of hearing or sight being given advantageous positions in the room-an act of justice which makes a difference between a child suffering from physical limitations having the opportunity for education, or being defrauded of educational opportunity.
Sanitation on the Farm
A correspondent writing from a New England farm-house thinks The Outlook does not realize the need of sanitary knowledge in the farming districts. She is writing from a house where the windows are kept closed and darkened in summer; where the cellar is never ventilated, though vegetables are kept in it. She says that mold is found on the carpetlinings over the cellar, that the house is damp and unhealthy, and the whole condition is due to the ignorance of the householders. This writer has described thousands of homes in the farming regions of this country. It is the knowledge of this dangerous ignorance, with its disastrous results on the cumulative wealth of this country, that moved the Michigan University to establish a department of domestic science relating particularly to the home needs as well as the needs of what might be termed the women's department in agriculture-the dairy, the hennery, the care of fruits, etc. We long ago discovered that the finest types, physically, of men and women were not to be found on farms; that physical develop ment is not a mere question of exercise and a full stomach. The science of food is a new science. Professor Atwater and Mr. Atkinson, Mrs. Richards and Dean Talbot, the pioneers, are living on the sunny side of fifty, yet they can point to results in the period of their working years that, measured with the progress in other sciences, are phenomenal. Sanitation is a part of the new science, and the increase of knowledge in this department is marked. The lack of money prevents the spread of knowledge in some farming districts, but the schools of agriculture, and the attempt to introduce into in the schools in the rural districts studies that have a special bearing on the life in the farming districts, argue well for the future.
A Public Danger
The necessity of educating public sentiment is constantly forced upon the attention of all thinking citizens. The Health Board of Missouri has discovered that fifty per cent. of the cows in the Elgin dairy district are tuberculous. Dr. Howard Carter, the milk inspector of St. Louis, has addressed a letter to the medical directors of the leading American life insurance companies, and to the editors of the principal medical journals, calling their attention to the danger attending the use of infected milk. When it is remembered that one-eighth of the entire number of deaths in this country are due to consumption, the danger of using tuberculous milk will be appreciated at least by the insurance companies.
anything that makes cooking easy. Baking is made easy with
It always works and works well.
A considerable part of all State legislatures is made up of farmers, and of men who count the farmers as the majority of their constituency. In the nature of things legislation, then, that affects the dairy interests becomes of very great importance to these legislators; their tendency not being to maintain public health, but to prevent the slaughtering of their own property or that of their constituency which is a menace to public health. Prevention, of course, is the wiser course, but even with this these legislators are objectors rather than promoters. Farmers, for the most part, do not wish veterinary inspection, and until the public opinion has reached a higher level than at present, legislatures cannot be expected to recognize the importance of preventing the spread of tuberculous diseases through infected milk.
A Bright Promise
State organizations of School Boards have been established in Minnesota, Illinois, Wisconsin, Iowa, Texas, and Pennsylvania. The first National Convention of these State organizations of School Boards will be held in
Buffalo, in July, in connection with the National Teachers' Association. The need of some National body for comparison, that will bring State departments of education together for the comparison of experiences, methods, and work accomplished, has long been felt by all educators. What we need educationally in this country is high standards and the unanimity of effort to reach these standards on the part of educators and directors of education. When it is remembered that Boards of Education are almost always volunteer officers serving without pay, the necessity of creating certain fixed standards of equipment for such appointed officers becomes very evident, and
that standard never will be fixed until the highest type of man in office makes himself felt through organized effort.
Newark is suffering at present from a severe
outbreak of typhoid fever. Investigation by
the Health Board has brought out the fact that this is due to the use of sand taken from the bed of the Passaic River, which on exam
ination showed a high stage of development of bacilli resembling the typhoid bacillus. When it is remembered that the Passaic River is practically the main sewer for the towns lying along its banks, the criminality of the
contractor who used sand from the river to
lay the city pavements could be understood. Of course this sand was used as a measure of economy-economy for the contractor, but gross extravagance for the taxpaying citizen.
ual Education." Professor Corson, the writer, makes it very clear that the education of the soul is a part of the education necessary for the perfection of the voice. It is this subtle quality of spiritual development that is the effectual quality in all work. Too often we treat training as though it were a garment that could be put on or off, as if it were to be used or not. This is a false idea. Let the training be what it will, its value for ourselves and to the world lies in its becoming a part of our spiritual life; living with us constantly until it becomes nature itself and we cease to think of it. This, and only this, is education. All else is mere veneer.
The Elm Beetle
The "Garden and Forest" gives the following formula as a spraying mixture for the elm beetle: "One pound of London purple, six pounds of lime, and four quarts of flour in a hundred gallons of water. This mixture must be kept stirred, and, of course, pumped through a hose with a large spray. The spraying should be begun as soon as the beetles give evidence of their appearance. If the spraying is
followed by rain, the spraying must be done over again. When the larva come down the trunk and show themselves in a large ring, they should be sprayed with a kerosene emulsion. This kerosene emulsion is made by boiling together six pounds of soft soap, four quarts of kerosene, two quarts of crude carbolic acid, and two gallons of water. This should be diluted in one hundred gallons of water. Spray the trunks and the large limbs and the ground about the base of the tree. The protection of the trees for next year depends upon the absolute destruction of the larvæ this year."
Up the system at this season with Hood's Sarsaparilla if you would ward off summer sickness and cure that tired feeling, weakness, dull headache, sleeplessness, loss of appetite. Your blood needs to be cleansed, enriched, and fitted to supply nourishment to the organs, nerves, and muscles of the body. Pure blood is the great need of thousands now, and
Is the best-in fact the One True Blood Purifier.
A great deal is said at this time on the value of voice culture, not for elocutionary purposes, but for daily use. A very valuable book has just been published by the Macmillans in their Handy Volume Series, "The Voice and Spirit- Hood's Pills Do not purge, pain, or gripe.
All druggists. 25c.