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An Every-day Alphabet

A down to Z

Written in Jingles for Ethel Marie
By Frank Roe Batchelder

For the Little People

IS Aunt Mabelle, the doll-
babies' friend,
She makes them jackets
and gowns without end.

B is for Bouncer, a terror
to rats,

And not so remarkably
partial to cats.

C is for Catherine, third of the name,
A queen-doll that's really entitled to fame.

D is for Dick, who just mopes in his cage,
Refusing to sing on account of old age.
E is for Ethel Marie's own dear self;
Likewise it stands for her fairy-name, Elf!

F is the Frolic that comes after tea,
Just before bedtime, for Ethel Marie.

G is for Grandpa-a great one to chaff,
Who sings funny songs that induce us to laugh.
H is for Hillman, whose place we all know,
For he's the confectioner two blocks below.

I is for something that Ethel thinks nice,
Chocolate, favored and frozen, like-Ice!

J is for Jennie and also for Jack.
When they're our playmates, of fun there's no
lack.

K is for Kitty, who prowls 'round the house,
Hoping to pounce on some venturesome

mouse.

L is the Love we feel when we see
Sweetness and goodness in Ethel Marie.

M is Mamma, who's the dearest and best-
Knows more and loves more than all of the
rest.

N is Aunt Nettie; I think I'd prefer
My aunts to be just exactly like her.

O is Obliging, a nice thing to be

To people who ask things of you and of me.

P is Papa, who is ready for fun
Soon as it's started, and stays till it's done.

Qis for Quarrel, but that, without doubt,
Is something that we know but little about.
R is Repentance, which shouldn't be long
Making us sorry when we have done wrong.
.S is for Santa Claus! Ethel knows him;
He filled her stocking clear up to the brim.
T is Thanksgiving Day-that's when we dine
On turkey and other things notably fine.
U is your Uncle Frank, don't you forget—
Not a real uncle, but just by brevet.

V is for Violets; sometimes they're flowers,
Sometimes they're eyes of a wee girl like ours.
W is Walter, who surely should be
Nicest of brothers to Ethel Marie.

X-mas is how we write Christmas sometimes;
Comes in quite handily here, for these rhymes.
Y is for Yellow-locks, flaxen and fair,
What little maiden has that sort of hair?

Z is for Zero, that's not at the top,
But down at the bottom; and here we must
stop.

He Knew the Difference The story is told in an English paper that some children who had a cage of white mice allowed one of the mice the freedom of the house. One day one of the mice ran to the chimney and disappeared. The next day the

barn cat brought the mouse in, and laid it
alive and uninjured at the feet of the mother
of the children. This cat has a reputation
for catching rats and mice, but he evidently
knew that the little white mice were not
meant for his eating.

In the Bed of the Brook
By Mary Willis

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A pretty story is told in Our Animal
Friends" of how a gentleman tamed a hum-
ming bird. When one watches its swiftness
of movement, and learns how shy the hum-
ming bird is, it would seem almost impossible
to ever tame those little creatures so that they
would come near a human being. Some years
ago I was in the Catskill Mountains. Across
the meadow was the bed of an old brook that
at that time had been dry, except in the time
of the spring freshets, for many years. One
of the most delightful walks of the region was
through the bed of this old brook, in spite
of its stony bottom. Wild flowers grew in
abundance along the edge, the pussy-willows
arched it over at different points, the old logs
were moss-grown, and altogether one could
lose one's self more safely in the bed of the
old brook than anywhere else. One of its
charms lay in the fact that if followed in a
certain direction it led to a stream of clear
running water. The most delightful time to
visit the old brook-bed was in the morning.
About a mile down the brook was an old

tumbled-down bridge, long since disused, be-
cause now the farmers could drive at very
many points over the old bed with perfect
ease. Under the old bridge an old trunk of a
tree rested, which made a delightful back to
a moss-grown seat, and here with books and
pillows many hours of delight were passed.
Having grown up in the city, and being unac-
customed to the ways of the wild creatures, I
did not watch them, but gave myself up
thoroughly to the books, sitting here sur-
rounded by the thousands of things that I
could find nowhere else in the world. I read
quietly as though seated in the library at home.
One morning early I heard a queer little
noise. On glancing up I found looking at
me with a most friendly expression a little red
squirrel. His head poked out from the end
of a hollow tree trunk, about five feet away.
He winked and blinked, but the moment I
moved he darted out of sight. I closed the
book and waited for his return, keeping
very, very still.

my head back on the pillow and watch for the return of the little wood sprites. At last I heard a hum and a buzz and my heart began to beat. Was it possible that the little humming bird was coming back! I did not dare lift my eyelids lest she should be frightened. The buzz and the hum and the whirl came nearer, and again I saw the stalk bend and the little bird was swinging gracefully in the cup of the yellow flower. This happened probably a dozen times; each time the bird stayed longer. The next day, provided with nuts, I went back to the seat under the bridge. Again I had the visits from the humming bird and the squirrel. I would not say that I had tamed them, but they certainly had lost all fear. I made no attempt to catch them. I sprinkled the nuts freely about the old log, and found before the month was up that not only one squirrel, but four, came there for breakfast, and I never disappointed them, unless it rained very hard. For the little humming birds I could do nothing; but the hours of pleasure which I gathered there through watching their beauty of color and movement found a gift for a lifetime.

The Beavers' Testimony Beavers, as you know, build dams. A great many years ago there was a dam across one by beavers. In the sale of some land, which of the Pennsylvania streams which was built took place in the early part of this century, one of the dividing lines was this beaver dam, Recently the heirs to it had a dispute, for the beaver dam had entirely disappeared, and the contestants claimed that the line was at some

other point than that claimed by the plaintiffs. To settle the question a professor of one of the colleges, an expert on beavers and their habits, was sent with two surveyors to the point where it was claimed the old beaver dam had been built. Work began, and there, in the bed of the creek, was found the remains of the old beaver dam that had been built before the Revolutionary War. The sticks were found with the marks of the beavers' teeth upon them. On the testimony of the expert the claim was decided.

Where Were They Going?

The Arab who was to drive them tied them outside the gate and left them while he went to attend to something inside. The elks sniffed the water, and then they darted fast down the beach and out into the water, when they began swimming. The sound of the clattering hoofs and of the cart brought the Arabs and Egyptians connected with the show hastily out to find out what had happened. The elks freed themselves of the cart, and struck out at once to swim; it seemed as though they would certainly be drowned; but the lifeguards got into a boat and overtook them, and succeeded in turning their heads toward shore, but it was not easy to make the elks leave the

Down in Atlantic City there are some elks used in connection with a cheap show. The other day they were harnessed to an old cart, and were to be driven about as an advertisement. Close beside me grew a clump of tall yellow flowers which reminded me somewhat of sunflowers, not so tall or so coarse, but still something like them. While I was watching for the return of the squirrel there was a whirl and a dash, and a whirl and a whirl again, and one of the flowers bent down, and seated in the yellow cup was a humming bird. One glance and she saw my face and away she flew. I think that was the first time I had ever seen a humming bird. My surprise and delight brought the tears to my eyes. I almost held my breath, wondering if this vision of beauty, this flash of color, would come back While watching the clump of yellow flowers again I heard the queer little noise, and Mr. Red Squirrel poked out his head again, this time a little further. I had learned my lesson, and so sat perfectly still. He looked at me inquiringly, gave another little call, and came out a little further.

He found I had no intention of harming him, so he came out further; he stood on a stone with his saucy little tail curled up over his back. Suddenly, with a quick dart and dash, and a call, as if to say, "Who's afraid?" he ran up the opposite bank out of sight. All the stories I had heard of the friendship that might develop between these wild creatures of the woods and human beings seemed to flash back through my mind. I re membered that we were always told that if we wanted to study them we must keep perfectly still. Fortunately for me I was most comfortably placed; so comfortably that I could drop

water.

A Young Immigrant

A baby hippopotamus has been brought to London. It was captured on the banks of a river in West Africa, where it had been hidden by its mother. The men who captured it saw the mother hide it in the big hole and cover the hole with weeds and grasses. This she did to prevent Mr. Hippopotamus from eating it up, as that is the habit of the father hippopotamuses, for which the mothers have to watch. When these men saw the mother hide her baby, they waited until she crossed the river, and then they stole her baby away. This hippopotamus is very tame, and will lie still to have its nose rubbed, evidently enjoying it. It eats grass and vegetables, and seems to enjoy its civilized life.

The Home Club.

The Ideal Motherhood

The education of children, it is acknowledged, begins at birth. What it means in this early period, and how it shall begin, depends on the point of view of the mother. The extreme views on this, as on every other subject, are not to be trusted. The middle path, the path that is broad enough for nature and education to walk together in, is the safe path for every mother who looks at her child as a man or woman who is to grace the earth as well as to minister to its progress. The mother's heart and brain are the safest guides. The mother who seeks to bring up her children according to some printed page, or the theories of one who has never known the divine touch of motherhood, whose conception of child life is that of a something placed in life for the express purpose of the experimentation of personal theories, is following a most dangerous path for herself and her child. Human nature is the one element in life that will not fit the most perfectly developed scientific theories. The scientists in the study of mind know this, and are cautious in formulating and declaring opinion. The more scientific the knowledge, the more carefully conceived is the theorist's declaration. The mother who pins her faith to the teacher, who does not make her understand that every child is a new problem to be solved by her love and education, is the one who refuses recognition to the spiritual, the divine birthright of every child of God born into this world, his individuality. The child is first God's, then the mother's, never the teacher's. The office of the teacher is that of the servant of God and man.

Many books have been written on the education of the child at home. These books, for the most part, have been helpful only to those mothers who have been able to study the kindergarten theoretically and practically. This must always be possible only to comparatively few. To give a clear expression of the Fræbelian theory has seemed almost impossible to the experts in the theory. This has had the effect of discouraging the majority of mothers in their effort to understand and apply the theory and practice of the kindergarten in their home training. The kindergarten is not a garment to be put on a child, and worn by it for a given period. It is the directing, the controlling of the impulses of a child; it is the adapting of the environment of the child to its needs, that it may live in a world that recognizes its rights, and helps it to find its place; not only that it may grow, but that it may minister to, may serve this world of which it is a part.

This year new books have been published

that are of inestimable value to the mother who wishes to use the accumulated knowledge of the ages in the training of her little children. Books that present the technical side of the kindergarten so simply, clearly, and comprehensively, as to put any intelligent mother in the possession of the theory of the kindergarten, and in thorough sympathy with its purposes are the two first volumes of the "Republic of Childhood," by Kate Douglas Wiggin, and Nora A. Smith. These two books, one on the "Gifts" and the other on the "Occupations," should be in the home library of every mother. They will be followed later by one on the "Games." These books, carefully read, are the best possible preparation for a book just published, "Home Occupations for Little Children," by Katharine Beebe. (The Werner Company, Chicago.) This book is written in perfect sympathy, and with a clear conception of the difficulties that must be overcome by the mother who cannot have the benefit of close contact with the best kindergartens or the best trainers. It is not an attempt to make life for a child a neverceasing kindergarten session; it is the application of the kindergarten theory to the materials lying about the child in his home. It is full of suggestions to the busy mother, who cannot be what her love prompts her to be, her child's playmate; but it does show her the way to be her child's sympathetic companion, through every hour when he is with her. Perhaps its chief charm is that it presents the

ideal of motherhood of to-day. It is for the mother who must maintain the standards the new education demands, and yet must do it with the least expenditure of time and money. The first essential of perfect motherhood is sympathy with the child; its difficulties, its moods, its needs, its talents. This foundation of the true mother-relation is never lost sight of by Miss Beebe. How to keep it she has shown very clearly and comprehensively in "Home Occupations for Little Children.'

Adulterated Foods

The Connecticut Legislature has passed a bill imposing a penalty of $500, or imprisonment of not more than one year, for selling, or having on exhibition for sale adulterated foods, or foods misbranded. A special provision was made for experiments at the State Agricultural Station. From the Station authorized agents visited the principal cities and villages of the State, and bought goods liable to adulteration. 848 samples were analyzed. 67.2 were pure, 2.9 were doubtful, 29.9 were adulterated. The adulterations were harmless. Maple sugar was adulterated by glucose; comb honey was made by bees fed on sugar; lard was adulterated by cheaper fats and cottonseed oil.

Pepper costs the State $56,000 per annum, 118 samples were analyzed, and 102 were adulterated with harmless bran, hulls, buckwheat, oats, rape-seed, Cape sawdust. Mustard ranks high as an adulterated food. 122 samples of coffee were tested, 53 were adulterated. Some samples of cream of tartar examined did not contain any cream of

tartar.

Mrs. Richards, in her "Chemistry of Cooking and Cleaning," and "Foods and Their Adulteration," gives some simple tests that, if tried, would save the housekeeper from waste. Surely it is a waste to pay for coffee, and receive burnt beans, peas, beets, dandelion,

etc.

The housekeeper must protect herself by returning the adulterated articles, and letting the seller know that adulterated goods would not be accepted, that the State protects the buyer.

These experiments under the agricultural department at Washington, show that there is enormous waste caused by adulterated foods in this country.

an

Enjoyment

human being. Men differ as to what happiHappiness is the conscious aim of every ness is, but there is no difference in opinion as to the value of happiness. One man finds his happiness in work, another in play; another finds happiness in the gratification of ambition, another in the acquisition of wealth. Whatever the seeming end of each man's life is, the real object for which he is striving is happiness-his conception of happiness. A bright girl visited an old woman who was always complaining of her physical condition. Upon meeting the old woman she said, "Good-morning; how are you this morning?" "Oh, I am enjoying very poor health;" when The response came, in the usual whining tone, the girl, with a bright nod, responded, "How delightful! Enjoyment is what we are after." An old lady in Maine was visited the other day by the reporter of a local paper, and asked in regard to her plans for celebrating remarks by saying, "I understand you are her one hundredth birthday. He closed his going to have a jubilee." "Jubilee!" she retorted; "me have a jubilee? Why, bless you! I have a jubilee every day."

Slates and Contagion

The New York City Board of Health has demanded that the school authorities shall abolish the use of slates in the schools of that city, and that lead-pencil and paper shall be provided in their stead. The danger of contagion from the use of slates, cleaned as they are by the majority of children, is very great. Paper pads are now sold so cheaply that it is claimed that the use of paper is cheaper than the use of slates. The second advantage is that they are much more quiet. The right thing to do is

for the parents throughout the whole country to refuse to allow their children to use slates. The exchanging of slates and pencils has been a prolific source for the spread of throat disease, and it is time, in the face of the exact knowledge of science, that the slate and pencil

were abolished in civilized communities.

The Safeguard of Knowledge The need of at least an elementary knowledge of chemistry by housekeepers is being constantly forced upon the attention. Lately a family in New York partook of a chocolate pudding which had been kept in an ice-box three days. The result was that the entire family were poisoned, and were found suffering by a passing physician. It is supposed (the chemical analysis is not completed) that the poison was from the milk used in the pudding. Another solution is that poisonous ptomaines were developed by the action of the air in the ice-box.

The "Chain System"

The Rambler has more than once had occasion to dilate on the nuisance which is committed by all the aiders and abettors and encouragers and patrons of the "chain system" of begging, a system with which, alas! no reader of this paper is so happy as to be unfamiliar. A valued friend, who has suffered from applications of this description, and who has a genius for figures, has taken the trouble to trace out the system into its ramifications and to show whereunto it will grow, unless suppressed. He was appealed to by a chain letter on behalf of a colored lad who, while fishing in the Schuylkill, had his foot crushed in the canal lock, rendering an artificial leg a necessity. Supposing that the chain system works without interruption up to and including letter No. 16, by that time it would involve 21,523,300 links, or persons; in other words, more than the entire population of all the New England and Middle States would be required to write letters and to send each ten cents. The cost to them for postage and stationery would amount to $2,798,036, saying nothing of the labor in copying and writing more than 86,000,000 letters. The colored youth would receive about 21,000,000 letters, each containing ten cents, realizing $2,152,336, an amount pleasant enough to receive, and calculated not only to renew the leg, but to turn the head of the colapproved manner, of his newly acquired affluwho could help him to dispose, in the most ored youth, and to surround him with friends ence, though the amount would fall short of the cost of postage and stationery, to say nothing of time and labor and of strained and impaired tempers. The appeal, however, does. 50, and it is kindly and considerately sugnot propose to stop at No. 16, but to go on to gested that whoever receives No. 50 need not extend the effort further, but may return it with one dime to the colored youth. This is a most thoughtful limitation. We need not go beyond fifty! But let us see where we shall be by the time No. 50 is reached. If every man, woman, and child, savage and civilized, should participate in this appeal up to No. 50, it would take the population of 24,000,000,000,000 globes to write the letters, or 358,943,993,845,926,294,385,124 people; as for the colored youth, it is impossible to estimate the number of legs with which he would find himself endowed. We have read in mythology about Briareus, a gentleman with 100 arms; we have read of Argus, who was dowered with the degree of penetration conveyed by 100 eyes; but the wildest imagination of the most soaring poet has never pictured the possessor of as many legs as the colored youth would call his own, supposing the scheme to prosper. To save the colored youth from embarrassment, to save the United States mail from being overburdened, to put an end to the delusion and nuisance, involving the inhabitants of trillions of worlds, every impulse of humanity and of common sense calls upon us to knock the chain-letter system in the head, and return the letter to the illomened source whence it came.-The Examiner.

The Populist Platform

We give below the full Platform adopted by the People's party (commonly called the Populists) at St. Louis last week. The Republican Platform will be found in The Outlook for June 27; the Democratic Platform in The Outlook for July 18:

The People's party, assembled in National Convention, reaffirms its allegiance to the principles declared by the founders of the Republic, and also to the fundamental principles of just government as enunciated in the platform of the party in 1892. We recognize that, through the connivance of the present and preceding administrations, the country has reached a crisis in its national life, as predicted in our declaration four years ago, and that prompt and patriotic action is the supreme duty of the hour.

We realize that while we have political independence, our financial and industrial independence is yet to be attained by restoring to our country the constitutional control and exercise of the functions necessary to a people's Government, which functions have been basely surrendered by our public servants to corporate monopolies. The influence of European money changers has been more potent in shaping legislation than the voice of the American people. Executive power and patronage have been used to corrupt our Legislatures and defeat the will of the people, and plutocracy has thereby been enthroned upon the ruins of democracy. To restore the Government intended by the fathers, and for the welfare and prosperity of this and future generations, we demand the establishment of an economic and financial system which shall make us masters of our own affairs and independent of European control, by the adoption of the following

DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES

1. We demand a National money, safe and sound, issued by the general Government only, without the intervention of banks of issue, to be a full legal tender for all debts, public and private: a just, equitable, and efficient means of distribution direct to the people and through the lawful disbursements of the Government.

2. We demand the free and unrestricted coinage of silver and gold at the present legal ratio of 16 to 1, without waiting for the consent of foreign nations.

3. We demand the volume of circulating medium be speedily increased to an amount sufficient to meet the demands of the business and population and to restore the just level of prices of labor and produc

tion.

4. We denounce the sale of bonds and the increase of the public interest-bearing debt made by the present Administration as unnecessary and without authority of law, and demand that no more bonds be issued except by specific act of Congress.

5. We demand such legislation as will prevent the demonetization of the lawful money of the United States by private contract.

6. We demand that the Government, in payment of its obligations, shall use its option as to the kind of lawful money in which they are to be paid, and we denounce the present and preceding Administrations for surrendering this option to the holders of of Government obligations.

7. We demand a graduated income tax to the end that aggregated wealth shall bear its just proportion of taxation, and we regard the recent decision of the Supreme Court relative to the Income Tax law as a misinterpretation of the Constitution and an invasion of the rightful powers of Congress over the subject of taxation.

8. We demand that postal savings banks be established by the Government for the safe deposit of the savings of the people and to facilitate exchange.

TRANSPORTATION

1. Transportation being a means of exchange and a public necessity, the Government should own and operate the railroads in the interest of the people, and on a non-partisan basis, to the end that all may be accorded the same treatment in transportation, and that the tyranny and political power now exercised by the great railroad corporations which result in the impairment, if not the destruction, of the political rights and personal liberties of the citizen, may be destroyed. Such ownership is to be accomplished gradually in a manner consistent with sound public policy.

2. The interest of the United States in the public highways built with public moneys, and the proceeds of extensive grants of land to the Pacific railroads, should never be alienated, mortgaged, or sold, but guarded and protected for the general welfare as provided by the laws organizing such railroads. The foreclosure of existing liens of the United States on these roads should at once follow default

in the payment thereof by the debtor companies;

and at the foreclosure sales of said roads the Government shall purchase the same if it becomes neces

sary to protect its interests therein, or if they can be purchased at a reasonable price; and the Government shall operate said railroads as public highways

for the benefit of the whole people, and not in the interest of the few, under suitable provisions for protection of life and property, giving to all transportation interests equal privileges and equal rates for fares and freights.

3. We denounce the present infamous schemes for refunding these debts, and demand that the laws now applicable thereto be executed and administered

according to their interest and spirit.

4. The telegraph, like the Post-Office system, being a necessity for the transmission of news, should be owned and operated by the Government in the interest of the people.

LAND.

1. True policy demands that the National and State Legislation shall be such as will ultimately enable every prudent and industrious citizen to secure a home, and therefore the land should not be monopolized for speculative purposes. All lands now held by railroads and other corporations in excess of their actual needs should by lawful means be reclaimed by the Government and held for actual settlers only, and private land monopoly, as well as alien ownership, should be prohibited.

2. We condemn the land grant frauds by which the Pacific Railroad Companies have, through the connivance of the Interior Department, robbed multitudes of actual bona fide settlers of their homes and miners of their claims, and we demand legislation by Corgress which will enforce the exception of mineral land from such grants after as well as before the patent.

3. We demand that bona fide settlers on all public lands be granted free homes, as provided in the National Homestead Law, and that no exception be made in the case of Indian reservations when opened for settlement, and that all lands not now patented come under this demand.

DIRECT LEGISLATION.

We favor a system of direct legislation through the initiative and referendum, under proper constitutional safeguards.

GENERAL PROPOSITIONS.

1. We demand the election of President, VicePresident, and United States Senators by a direct vote of the people.

2. We tender to the patriotic people of Cuba our deepest sympathy in their heroic struggle for political freedom and independence, and we believe the time has come when the United States, the great republic of the world, should recognize that Cuba is and of right ought to be a free and independent

State.

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8. Believing that the elective franchise and an untrammeled ballot are essential to government of, for, and by the people, the People's party condemn the wholesale system of disfranchisement adopted in some of the States as unrepublican and undemocratic, and we declare it to be the duty of the several State Legislatures to take such action as will secure a full, free, and fair ballot and an honest count.

9. While the foregoing propositions constitute the platform upon which our party stands, and for the vindication of which its organization will be maintained, we recognize that the great and pressing issue of the pending campaign upon which the present election will turn is the financial question, and upon this great and specific issue between the parties we cordially invite the aid and co-operation of all organizations and citizens agreeing with us upon this vital question.

Temperance Convention at

Toronto

From a Special Correspondent The Temperance Convention at Toronto in the Dominion Alliance, was undoubtedly the the week ending July 18, under the auspices of most important of the kind ever held in Canada. Nearly 500 delegates were in attendance, and among these were some of the most prominent workers of the Dominion. Good audiences assembled at the day sessions, while in the evening the large auditorium was

crowded to the doors. Earnest addresses were delivered by well-known temperance men, Dougall, editor of the Montreal "Witness," among whom might be named, Mr. J. R. Hon. G. W. Ross, Minister of Education for Ontario, Major Bond, of Montreal, Mr. W. W. Buchanan, editor of "The Templar," Hamilton, Rev. Dr. Mackay, Woodstock, and the Hon. Senators Vidal, of Survia, and Aikens, of Toronto.

One of the most exciting features of the Convention was a warmly fought battle occasioned by reasons somewhat similar to those of the Woolley-Clark controversy of a few months ago. During the recent election two prohibition candidates, Messrs. W. W. Buchanan and F. W. Watkins, unsuccessfully contested the city of Hamilton. The Hon G. W. Ross, Vice-President of the Alliance, spoke in that city in favor of the Liberal candidates, and in consequence was brought to task for violating the principles of the Alliance. In his reply, Mr. Ross contended that the prohibition candidates were met in the field as the representatives of the Alliance, that there was no reasonable hope of their being elected, and that the election of the Liberal candidates was an important matter to the cause of temperance, in view of the fact that their party is pledged through the Premier to legislate in accordance with the expressed will of the people.

Leaving these more personal matters, the Convention turned its attention very definitely to the Province of Ontario. Two years ago the Premier, Sir Oliver Mowat, gave his pledge, that if the electors of Ontario declared in favor of prohibition, and if such legislation were within the Constitutional powers of the Province it would be passed. Since that time Ontario has, by popular vote, most emphatically declared herself in favor of prohibition. The judgment of the Privy Council has also been received, but in connection with this deliverance doubt still exists as to the full jurisdiction of the Provinces. A deputation from the Alliance waited on Premier A. S. Hardy, who has just succeeded Sir Oliver, and were assured that the Provincial Government will further temperance legislation to the full extent of its Constitutional powers. The deputation returned well pleased, and reported to the Convention, through the President, Mayor Fleming, of Toronto, that no straighter declaration had ever been given in Ontario. Certain very stringent resolutions were then passed, which will be strongly urged upon the Local Legislature as amendments to the present license Act. If these restrictions be enacted, and then enforced, liquor-selling will receive a severe check in the Province of Ontario.

But it was upon the traffic in the Dominion that the Alliance turned its heavy artillery, because here there is no question as to the Constitutional powers of the Parliament at Ottawa in the matter of total prohibition. That there is good hope for success on this scene of action is apparent, since the Premier, Hon. Wilfred Laurier, has declared that a plebiscite will be given, and if the verdict be in favor of prohibition such legislation will be passed. With regard to this verdict there is little doubt, from the fact that four Provinces, Manitoba, Ontario, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island, have declared by overwhelming majorities their desire for prohibition, while New Brunswick has done practically the same by the adoption of a memorial from the people by the Legislature. Quebec, British Columbia, and the Northwest Territories have not been heard from, and should their vote be unfavorable to prohibition, which is unlikely, it will be more than counterbalanced by the result in the other Provinces whose desire has been already declared. A deputation was appointed to wait upon the Dominion Government, and, in the event of an early plebiscite, the Executive of the Alliance was empowered to make arrangements for organization, funds, and literature, so that a vigorous and most successful campaign might be waged. "At no previous time in the history of our cause," said the Alliance in one of its official declarations, "was there open before us so clear a way to the attainment of the result which we so earnestly desire-the total prohibition of the liquor traffic." S.

The Spectator

"After all is said it's the same old world, the same old devil, the same old sins, and the same old sinners." Thus the Spectator sat moralizing in his easy chair before his open fire (of that fire more anon), thinking of these closing years of the nineteenth century, and of what has been the century's history of accomplishments-a magnificent history, indeed-yet the Spectator ended with the words recorded. The fact was that the Spectator had just returned from a meeting of physicians and surgeons, and there had heard read what was termed by those of the profession assembled a most brilliant paper. As the Spectator understood but one sentence of the discourse, and that the finale, he accepted the brilliancy on faith. But those few closing words arrested his attention, and stuck in his mind afterwards. "This is the reviewed history of our progress in discovery," the caustic speaker had said, as he gathered his papers together, "a century of brilliant discoveries, and yetJohnny still has the mumps, and Susie the measles, and behold we all die as before."

"Yes," thought the Spectator, sitting before his fire, "the history of centuries, and of nations, and of individual men is all more or less alike-what we were we are to the end of the chapter, as witness here am I on this spring day before my open fire with all my windows lifted. Yes, the follies of our youth are still the temptations of our old age." Now if the Spectator has one weakness which is stronger than another, it is the love of building an open fire in season and out. The passion in him amounts at times to a dissipation, for what the Spectator enjoys most of all is the supreme extravagance of lighting a fire on his hearth when the spring weather is so deliciously mellow as to make it imperative to open all the windows the moment the match is applied. As we all have our pet weaknesses so we all have our pet virtues as an instance, while the Spectator's weakness has ever been this extravagance in the matter of fires, the pet virtue of his maternal ancestor happens to lie in an exactly contrary direction-namely, an economy of kindling wood. The Spectator has seen her go so far as to pick up a splinter from the sidewalk and concealing it in her muff carry it triumphantly home to a little wood-box which sets always on her hearth. Shocking as it may seem, the Spectator is perfectly conscious that his forming the extravagant fire-habit was largely due to pure contrariness. To-day as he idly stretches out his ravishing hand to his own wood-box, and piles his own kindlings high on his own grate (not because he is cold, but merely for the delight of seeing the bright tongues lick the little sticks, and the gray smoke curl and break like puff balls), he is aware of a certain loss of enjoyment, and that loss is due to the fact that no reproachful eyes now watch those depredations, and no horrified voice calls out in dismay at the hole made in the contents of the wood-box. To thoroughly enjoy an open fire the Spectator has now to make a little journey to the old home where, despite the killing of many fatted calves, the well-loved voice never fails to rise in remonstrance when the kindlings are attacked. Undoubtedly half the flavor of an extravagance is lost when no one is shocked by its commission. Little do

the remonstrances of the world know how they add sauce to the meat they would fain prevent our eating!

To quote yet another instance in proof of this, the Spectator thought he loved cucumbers. At home, despite the pleadings of an anxious family, he ate cucumbers in such quantities that his own anxieties were sometimes agitated as to consequences accruing. A brief summer's absence from home showed the Spectator what a contrary thing he was. Cucumbers that season failed to tickle his palate, and it was only when he once more sat at his home table and eat the cool green fruit with the spice of constant remonstrance that the old appetite was aroused, and to his shame he remembered that he gorged himself on the

formerly slighted dish. So much for mind triumphant over matter.

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But the Spectator has wandered from his open fire, and his confessional chair is something of a farce. In truth, we are all prone to wander away, confessing foibles that are not sins whenever the opportunity seems to open for a genuine confession good for the soul of real sins which carry real shame with them. The Spectator sitting before his fire thinking with smiles of his follies regarding extravagances as to kindling and greed as to cucumbers will comfortably chat of these, but will be silent, carefully silent, concerning his other thoughts of real sins, and the familiar temptations he remembers as being his own peculiar property from his cradle, as they will doubtless be to his grave. Sometimes it has almost seemed to the Spectetor, that along with the appointed guardian angel of our childish beliefs there must come as well an attendant familiar in the shape of a besetting sin that literally besets the path through life. The Spectator once knew a young fellow of good family, good position, fair prospects, and the owner of some property, who was in common parlance his own worst enemy. With him the besetting temptation was gambling; little else seemed wrong with him, but that was enough to promise his ruin. One night-it was the night before his marriage-this young fellow took a sudden step, probably premediated by him, but surprising to his companions. As he declared his hand in the final play of a game of chance, he deliberately tore the cards across the middle, with but two words, "That's goodby," and it was what he said. From that day to this he has never held a card, has never trusted himself near a race track, nor allowed the old enemy, whose face he knew, within arm's length of him. What then? Proteus was not confined to one body-and there is nothing more Protean than a besetting sin. Business opportunities laid certain large sums in the hands which had torn the cards across, and business life opened a game of chance on a board that was not recognized by the victim as the old gambling table.

Why go on with a painful story? The same old devil in a new garb found the same sinner weak for the same old sin. The hands were the hands of Esau, but the voice was the voice of Jacob. There is no acquaintance character. Here was a man who honestly which so eludes an intimacy as one's own believed his old sin dead, who had honestly striven hard to kill it, and because he failed to strictly identify this new temptation, sorting it out as his old peculiar weakness and recognizing its disguised features whenever it reappeared, he was vanquished by it in the end.

An old friend of the Spectator's once said to him, "It seems to me strange that people do not find it necessary to be more alone with themselves. I have to set aside certain hours for self-intercourse else I have no chance to know myself or what and who I really am." Here was a safe man and a simple-hearted thinker, but most of us prefer to take a cruder and more of a bird's-eye view of our characteristics or think of them not at all. A comfortable theory, if we do happen to think, is to consider that our frailties are inherited all of them-and that our virtues are our personal acquisition. Our poor ancestors are made veritable scapegoats in this day and generation, but posterity will surely avenge them. Heredity is a theory too manifestly convenient to be dropped. For himself the Spectator is rather tired of hearing the silent dead held accountable for the sins of the living. Let us shoulder our own responsibilities. It is plain that the Spectator did not inherit his extravagance as to fires, nor does he try to deceive himself on that point.

present in one form or another, never more dangerous than when the unwilling owner believes the undying dead. An old and hoary-headed clergyman once confessed to the Spectator that in his youth the habit of swearing had been his greatest weakness. Since then sorrow, suffering, and heavy cares had all passed over that white head, which the Spectator would have reverently called consecrated, yet even here the experience was similar. "To this day," said the old saint, sorrowfully, "when my bureau drawer sticks I have to hold my unruly tongue between my teeth."

As he sat before his open-fire in his easy chair thus brooding on the sins of the world, the Spectator's mail was brought to him, and question: "Do you feel morbid and out of in one of the envelopes he found this printed sorts? Does the world seem out of joint to you? Of course you do, and the man of sense will know he needs a spring restorative tonic, therefore let us send to you a bottle of our own." The Spectator blushed as he raked his luxurious fire apart and drew on his boots preparatory to a long tramp, and a good healthy lung full of Nature's own restorative.

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influential man to prison, as you well know," "It is next to impossible to send a rich and said the anarchistic gentleman to the judge. 'Why don't you make an example of some of them?" "I don't mind telling you in confidence," said the judge, "that is the very thing we are afraid of. If a few society leaders were sent to jail there is great danger that getting into prison would become a fad."Cincinnati Enquirer.

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Correspondence

A Correction

To the Editors of The Outlook:

In The Outlook for June 27, I find an editorial statement that Delaware, in her State Convention, "declared emphatically for free coinage." In order to correct that statement, and for the honor of our little commonwealth, I respectfully submit the enclosed extract which appears daily in one of our Wilmington papers:

The Democracy of Delaware in convention assembled declare again their allegiance to the cardinal doctrines of their political faith, and that therefore we are in favor of maintaining the present monetary standard, and are opposed to the free coinage of silver at any ratio, or to the compulsory purchase of silver bullion by the government.-From the platform adopted by the Democratic State Convention held at Dover on Tuesday, June 16.

Panics and Prices

To the Editors of The Outlook:

My dear Sirs.-In your issue of last week, in an editorial commenting upon the Democratic platform, you seemed to take the position that the demonetization of silver is the true cause of the present demoralization of business and values in this country. Are you not mistaken in this, and do you not agree with almost all the authorities on political economy, that the present stagnation and prostration of business is the natural re-action after the period of expansion and speculation during the years from 1880 to 1892? Was not the panic of 1893 the natural and legitimate result of such over-speculation, and was it in any way different from the panics of 1873, 1857, and 1837?

Is not the silver trouble an incident, rather than a cause, and if a cause of trouble, is it not because the agitation of the question now prevents capitalists and investors from doing business, through fear of the result of the threatened inflation of the currency? A. C. S.

The panics of 1837, 1857, and 1873 followed periods of artificially high prices due to inflated paper currency. The panic of 1893, on the contrary, followed one of slowly falling prices. All bimetallists believe that when capitalists fear inflation of the currency, currency depreciates and prices rise.-THE EDITORS.

A National Bimetallist's View To the Editors of The Outlook:

You express yourself very positively against the "free and unlimited coinage of silver and gold at the old ratio of 16 to 1 without waiting for the aid or consent of any other nation." Will you kindly allow me space for a reply? You say, "It would fasten upon this country for an indefinite period the policy of monometallism-not the monometallism of gold, from which this country is now suffering, but the monometallism of silver, which, save that the silver product is larger than the gold product, would, in our judgment, be even more unscientific and unsatisfactory."

To start with, it cannot be proven that it would "fasten upon this country a policy of silver monometallism." But passing that by, those who favor the free coinage of silver at the old ratio aim to bring down the price of the dollar. Even if America should become silver-monometallic (which we deny) the price of gold would be lowered throughout the world. It would be lowered in terms of commodities, that is, it would take less wheat or cotton to buy an ounce of gold. Great Britain was nominally monometallic, while France was nominally bimetallic, but the price of gold and silver was practically the same in each. After 70,000,000 people change from a gold basis to an optional basis," gold debts will be more easily paid. Gold and silver are to-day 50 per cent. apart. Say that each changes 25 per cent. when we go to a bimetallic or "debtor's option " basis. A debt that to-day calls for 1,000 bushels of wheat will then call for but 667 bushels, even if payable in gold. So far as the relative price of gold and commodities is concerned, it will make no difference at all whether, of two equal nations, one uses only gold and the other uses only silver; or whether both use gold and both use silver.

Continuing, you say, "It would postpone indefinitely the adoption of a genuine bimetallic policy among the great commercial nations." Where are your proofs? Cernuschi, Frewen, Andrews believe just the opposite. I place these opinions over against yours, and throw in, for good measure, the argument above, that when our creditors see our determination to stand for our rights they will put up silver to par with gold. When we begin to esteem the rights of our children and set about paying our debts" according to contract" they will be quick to

help us make silver as dear as gold, that is to arrange for an international agreement.

From a selfish standpoint it would be folly on their part to do anything of the kind while we are foolish enough and wicked enough to our children to keep on paying gold at its present fictitious price.

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Hull, Iowa.

W. H. K.

Economical Ocean Travel To the Editors of The Outlook:

Those readers who are in quest of information about comparatively inexpensive modes of traveling comfortably may be interested to know how comfortable the second cabin, intermediate between the saloon and the steerage, has been made between New York and London. The writer, who has made the passage more than a score of times in the saloon, was induced by the representations of a friend to make the experiment for once of a trip in the second cabin, notwithstanding his inveterate prejudice against it as a place of some privations-a prejudice which the experiment has thoroughly dispelled.

The St. Paul and the St. Louis, of the American Line, have the best accommodations in the second cabin of any ships afloat, which offer equally low rates. It was on the St. Paul that the trial trip referred to was made. Without hesitation it may be said that the second cabin is superior to what the first cabin was on the older ships, such as the Arizona. The superiority of the first cabin is chiefly in ornament and the superfluities of the table, for which, at least, twice the second cabin passage money is paid.

The company in the second cabin is essentially of the same sort of people as in the first, minus wealth and social distinction. College men, ministers, teachers, and a sufficient number of intelligent people for the demands of conversation are there. There is an excellent library and a piano; there is less beds are as comfortable and neat as one could ask, gambling and drinking; the sleeping rooms and and are in a cooler part of the ship than some of the high-priced ones; the promenade, though smaller than that of the saloon passengers, is 125 paces around; the table, though plain, is both abundant and substantial, ice-cream and fruits occasionally appear. Fees to waiters are about half the first cabin rates, as the passage is. A third class railway ticket from Southampton to London is given to each passenger. Nineteen of every twenty in England ride third class.

Forty-five dollars or less purchases a second cabin ticket by the American line, but the lower-priced rooms are not quite so well ventilated. On round trip tickets there is 5 per cent. off. The rates are about the same on other lines, but the accommodations are not quite equal. It short, it may be said that one who is used to traveling in a common car when a parlor car is on the same train need not fear any discomfort in practicing a similar economy at

sea, with the result of saving $45 in a week's voyage. At least he need not hesitate to try it on the St. Louis or St. Paul.

The "Sea Post" on these ships is a recent improvement by which a United States Government clerk sorts the mail in transit, so that it does not have to wait for sorting in the New York office. Through this sea post passengers enjoy the privilege of sending their home letters back under American stamps from British waters with greater expedition W. than through the British Post-office.

Correct English in the Universities To the Editors of The Outlook:

No teacher of English literature can fail to be interested and stimulated by your review of "English in American Universities," and by Professor Tolman's rejoinder in the issue of July 11.

I find myself in entire accord with your idea that the study of English must be "important, serious, arduous." None the less do I agree with Professor Tolman that "classes in literature should consider primarily the interpretation and criticism of literature. . . ." His suggestions as to how to make the work hard at the same time are excellent, as far as they go.

But permit me to suggest another point-the outgrowth of recent experience. Are we not, perhaps, too apt to think the student is not working unless we can weigh and measure the product of his work, and put down the result in a per cent. column? May there not be quite as much real, vital, fruitful work in interpreting the poet's message as in digging out the etymology of his words?

With an average Freshman class the past year, I tried the experiment of spending almost all the time and force upon the work of getting at the message of the writer and entering into his spirit. I had some fears but it might result unfavorably, lest English might come to be considered an easy study. But not only did the class manifest enthusiasm for their work, I had also the best evidence that they did hard work, and I am quite sure they got more

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from the year than they could have done from two or three years' work at various accessories which are no part of literary study.

The question of method is a perplexing one, but I of making the study of literature both "refreshing" believe if we systematically undertake to find a way and "severe," we shall succeed in time.

ELIZABETH H. AVERY. Redfield College, Redfield, S. Dakota.

Troy Industrial Academy To the Editors of The Outlook:

This institution, established at Troy, Ala., for training colored youths, is located one-half mile from the center of the town, on a beautiful farm of twentysix acres, all of which is within the city limits. Troy is easily reached by rail. The Alabama, Midland, and Georgia Central Railroads afford excellent traveling facilities.

The school is in need of buildings for dormitories and class-rooms. The institution has issued its first catalogue and statement, which we send on demand to any address. We are preparing to build a hall for chapel and recitation-rooms, which will cost six thousand dollars; any assistance will be gratefully received.

We gladly accept books, papers, periodicals, and anything that we can make beneficial for the school or people. Correspondence solicted. Address all communications to W. H. GOODE, Principal.

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