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A Flower Acquaintance
By Mary F. Butts

I met a little lady,

A stranger here, mayhap; She wore a gown of green, She wore a scarlet cap. Graceful was her figure, Her manners very fine; A fairy, airy creature,

Her name was Columbine.

The pasture was her parlor,

Very sweet the views; The winds from every corner Brought the latest news.

Baby's Moccasins

By D. W. Woods, Jr.

For the Little People

They were very small moccasins. What are moccasins? Of course, you don't know.

Moccasins are shoes such as Indians wear. They are made of soft leather, so that they are not stiff like our shoes, nor are they so heavy. No pegs are used to put them together; they are sewed with a bone needle and thread also made of strips of leather. Usually only one piece of leather is used for each moccasin. By pounding it and stretching it over a stone while it is wet, with two cuts in it, one at the heel the other on top, a good Indian workman can give it the proper shape for the foot. A few moccasins are made with the fur inside for warmth, but ordinarily the fur is removed. Many of them are painted or adorned with beads or pieces of colored bone. The moccasins, about which I am going to tell you, were very small, only about four inches long. They were made to measure, too, and made in one day. Away back near the year 1745 a woman was getting dinner one day. Her kitchen was a room in a log cabin, and it was also the dining-room, parlor, and even bedroom sometimes. She had no stove. All her cooking was done in the fireplace. A pot hung on the crane; a piece of bear's meat was ready for the spit. Of course, when she baked wheat bread she used the clay oven outside, but the corn bread was baked in the hot ashes of the fire-place in the kitchen. This autumn day she was hurrying to have dinner ready for her husband when he should come in from the field where he was husking corn. While she worked, her baby boy was rolling over the floor, kicking his chubby bare legs and feet about, shaking his dumpling fists at the rafters and watching a chicken near the door, beyond which he could see the stump-dotted clearing and the tinted forest. Shortly before dinner a shadow darkened the door. The baby laughed at an Indian who stepped quietly in, with a grunt, which meant good morning. He was a friendly Indian to whom the baby's father had once done a kindness, and so Wakenah (that was his name) came often to the cabin about dinner time. Soon the father came in with a hearty backwoods greeting for his dusky friend who shared their dinner.

After the father had gone back to his cornhusking Wakenah sat on the chest by the door watching the baby on the floor.


long he took the boy in his arms, held up his tiny bare feet before his mother and said, "No moccasin, baby?"

"No," said the mother, "baby has no moccasins."

"Hng," grunted Wakenah, "me make moccasin baby."

He strode out of the door with the baby under his arm, carrying him as if he were a bundle, the baby chuckling and laughing. The mother was too much occupied with her work to understand what Wakenah was doing. She noticed by the shadows on the floor that it was only a little after twelve o'clock when the Indian carried her baby away. Three o'clock came quickly to the busy woman, and when she went to look for them in the yard neither

baby nor Indian was to be seen. She called, but there was no answer, and then she ran to the field to tell her husband that the savage had run off with their only child. The father hardly knew what to do. I wonder what your father would have done in such a case. Would he do as the baby's father decided to do? That was what? Well, nothing; yes, indeed. Of course the mother thought he ought to go after the baby and bring him home. But the father said that Wakenah must be trusted. If they believed in him, he would still be their friend. He would bring the baby back soon. If he had not come back by evening, the father said he would go to Wakenah's hut and get the baby. He would not let the mother go either. So they waited. Five o'clock," said the shadow on the floor, but no baby came. But about half-past five Wakenah came through the woods and across the clearing, carrying a very tired and very dirty baby in his arms. On the little feet were two little moccasins, with fringes around them and figures of beads all over them. Of course they thanked Wakenah for his kindness, but the mother hardly thought a pair of moccasins paid for her anxiety. Yet once, long after that, when the baby had become a young man one of those moccasins saved his life. He had been captured by a party of Indians who were going to kill him, but he had one of his baby shoes with him and showed it to the Indians, who did not know him. But Wakenah was among the Indians, and he remembered the dinners of bear's meat and beans and the white man's faith in him, and he sent home the captive with his moccasin. The young man kept those moccasins for many years, and gave them to his son; but they were burned up in the fire that destroyed the stone house which had been built near the place where the log cabin had stood. All this goes to show, however, that even Indians remember kind


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The question of spelling ought to interest our young people. The New York State Regents' examinations have just been held and the results in the matter of spelling are so curious that a report has been made of the way in which some words have been spelled. These examples of spelling are from the eighth grade, the pupils of which average about thirteen and a half years. This is the highest grade in which spelling is taught in the public schools of New York State. The word "Heroic was spelled Erory, Herarick, Heriout; beside two spelling so ridiculously as to justify one in believing that the spellers did not hear the word. The papers gave the word "Heroic " spelled, Deroig, and Deroick, Seriously was spelled, Seriscielys, and Caresly. "Apollo' was spelled, Appoal, Ophollow, Uphollowed, Apolly, Appolop, Apilo. "Saturn" was spelled, Succorn, Sacard, Souttern, and Catern. "Homer" was spelled in one paper Whomer. "Giants was spelled by one boy Jiantets. Do you suppose that boy ever read "Jack, the Giant Killer ?" "Nucleus" was spelled, Neutlyous, Youtious, beside being spelled Muglylees, Nequles, Pelos, Netelouis, and, worst of all, Neukleeous. "Faculties was spelled, Factaleys and Backletives. "Iliad" was spelled, Illioned, Guillet, Gellered, Illiant, Hellod, Gillioth. 66 Philosophies was spelled Filacitis. 66 Scientific " was spelled Sianthipac. "Distinguished was spelled by one boy Distinwhiched. "Aurora was spelled Orroraw, and Orrora.

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High Ice

The children who live in New York are quite accustomed to see what might be called skeletons or bones of buildings; that is, the beams of the buildings made of iron. These beams and posts of iron are riveted together and raised many stories in the air before all are inclosed. Men walk about on these beams

on loose planks. The material is carried from the street to the several floors by means of a hoisting-engine located in the street. Recently the weather has been very warm, and the men working up high on one of these buildings wanted ice-water; so they gave the order to the iceman to deliver the ice. When the iceman arrived at the building, he was rather puzzled what to do with it. He said he was accustomed to leave ice at the door, but there was no door here, nor any stairs, and how was he to get the ice to the men? There was a steel cable, or line, that ran from the street over a pulley to hoist the iron beams to the The iceman tied a rope somewhat like a net around the piece of ice. The iceman then stepped on to the ice, grasped the cord tightly, and was carried with his block of ice up to the sixteenth story, where the iceman safely delivered his order and then descended to the street.


For Identification

A new law has just been passed in Hawaii which compels every man who is registered to leave his thumb-mark on the certificate of registration and on the stub which is left in the book. That is, he must ink his thumb and leave a clear, distinct impression of it for future recognition. This applies to all classes of people on the island. The objection which many of the residents make is that it treats them all as though they were convicts. The truth is that it is the only positive means of identification. It is claimed that the lines on the thumb of no two people are exactly alike, while it is not infrequent to find people whose resemblances are so close as to make identification difficult. The Asiatics are invading the island of Hawaii to such an extent as to arouse the people settled there to some plan to prevent the overcrowding of the island, and this registering of the thumb-mark is believed by those who succeeded in having the law passed to be one of the ways in which it will be possible for them to regulate immigration into the island of Hawaii.

It would afford an evening's entertainment for a company of young people to compare the marks of their thumbs.


A man who has studied wild animals in if we imagine that wild animals of different spetheir native haunts says that we are mistaken cies are always enemies. He says that people who do not know them think that they rush at each other in great anger when they meet. This, this hunter tells us, is not true; sometimes the most astonishing friendship will spring up among wild animals; once out on the great prairies he found a flamingo perched on the back of a buffalo, evidently the two having a perfect understanding. This man says that the test of friendship is the extent to which one friend will seek to secure the happiness and comfort of the other, and that this buffalo and flamingo stood that test He says that the flamingo picked from the back of the buffalo the insects that very well.

annoyed him, and that sometimes the flamingo

bit the buffalo's back, and the buffalo never resented it, understanding, seemingly, that it was an accident. The buffalo at night would move with the greatest caution lest he disturb the little friend on his back.

A Cobbler's Dozen

We often hear of a baker's dozen, and most of us know that it means thirteen. There is also a cobbler's dozen, and that, too, is thirteen. There is a tradition that there was a law which compelled cobblers to put twelve nails in the heel of each shoe, and that when nails grew cheap the cobblers drove the thirteenth nail in the center of the heel for good luck, and that from this came the legend of the cobbler's dozen, numbering thirteen.

The Spectator

In this day of flamboyant self-assertion and controversial zeal it is a pleasure to recall that Mr. Howells did not consent this summer to

support his views about tips before the Liberty

Dawn Association of Coach-Drivers. The common futility of such exercises, and the better opportunity afforded the literary man to express an exact and forceful opinion in print, had more to do with his declination, it is supposed, than did the prospect of a debate with the labor leader, Mr. Henry B. Martin. There is a wholesome suggestiveness in the example of one of our novelists contenting himself with the calm, spectorial point of view and impart ing to those who are in the fray and who love wordy wrangles the brave thought of his "attic" philosophy. The daily press has brought out the pros and cons of the tip question, and now discrimination is needed to separate the wheat from the chaff before this is shelved for the next, which, in our bounding city, will no doubt be as hastily scanned and then relegated as merrily to the garret of yesterday's novelties.

Mr. Howell's assertion that the acceptance of a tip ranks a waiter or a barber or coachman with the sturdy beggar will bear examination. After a discussion which lasted two evenings the Liberty Dawners voted that it need not be thus degrading if the tip be offered in the proper spirit. They might have added, but did not," and received in the proper spirit," which, in the Spectator's observation, is the condition less often complied with. The cocksure arrogance with which many waiters bully guests into payinggratuities is often responsible for any show of contempt or seeming timidity on the part of the latter. Granting, however, that the majority of waiters (using the word in a generic sense for all tip-takers) wish to evince "the proper spirit," are they ranked by their acceptance of tips with the brutal mendicant? Perhaps they should be, but if Mr. Howells means that they are commonly conscious of such degradation, or that their benefactors are conscious of so ranking them, it would be difficult to back the assertion. The "sturdy beggar" in our country has lost all self-respect, and if not already incapable of so fine a sensation, feels inwardly ashamed and a coward whenever he asks alms. He is beyond the pale of custom. the creature of a system.

He is not

The New York waiter is, to a degree, and after the first adoption of his work, acquiesces with its conditions. These conditions, so long as they exist and are beyond his individual or associational control, he ceases to think about. He is not, generally speaking, a thinking man. His uttermost thought is to make the ends meet and secure a livlihood. Above all, he is not an idealist or a far-sighted logician. He never dabbles in Altruria or Utopia. He, if anybody, is a realist; often he is a fatalist. If he were once persuaded that, by organized resistance he and all his could get sufficient wages to make tips unnecessary, he would then be inclined to ask, "What's the good? Will we get any more in the end? Can you guarantee us as much?" A whole-souled barber told the Spectator that he couldn't arouse any interest in the question among his employees. They had never heard of Mr. Howells. They were wholly indifferent to the ethical side of the question. They lived from hand to mouth and hated the word" principle." They lacked intelligence and courage to grasp and follow a course of self-sacrifice for the sake of ultimate gain. They preferred to enlist under a time-honored European system. Others accepted tips, and they would. Conventional, you see, to the exclusion of reason, like most New Yorkers, perhaps it would not be extreme to add.

It would appear from all this that the tip fuddled barber or waiter prefers the comfortable deceit, the daring imposition, the understood swindle, to a reign of sincerity and honesty. On a politer level, he is, after all, as base and hardened a member of society as is the sturdy beggar. Only he is not so regard

ed-any more than certain brokers and "trust" men pass for gamblers and highwaymen. He remains as respectable as his linen. Mr. Howells assumes what Mr. Martin, if his views have been fairly represented, overlooks that in all business there is but one kind of service

stipulated for, which is the best service the

workman, under the circumstances, is capable of. "It is the duty of the servant to serve by his employer." well and pleasantly. For this he is paid wages Now the whole tipping system, even as expounded by its supporters, implies that there are different degrees of excellence in every service which must consequently be graduated to the feeing pliability of the guest. It makes possible "superior accommodations" on railroads and in the theatre for those who will add something to the fixed price. Though in name a gift, it thus surreptitiously becomes "a business proposition and a bargain between man and man," and, in ously oblivious of it, lies its disgrace. Time this fact, though Mr. Martin appeared curiwas when gifts were gifts and payment was payment. The present arrangement degrades restaurants to the level of double-priced stores, and, in so far, impairs public confidence in them. If a barber has, practically, two prices for a shave, wherefore is this thing hid? He should announce it, with diagrams showing the degree of success attending each, just as different rolls of dress materials are ticketed according to their texture and grade.


If this assumption, that thoroughness is a variant, were made and adhered to by the lawyer, the physician, the journalist, he would find himself brought, with electric promptitude, to a grievous end. The way to secure higher wages, as a successful business man once said in my hearing, is to do two or three times better work than you think you are paid for. Here again is the same mischievous assumption. I should like it better had he formulated the secret of advancement thus: Do your best on all occasions. At all events, rewards come

properly only to those who have worked along regardless of them. From the standpoint of entire honesty, there is only one haircut, one service at table, one defense in court, and that is the very best the person employed can render. Even this may fall far short of the standard of excellence cherished by the giver and receiver of the benefit, so that at best there is plenty of chance for failure and shortcomings. That constant, marginal incongruity between the ideal and the real should warn even the barber and waiter that the best he can do is no more than good enough, and that to relax his efforts, and defer his alacrity or thoroughness to the winks of his customers, unfits him for future work, and should oust him summarily from his position. This, I am aware, is high ground. A more comfortable doctrine is that all workingmen are mere children, and need a visible incentive, besides the sense of duty to do good work.

To say that the feeing system is rooted in selfishness is as much as to admit that it has come to stay. That it is begotten of selfishness needs no explication further than to note that it began with the selfishness of those wealthy Americans who thoughtlessly imported it from Europe, and who encourage waiters to surliness with others by the tawdry splendor of their fees; and that it exists by the selfishness of the waiters themselves, who insolently exact like gratuities from all, and by the selfishness of hotel men who sanction the imposition by a corresponding reduction of wages. It could be removed only by a simultaneous co-operation of all three. But human society is not constructed on the principle of a vast piece of machinery, which, at a given time, can run down and stop for the introduction of a new fly-wheel.

trinkgelder to give the servants of our friends when we visit them, thus degrading hospitality to the level of innkeeping? Must we go to the still deeper humiliation of imparting at every corner das gefälligkeits-trinkgeld, for the proffer of those thousand and one ancillary attentions which, in many cases, are so exasperating, but the occasional acceptance of which, as when one is in a strange city and has to inquire for a street, is so necessary? Will restaurant keepers forthwith see their oppor tunity, and, following a European precedent, farm out to waiters the privilege of conducting their gigantic and demoralizing imposition? And will hotel managers see fit practically to double the amount of fees required by adding "attendance" to the other items usually listed on the bill? It were well to pause here, and wonder if there is more than a seeming pertinence in the words of a member of the Chicago Board of Trade: "Cheer up, boys! The worst is yet to come."

The wife of a physician who lives on Fourteenth Street tells a story of a distant kinswoman of hers who was her guest during the Christian Endeavor Convention. The kinswoman lives in an inland New England town, and when she came to Washington she spent one night of the journey on board a steamboat. It was the first time she had ever traveled by water. She reached Washington extremely fatigued. The Doctor's wife remarked it. "Yes, I'm tired to death," said the kinswoman. "I don't know as I care to travel by water again. I read the card in my stateroom about how to put the life-preserver on, and I thought I understood it, but I guess I didn't, though. Some way, I couldn't seem to go to sleep with the thing on."-Washington Post.


You should purify, enrich, and vitalize your blood to avoid the debilitating effects of hot weather.. Pure blood is the safeguard of health.



The only interesting phase of the question in America is the extent to which tips will finally obtain. We have, in unregulated abundance, examples of what the Germans call das geschäftliche trinkgeld, the tip that oils the wheels of our business relations with waiters, hack men, porters, and the rest. Shall we soon be obliged to carry, too, gesellschaftliche Hood's Pills are the only Pills to take

Is the best-in fact the One True Blood Purifier.

with Hood's Sarsaparilla.


Free Coinage and Exchange

To the Editors of The Outlook:

The Hon. N. O. Nelson, in your issue of 25th July,

attributes his conversion to free silver coinage to the writings of Andrews and Walker, and contemplation of the prosperity of Mexico. If I have read Andrews and Walker aright, their contention is that the contraction of standard money due to the passing out of use of one of the former money metals, viz., silver, has caused undue depression in prices as measured by the money metal that remained in circulation, which happens to be gold. What they ache for is not the substitution of silver for gold, since manifestly this would not increase the total amount of standard money, but the parallel use of the two metals on some fixed ratio; this, they agree, can only be brought about by agreement among the leading commercial nations. True, carried away by the prevailing silver enthusiasm of the time, President Andrews is reported as saying he was willing to risk free coinage by this country alone, but that is not what he says in the sober writings that Mr. Nelson quotes. It seems strange, therefore, that Mr. Nelson should have concluded from his study of these masters to "become a free coinage man at the old ratio, independent of other nations," and I suspect we must attribute a large share of this inconsequential result to the other influence he mentions, viz., the example of Mexico. Mexico has not usually been considered a glowing example of progress in civilization and commercial prosperity, but unquestionably she has made great strides under the beneficent rule of President Diaz. Granting it to be true, as Mr. Nelson avers, that she has not been disturbed by the panics that have visited us in the last twenty years, is not this largely due to the fact that her currency system is settled; that there is no party threatening all the time to subvert it for a nickel system, a copper system, or for an out and out fiat paper money system? As among themselves, her merchants know what to depend upon; know in what kind of money they will be paid for their goods. As to what they buy from other countries, they pay the penalty of that constant fluctuation in exchange which reflects the variations of silver as compared with gold. Writing to my firm, a Mexican customer apologizes for long delay in remittance because exchange on New York had ruled so high. He had waited in the vain hope that exchange would go down, but finally remits, despairing of a better market. Mr. Nelson says international exchange is exchange, but the leaps and bounds of foreign exchange in silver-using countries is a mighty different thing from the insignificant oscillations in exchange between gold-using countries due to the varying balance of trade. In the silver-using countries south of us, the merchant watches the exchange market as we used to watch the gold market in war times. I can conceive of a country doing little or no business with other countries getting along very well with a silver currency or a copper currency, or even an iron currency, if you please, provided it was fixed and not subject to constant attack. Did it never occur to Mr. Nelson that possibly some of the panic and depression and hard times of the past decade might be due to the fact that there was a constantly growing and aggressive party that was determined not to amend but to uproot our currency system? Does it not occur to him now that what business men fear is not only the "16 to 1" experiment, but the clean and clear fiat money demand that is back of it, and that finds expression in the platforms of the two parties that have adopted free coinage go-it-alone planks? GEO. BURNHAM, JR.

Free Silver

To the Editors of The Outlook:

A correspondent in The Outlook of the 25th inst. says the apparent prosperity of Mexico converted him from a gold standard man to the belief in free silver. In the present intense financial conflict let us know the whole truth.

The Rev. F. E. Clark, President of the Christian Endeavor Society, writes to the "Independent," that he has just returned from a trip of twenty-five hundred miles through Mexico, which is on a silver basis-par excellence, the silver country of the world. He says, as compared with her past history, Mexico is prosperous. The Presidency of Diaz has been a grand success. Industries have been stimulated and internal improvements advanced. Here are some of the important facts, truths your correspondent did not state:"

"But free silver, after all, does not make a terrestrial paradise in every respect. The traveler is reminded of that in many ways. The Mexican cartwheel dollar melts away in a surprising tashion when it comes to buying what an American considers the necessaries of life. For instance, two boiled eggs cost thirty cents. while three may be obtained


for the moderate sum of forty cents. Bread and butter is twenty cents, a cup of tea or coffee costs the same price, while a sandwich may be had for no less. I bought a small package of sweet biscuit, about half a pound in all, which might have cost fifteen cents in "America"; and was surprised that bill amounted to eighty-seven cents. found its way to any great extent into the pockets of "The silver of prosperous Mexico has not as yet the poor people. Wages are evidently on the highest sort of a gold basis. A number of my friends told me that they pay their cooks about five dollars a month, about one-quarter the price of such labor in the States. In the country districts an able-bodied man earns six dollars (Mexican) a month (three dollars American) and his board; while a fair day's wage in city or country for a laboring man is fifty cents (Mexican).

and wretchedness more in evidence than in prosper"Nowhere are beggars more numerous, or squalor ous Mexico. The railway stations are thronged with almost naked children, holding out grimy hands.

"Hundreds of thousands of Mexicans live in houses which could be built for ten dollars in American money, and their whole wardrobe, minus the sombrero, would come high at two bits.' I am speaking, of course of the peons, the peasant class. There is another class of Mexicans, of whom I cannot write in this paper, who live in beautiful houses, surrounding lovely patios, or inner courtyard gardens, built very much as were the houses of ancient Pompeii."

Let the false prophets of a financial millennium, to be ushered in by free silver, mark well two things: First, the wage-earners of silver Mexico are immeasurably worse off than the same class in this country. Second, the distance separating the rich and poor is far wider and deeper than in gold standard United States.

Both these facts prove the theories of the free silverites false. It is shallowest reasoning to affirm that Mexican prosperity, whatever it may be, is due alone to silver. If free silver is the sole cause of prosperity, then all free silver countries should be successful. But they are not. The free silver countries of Central America, as compared with our own gold standard government, are in a deplorable condition.

A few years since, one of these small free silver States felt herself sinking yet more hopelessly into the quicksands of financial ruin. Professor Laughlin, now, I believe, professor of economics in Chicago University, went to her aid, and wisely placed the finances of this free silver country on a firm gold basis, and continued prosperity was assured. Mexico was a silver nation long before she had Diaz as a ruler, but was in a condition of decay.

The firm, wise government of one liberal and enterprising man has brought whatever success she may now enjoy. Do the working-men of the United States want three dollars per month wages and ten dollar houses? Then vote for free silver. Is Mexico to be the ideal of this favored Nation?

Mexico and Silver

To the Editors of The Outlook:


I was greatly impressed by the letter in the current number of your valuable paper by N. O. Nelson on the free-coinage question, but it seems to me that the comparison made between this country and Mexico cannot be substantiated by facts. I recently had a conversation with a representative of the newly developed coffee industry who had just returned from Mexico, and the picture he drew of the squalor and poverty of the working classes of that country was simply appalling. He said in effect that while it is true that the wealthier classes are making money and are slowly developing the resources of the country, the toiling masses are being ground down to a degree unparalleled anywhere in the United States. This is due in a very large measure to the fact that the prices of most of the necessary commodities of life are high even out of all proportion to the difference in value between the American dollar and the Mexican dollar, and my informant cites an incident wherein he purchased an article, carried everywhere in the grocery trade for $1.50, which would be equivalent to about 80 cents of our money, but this same article would sell anywhere in this country for from 40 to 50 cents.

Now it is painfully apparent that in the commercial revolution that would result in the event of an immediate and precipitous adoption of the free coinage of silver the rise in the prices of all other commodities would be effected long before any appreciable increase would be made in the salary of the wage earner, and it seems to the writer that the suffering occasioned by such a change, during the period of transition from the present condition of the labor market to the standard finally effected would be intense. And again, an advance in prices having become general along with a corresponding increase in wages what advantage would result from such an advance to the salaried man?

It seems to me that the free coinage of silver would bring untold suffering and distress upon the great mass of our American people without producing any warrantable advantage to the investor.

H. D. R.

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The Democratic Civil Service Plank To the Editors of The Outlook:

Has not The Outlook, like many papers, fallen into a very natural error in regard to civil service reform and the Democratic platform? (pp. 90 and 112.) The copy of the platform printed in The Outlook is the same as that in the Chicago daily papers of the morning of the 9th, before the committee had reported to the Convention, and before the final meeting of the committee. In the detailed proceedings of the Convention on the 9th, reported in the papers the following morning, the objectionable plank is not included, and the papers also give on that day the account of the final meeting of the committee at which it was voted to strike out the plank before reporting to the Convention. H. H. S.

A Correction

To the Editors of The Outlook:

Permit me to correct an error in Mr. Linthicum's article on Mr. Bryan, in your magazine number of July 25. Mr. Linthicum states, " Mrs. Bryan attended the 'female department' of the academy at Jacksonville, where Mr. Bryan was a scholar." Mrs. Bryan was a pupil and graduate of the Jacksonville Female Academy, one of the oldest educational institutions for girls in the West. Mr. Bryan attended the Whipple Academy, which is a preparatory school for Illinois College, and has no "female department." K. I. D.


About People

-Princess Helene, the Duchess of Sparta's baby, is Queen Victoria's twenty-second greatgrandchild.

-Two babies in English, Ind., have, it is asserted, recently been christened Abraham Lincoln Ulysses Grant William McKinley, and Thomas Jefferson Andrew Jackson James Monroe William Jennings Bryan.

-Friedrich August Kekule, professor of chemistry at the University of Bonn, who has just died at the age of 77 years, by the discovery of the fouratomic character of carbon established the basis for the modern theory of

chemical combinations.

-Ex-Empress Eugenie has lately been on a visit to Granada, Spain, where she was born seventy years ago. She had not seen her native city since 1850, yet she remembered

for learning to spell according as they should,"
said Captain Saunders to a summer resident of
Saltville, who had been assisting him in a com-
pletion of a business letter. "I've heard 'em tell
of the rules and regulations times enough, but
they don't help me a mite. There's only just
one rule I've got to go by."

"What is that, Captain Saunders ?" asked
his visitor.

"Words of one syllable, I go by the sound," said Captain Saunders, cheerfully setting forth his system words of two syllables, I go by guess-work, when I can't get hold of a dictionary; and when it comes to words of three syllables and over, I put my trust in Provi


"And how does your rule work?" asked his friend, after joining the Captain in a hearty laugh.

"Well, ma'am," Captain Saunders re

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every principal street and related a number of sponded, instantly growing sober again, The Standard of Excellence

details of her early life there.

-The Prince of Wales has two sorts ovisiting cards. On one, for home use, is writ ten "Albert Edward," on the other, for continental use," Le Prince de Galles." The German Emperor and the Emperor of Austria print on their cards a part of their numerous titles. Most of the European royalties order

their cards in Paris.

-Tommaso Salvini recently wrote to a manager who tried to induce him to go on the stage again, that apart from the difficulty of getting together a good company for such a repertory as he desired, he was prevented from complying with his request by the desire to keep his fame untarnished by an appearance on the stage after his powers had declined.

"words of one syllable I reckon I get right
about half the time; words of two syllables
say about a third, maybe. And as for three
syllables and over, without the dictionary, why,
I ain't distrusting Providence, you understand,
ma'am, but from what I gather, I've about

come to the conclusion that the Lord calcu-
willing Jabez Saunders should take his turn at
lates to have some poor spelling done, and is
it."-Youth's Companion.


Business Foundations

Perhaps the most remarkable feature of the construction of the modern sky-scrapers is the part of it which goes underground-the foundations.

There are the deep borings to ascertain the character of underlying strata; the mathematical precision with which the dimensions of the great piers of concrete and steel are defined; the minuteness with which the slightest fraction of variation in the

-Joseph Arch, the well-known Labor Member of Parliament, has fallen upon evil times, and is now in straitened circumstances. Some of his political friends have come to the rescue, and having formed a committee, are about to make a national appeal for funds with the view of purchasing a modest annuity and keep-level of one of these piers is discovered and coring the veteran agitator from penury in his old age.

-Lord Kelvin, it is said, always carries a notebook in his pocket, which he produces at the most unexpected times. While on a visit to a country house, in a crowded drawingroom, with all the jabber of conversation going on in full flood, he will take out his notebook and fill page after page with intricate equations, seeking the solution of some problem that awaits investigation.

-Marie Dorothy Amalia, the Austrian Archduchess whom the Duc d'Orleans is to marry, is his first cousin once removed. The Princess, born at Alcsruth on June 14, 1867, is the eldest daughter of the Archduke Joseph-the Hungarian Archduke-Commander-in-Cheif of the Hungarian Landwehr. The Archduke is the uncle of the Emperor and brother of the Queen of the Belgians.

-Madame Adam, well known as editor of the "Parisian Nouvelle Revue," insists that the "musicales" that have of late years become so popular in the French capital have materially injured conversation. She intends to gather about her the thirty or forty women still in Paris, who, in her opinion, can converse, and, in accordance with this design, inscribes her invitations with words "To talk," instead of with the stereotyped words "Music " or "Dancing."

-The Chicago Field Columbian Museum is to receive $2,000,000 an an endowment fund, from the founder, Marshall Field. He has allowed H. N. Higinbotham to tender it informally upon conditions which are to govern the museum's future location. He insists that twenty acres shall be set aside on the lake front park, which is close to the business center, and dedicated at the institution, and that the directors shall be authorized to make the transfer from the building at Jackson Park as soon as the lake basin beyond the Illinois Central tracks shall be filled.

Rules for Spelling

There are some people to whom the difficulties presented by orthography appear absolutely unconquerable beyond a certain point. Whatever other faculties they may possess, they were not born to spell.

"I know people have all kinds of methods


The importance of these details appears as the giant skeleton of steel rises in the air. The great columns and girders may have been made and all the rivet-holes punched at a steel mill a thousand miles away; but they fit together like the parts of a perfect machine, because the foundation is right. A variation of a small fraction at the bottom would be serious at the top.

That seems to be the theory on which the best business houses build.

The least variation from the lines prescribed by honest dealing and absolute integrity, while it may pass unnoticed at the time, is discovered as the superstructure rises.

The Campbell Investment Company of Chicago has built a business of this kind. This Company began business in Chicago in 1892, during a period generally, have complained ever since that time of of marked inactivity in realty. While other houses, the extreme dullness in trade, the Campbell Investment Company has done a large and profitable business almost from the very beginning, and its operations are now larger than ever before.

It started out with absolute confidence in Chicago property, and invested large sums in the same.

The members of the firm believe that the interest of their clients must in all cases be the first consideration. Under this rule the firm has handled nothing but the best land of its class, and has always given its clients the very best of what it had in stock. Proof of this is shown by the large profits that have accrued to such of its customers as have disposed of their holdings.

After scarcely four years' work in Chicago, the Campbell Investment Company has won its way into the confidence of the business community, and is one of the largest real estate houses in that city. A recent instance of the large operations of this house has attracted considerable attention. It was the negotiation of a 99-year lease of a down-town corner for Marshall Field, in which the lessee is pledged to pay $50,000 a year, on a lot 53 by 150.6 feet, thus establishing a valuation of $1,000,000 on the land.

An interesting history of this property was issued by the Campbell Investment Company giving figures which show the wonde.ful growth in values of Chicago land. In 1839 this lot brought $327; in 1845, $750; in 1849, with a house on it, $4,500; in 1876, with a six-story building, $191,000; in 1896 land alone valued at $1,000,000.

The Campbell Investment Company is a safe house with which to do business. It makes no pledge that it does not carefully fulfill. Its success is the result of honest methods, earnest effort, and perseverance, and is well deserved.

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Price, 25 and 50 Cents per Bottle, postpaid A. J. DITMAN, Chemist, 2 Barclay Street NEW YORK


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The Outlook


New Series of The Christian Union

Copyright, 1896, by The Outlook Company
Entered as second-class matter in the New York

The Outlook is a weekly Family Paper, containing this week forty pages. The subscription price is Three Dollars a year, payable in advance.

Postage is Prepaid by the publishers for all subscriptions in the United States, Canada, and Mexico. For all other countries in the Postal Union add $1.56 for postage. Changes of Address.-When a change of address is ordered, both the new and the old address must be given. The notice should be sent one week before the change is to take effect. Discontinuances.—If a subscriber wishes his copy of the paper discontinued at the expiration of his subscription, notice to that effect should be sent. Otherwise it is assumed that a continuance of the subscription is desired. How to Remit.-Remittances should be sent by Check, Draft, Express-Order, or Money-Order payable to order of THE OUTLOOK COMPANY. Cash should be sent in Registered Letter. Letters should be addressed:


Clinton Hall, Astor Place,

New York.

Notes and Queries

I noticed in a recent issue of The Outlook, in a reply to a query touching the custom of saying grace at meals, that you say that it was Christ's practice to do so. I would like to know by what authority you say so. I know of no data for such assertion, except the fact that He blessed the wine and the bread on the occasion of the feast of the Passover, which was a ritual service that the ruler of the feast was bound to use. The occasion of the miracles of the loaves and fishes ought also to be regarded as an unusual occurrence and cannot possibly throw any light on his usual custom at meals. All we know about, so far as I am advised, is that he refused to observe the custom of ceremonial washing of hands before meals, which is analogous to the ceremony of saying grace before meals. The fact that he refused to keep this custom, because it was an empty form, is the only intimation we have, so far as I know, of what his habitual practice was; and this would seem to obtain against the idea that he would practice any religious form. At any rate, I do not see sufficient grounds to warrant any one in making the assertion that it was the habit of Jesus to say grace before meals. C. S. C.

See Luke xxiv., 30. It is a significant indication what Jesus's habit was, that he was recognized in his act of blessing and breaking the loaf of which the three were about to partake. If it had not been his familiar practice so to do, it would not have caused him to be recognized. As to the ceremonial washings of the Pharisees, the extravagant length to which they were carried marked them as fit to be protested against by neglecting them, especially when coupled with moral uncleanness. See Mark vii., 1-4; Luke xi., 37-39.

I read your paper with a great deal of interest on the financial questions, for the reason that it treats them in a fair and conservative manner. Will you kindly give a statement of the difference between "Bimetallism" and the "Free coinage of silver" in an early issue of your paper, and oblige a


Bimetallism always means free-coinage, but free coinage does not always mean bimetallism. "Bimetallism is the free coinage of both gold and silver at such a ratio or price as to keep both in circulation. France maintained bimetallism at the ratio of 1 to 151⁄2 from 1803 till the formation of the Latin Union in 1865. The currency demands of France were so great that all the surplus gold or silver could at any time be added to its currency without unduly increasing the supply and entirely expelling the other metal. Mexico has the free coinage of both metals, but her currency demands are insufficient to absorb all the silver at the legal ratio, and only silver circulates. Whether the currency demands of the United States would maintain silver at the old ratio is the question at issue between International and National bimetallists.

Will you state the names and prices of the list of books and pamphlets on the currency question?


1. "International Bimetallism," by Francis A. Walker. Henry Holt & Co. $1.25. (Bimetallism.) 2. "An Honest Dollar," by E. Benj. Andrews. American Economic Association. 75 cts. (Bimetallism.)

3. "The Silver Situation in the United States," by F. W. Taussig. Putnam's. 75 cts. (Monometallism.)

4. "The Case Against Bimetallism," by Robert Giffin. Geo. Bell & Sons, London. $2.00. (Monometallism.)

5. The speech in Congress of C. A. Towne, of Duluth, Minn., in favor of free coinage and the reply

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1. It may add to one's conviction of the reality, but the only sufficient attestation of the reality is in the fruit of character and conduct. 2. Yes; but it should be added, that there are moments of despondency and gloom, in which the remembrance of full assurance in the past is helpful to tide over a period of temporary doubt. We do not know any who deny this. 3. No inward change can occur unconsciously, but one may for a time be unconscious as to the real nature or the full import of the change that he is conscious of.

How do you account for the difference between popular therapeutics and the healing practiced by Jesus, his disciples-the seventy he sent out-and instances in the early history of the Church? M. D.

Just as we account for the difference between popular arithmetic and that of an arithmetical prodigy like Zerah Colburn, or any other "lightning calculator." Experience shows that therapeutics is an art to be learned, in the vast majority of cases, by scientific study and practice, just as all but a few extraordinarily endowed persons have to learn arith


Dr. Briggs stated, as I recollect, that men are brought to a knowledge of God by the Bible, by the Church, and by Reason. Has he written anything which explains this view? S. E. H.

Messrs. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, publish Dr. Briggs's Inaugural Address, in which he discusses this at length; also, his defense of his position before the Presbyterian General Assembly.

Will you please name some books of moderate size and price for popular readers, telling of Babylon's people, customs, and buildings, in the days of S. its prosperity.

See the volume by R. A. Ragozin in the "Story of the Nations" series (G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York), and G. Rawlinson's "Egypt and Babylon."

A correspondent wishes the answer to the following puzzle which she thinks was once printed in The Outlook:

I sit on a rock while I'm raising the wind,
But the storm, once abated, I'm gentle and kind.
I see kings at my feet, who wait but for my nod,
To kneel in the dust where my footsteps have trod.
Though seen by the world, I'm known to but few;
The Gentiles detest me, I'm pork to the Jew.
I never have passed but one night in the dark,
And that was with Noah, all alone in the Ark.
My weight is three mites, my length is a mile,
And when I'm discovered you'll say, with a smile,
My first and my last is the wish of our isle.

In reading "Notes and Queries " I saw this query: "Kindly tell me where the passages of Scripture are found upon which Christian people ground their belief that they shall know each other there.' I have a dear friend who has lost her only daughter, and is inconsolable," etc., etc. As I have known the same sorrow, I send these few lines, if thereby the person may find comfort. King David (2 Samuel xii., 23), when told his child was dead said, “I shall go to him," and ceased agonizing, for his beloved child had gone from his care to Him who made him. David is spoken of as "a man after God's own heart." He must have known God, or those words would not have been said of him, and he must have believed fully in recognition hereafter, or he never would have said it. Again, Peter and John, when with Christ on the Mount of the Transfiguration, knew Moses and Elias-how, and why, I do not know -but Christ did, or he would have corrected them. There are two books (I forget the authors' names) that gave me great comfort, "Hiram Golf's Religion" and "They Met in Heaven."

For "E. H. K."


C. R.

No days such honored days as these! while yet Fair Aphrodite reigned, men seeking wide For some fair thing which should forever bide On earth, her beauteous memory to set In fitting frame that no age could forget, Her name in lovely April's name did hide, And leave it there, eternally allied To all the fairest flowers spring doth beget. And when fair Aphrodite passed from earth, Her shrines forgotten and her feasts of mirth, A holier symbol still, in seal and sign, Sweet April took, of kingdom more divine, When Christ ascended, in the time of birth Of spring anemones in Palestine. H. H. Copied from the "Atlantic Monthly" of April, 1877. Also found in a volume of "Poems," by H. H., in Part II." Sonnets and Lyrics." M. H. B.

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Want advertisements of thirty words or less will be published under this heading at one dollar a week. Four cents a week is charged for each word in excess of thirty.

A KINDERGARTNER, graduate of a New York training class, with experience in mission and private work, desires a kindergarten position for the ensuing winter. References. Address KINDERGARTNER, Blowing Rock, North Carolina.

WANTED-By educated, refined lady, widow, position in girls' boarding-school as assistant to principal in home department. Ör position as housekeeper or companion in first-class family. Best references. Address Box No. 1,682, care Outlook."

WANTED POSITION SOUTH as Governess or Housekeeper with full charge by capable lady (38) recently from superior N Y. City position. Will accept board for mother in mild climate in payment for services rendered. R., 1695, Outlook Office."

A COMPETENT, REFINED ENGLISH WOMAN wishes a position of trust, either as matron or housekeeper where one or more servants are kept, or would travel with a delicate lady. A. W., 416 Brook St., Providence, R. I.

AN UNUSUALLY FINE COLLECTION of Arizona minerals, valuable for private collections, museums, or colleges, may be obtained on favorable conditions. For information address JAMES H. ECOB, D.D. Denver, Colo.

WANTED-By a young lady artist, position in a boarding-school to teach drawing, painting, and History of Art. Has had several years' experience; can furnish references. Address A. P. C., No. 1,651, care The Outlook. WANTED, by a recent Smith College graduate, position as a tutor in mathematics, Greek, Latin, or German; is willing to fill the position of companion. References given if desired. Address R. FAIRBANK, Enfield, Mass. TO LET, $25 per month for a nine-room modern residence with all improvements, convenient to Riverview Military School, Lynden Hall Seminary, trolley to Vassar. 28 Carroll Street, Poughkeepsie, N. Y.

WANTED TO RENT IN MONTCLAIR, N. J., house of 8 or 9 rooms. House must have modern improvements. Address No. 1,618, care The Outlook.

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