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The Home Club

The Homes and the City Franchises Women, as a usual thing, do not pay much attention to the granting of a franchise, or to the forming of trusts, because they too rarely realize how close to the home the privileges of a franchise may come. The housekeepers of Brooklyn have just had a lesson in this respect. Two years ago there existed in Brooklyn seven independent gas companies. Through competition the price of gas went down to ninety cents a thousand. It was possible then, if a housekeeper did not like the quality of the gas delivered, or was dissatisfied with the bills rendered, to change to some other gas company. But now the seven gas companies are incorporated under the title of the Brooklyn Union Gas Company, and gas has risen to $1.25 per thousand, with no possible redress for poor gas or excessive bills. If the housekeeper uses gas in Brooklyn, she must take it from the Union Gas Company. This company represents a capital of $15,000,000. It is a well-known fact that a large part of this capital would come under the head of watered stock, but interest must be paid on $15,000,000 by the consumers of gas in Brooklyn, whether that interest represents invested capital in fact, or whether it represents so much paper. There is talk of an attempt to destroy this monopoly. Probably the sudden rise in the price of gas in Brooklyn will do more to change the sentiment of the people and hasten the day when gas, like water, will be delivered by the city, than any amount of argument or printed matter could have accomplished.

A Bird Day Suggested The Agricultural Department at Washington has issued a circular calling attention to the fact that from all parts of the country reports come of the decreased number of native birds. The causes given are the clearing of the forests, the draining of swamps, and more especially the killing of birds for feathers and for game. The egg-collecting is also held responsible, although there are many who insist that egg-collecting has but very little to do in the decreasing of bird life in our forests. Laws protecting birds have been passed in several of the States, but with the protecting of birds, as with everything else, the law unsupported by public sentiment accomplishes its purpose but feebly. It is believed now that a day set apart in the schools, and known as Bird Day, would increase the knowledge of birds, and for the children to know them better would mean to love them better. The circular says that the general observance of a bird day in our schools would probably do more to open thousands of young minds to the reception of bird lore than anything else that can be devised. In several of the States, at the expense of the State, lists of the birds peculiar to the States, and even to certain localities in the States, have been issued. The knowledge of birds should come to children, not through books, but through observation. They should be taught to observe them, to recognize them, to know something of their habits, and as soon as this is done the life of a bird will become sacred to a child. There has been issued a circular which shows that in some States, through ignorance, large sums have been expended in killing birds that are supposed to be injurious to farmers, and the authorities hoped, by calling special attention to the importance from a commercial point of view of the preservation of bird life, to succeed in arousing a popular interest, that in the near future would result in our forests again reechoing to the songs of the birds as in former years. The proposition is made to combine Bird Day and Arbor Day, and this meets with approval.

Rational Requirements

The Philadelphia Board of Health enforces the act of June 18, 1895, which makes it obligatory for superintendents of Sundayschools, parochial schools, and private schools to exercise the same care in regard to the health of the children as is enforced in the public schools; that is, each pupil must present a

certificate of successful vaccination, or else of having had smallpox. It is surprising that there are clergymen and Sunday-school super Health in this matter. intendents who are opposing the Board of Often, when the question of contagion is discussed, it is spoken of as though indifference to one's neighbor and ignorance of the danger of contagion were peculiar to the class commonly termed poor. Such is not the fact. People of intelligence, fully aware of the danger of their act, will let children attend school who have been exposed to contagion in their own homes. Only recently, when measles was almost epidemic on the entire Atlantic coast among children, a small boy attended one of the most expensive schools in an Eastern city when a

rash was broken out on his face, neck, and hands. His companions of nine and ten years of age commented on his appearance to him measles broke out in that class-room within and to each other. Twenty-three cases of

the next two weeks. The little seed-sower of this epidemic almost died, his exposure at the time bringing about complications that were most serious.

Diphtheria, that dread of every mother, swept over a school, leaving after it empty homes and almost broken hearts. This was a

private school, whose circular stated that the number of pupils was limited. The price of tuition was very high, and the school considered very select. Presumably the parents of all the children sent to this school were intelligent people, and yet one mother permitted her child to attend school regularly from a house where there were two cases of diphtheria, a fact not known to the community until the white ribbons were hung on the bell of that house. Terror seized the heart of every mother who had a child in that school, but it was too late, and every day one child and another dropped out of the ranks of that little school, and from twelve pupils eleven fell

victims to the disease and six died. Character is the protection of the community. Intelligence, or law itself, protects fully only when enforced by character, and that, fortunately, is not a question of income.

The church should stand for the highest in every community. If the church tries to evade the law, if it does not uphold it, it ranks as an evil with the saloon in just so far as it fails to live up to the law.

Eternal Vigilance the Price of Safety The necessity of housekeepers exercising the greatest care as to the source of their milk supply is becoming more and more evident. In New York City there are thousands of cows stabled, whose milk is distributed

through the city. The inspectors have discovered that these cows are not housed or cared for in obedience to the laws of sanitation-or, to use a more homely word, in obedience to the laws of cleanliness; for sanitation is cleanliness as every housekeeper should know it. Nothing will protect the people from unclean and diseased milk but their own intelligence and care. After the milk enters the house the most constant oversight will not make it clean if it has not been properly protected in transit, or if it is not the product of a healthy cow. The consumer must be educated to high standards in order to compel the producer to protect his product and sell only that which is uncontaminated. Legislation can do much, but legislation will not be enforced unless public sentiment demands it.

For the Public Good

An effort is being made to publish the old Dutch Records of New York. The Board of City Records some time ago agreed that these old annals should be translated and published in a series of seven volumes. They limited the number of sets to three hundred. James Grant Wilson, of the American Authors' Guild, was President of the committee appointed by the Mayor to supervise the translation and the publishing of these records. has been discovered, just at the point where the Board of Records was giving the contract

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for printing, that the Board had acted without authority, and that the work could be done only with the permission of the Board of Aldermen. It is to be hoped that some agreement will be reached by which these valuable records can be placed on the shelves of the libraries for the use of the people. It done now, when the interest in colonial history is especially advisable that this should be is so active and is being so widely encouraged by patriotic societies and school-teachers.

School-Room Hygiene

The National Council of Education which

convened recently in Buffalo brought together the leading educators of the country. One of the most interesting papers presented was the report by William A. Mowry, of Hyde Park, Mass., Chairman of the Committee on School Sanitation. The title of the report was "School-room Hygiene." This report was based on papers received from teachers all over the country who had made a special study of the hygienic conditions of their own school-rooms. The report stated:

Throughout the whole country the deplorable hygienic state of the school-houses is such as to demand serious attention and prompt relief. Some years ago, in one large Eastern city having more than 1,200 school-rooms, it was found that the average of all the rooms gave less than seven square feet of floor-space and less than ninety cubic feet of air-space to each pupil, while it is now generally agreed that the necessary floor-space for each pupil in a school-room should not be less than twenty-five square feet, and with the best ventilating appliances every school-room should furnish three hundred cubic feet of air-space per pupil.

Severe charges are also frequently made by oculists against the schools. They assert that studying injures the eyes, and that the school-room is respon

sible for numerous cases of defective eyesight. The evils complained of are chiefly the result of wrongly

constructed school-houses.

The Council listened to a paper by Dr. Aaron Cove, of Denver, Chairman of the Committee on City School Systems, on "The Business Side of City School Systems."

Untrammeled Experts

It is interesting, in connection with the recent discussion of the value of expert opinion when the question of art for the public was being decided, to know that at a meeting of

the Board of Trustees to decide on the decoration of the new library building at Peoria, Ill., one of the trustees, a physician, said, in response to the suggestion that a detailed scheme should be required of the artists before the question was decided: "When you call me in to attend a patient, you do not make me analyze my course of treatment and tell you my reasons for prescribing certain drugs; and when you call in an artist, you should not exasperate him with questions, but give him the benefit of the same confidence." The logic of this declaration prevailed, and the artists, once chosen, were allowed to follow out the bent of their genius and training. The result, accordaction pursued, for it is said that the library ing to report, fully justifies the course of decorations are in perfect harmony with the purposes of the building, making it one of the most restful of rooms.

The Evils of Coffee-Drinking The leading medical societies of Paris and Germany have published a protest against the evils of excessive coffee-drinking. These evils, they declare, are almost as serious as those of alcoholism, and the victim of excessive coffeedrinking finds the habit as hard to overcome as does the victim of alcohol. The circular protests against the use of coffee by growing children, which it claims is becoming more common every year. The symptoms of coffee poisoning are insomnia, depression of spirits, lack of appetite, and nausea.

Unity

The Daughters of the Revolution of New York have agreed on a new Constitution which unites the chapters. This settles the disputed questions that gave rise to so much trouble in the spring. The Long Island Branch of the society is recognized now as a separate chapter.

The Rose's Wonder-Book By Edward A. U. Valentine If I only had the eyes

Of the winged butterflies,

I could read the words of wit
That upon the rose are writ!
How my curious spirit grieves
O'er those flut'ring fifty leaves
Nature has so nicely bound,
When the insects hover round
And within its pages peep!
Surely, its red leaflets keep
Wondrous tales and elfin lore,
Over which they love to pore!
There, I fancy, honey-bees
Learn the verses and the glees
They are all so fond of humming
In their going and their coming!

Polly Popcorn

By Jessie F. O'Donnell

For the Little People

The Popcorn farm-house was delightfully situated in a grove, where great spreading leaves waved over it, sheltering it from storms and sun.

Popcorns were so numerous that it

afforded cramped quarters.

They were a branch of the Maize family, widespread through our dear America-a powerful and bounteous family, possessing broad acres of rich land, and pouring wealth lavishly into the coffers of the Nation.

Phoebe Popcorn was one of the Maizes, but now mistress of a household of her own, comprising Papa Phineas Popcorn, portly and dignified, as became the father of so promising a family; Aunts Patience and Prudence, dear old-fashioned souls! and a troop of little Popcorns-Peleg, with his smooth, broad head,

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like a philosopher's!" said Papa Phineas, and his nose "like a pug puppy's!" said mischievous little Pat, who was too full of pranks and possibilities ever to be taken for a philosopher; and solemn Peter, so puffed up with the consciousness of his superiority to the rest of the Popcorns, his head could scarce hold its own wisdom.

Then there were the Popcorn girls: stately Penelope, and pretty Pauline, and precise, housewifely Priscilla, whom they called "Miss Prim;" plain little Polly, her brain full of impossible dreams; and Baby Primrose, the pet and posy of the Popcorns!

They looked exactly alike in their plain yellow garments, but even a Popcorn has an individuality; and so it was that Polly, although she came of a practical and hard-headed stock, was a poet and prophet, dimly conscious of a power in her soul that promised something better and broader than this cramped life in the thatched homestead.

"I don't believe we are to stay packed away here forever!" Polly confided to Penelope, who shook her head as she answered:

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For those that wander they know not where Are full of trouble and full of care:

To stay at home is best.

But Polly went on dreaming her strange, beautiful dreams, in spite of ridicule and disapproval. Poets and prophets are rarely appreciated by people like the Popcorns, yet perhaps their pretty fancies are as true as the facts of the most practical philosopher.

Certain it is, in this particular case the little poet was right, for the Popcorn family had been bound in a strong enchantment by a powerful fairy called Dame Nature, and were not those prosaic, yellow-robed creatures at all, but beautiful white princes and princesses in disguise. The Popcorns did not know it. Ah, no! like many people in this world, they didn't dream they were enchanted, and possibly would never learn it, unless revealed by some greater power. Thus Dame Nature held the Popcorns in their commonplace disguise, till they should meet the Heat Fairies who alone could set them free.

Through the beautiful summer the Popcorns stored away starch, sugar, and oil in plenty. Autumn came; the waving green forests grew brown and withered, rustling drearily in the wind which crept under the eaves of the farm house, till the brothers and sisters snuggled closer together for warmth. One day, the farmer, gathering up all the Popcorn homesteads, carried them away to hang on rafters in a great barn for long weeks. Papa Phineas's family grew harder and drier than ever, and even hopeful Polly could scarcely preserve her precious faith in the place where dreams

come true.

After many days, the little homestead was taken to a room where children played round a fire in an open grate, and eagerly watched the Popcorns as they were taken from the farm-house and thrown into a spacious wire apartment, where they rattled against each other in profound amazement.

Then some one took this queer new house and thrust it directly over those glowing coals. The pleasant warmth permeated the Popcorns through and through, and, presto! change! What wonderful thing was happening?

Papa Phineas was performing a polka; "Miss Prim," heretofore the model of propriety, hopping about in a marvelous white gown, with so many stiff skirts she looked like a balloon; Peleg, the ponderous philosopher, was light-headed as a poet; the twins were parading ruffled pea-jackets and puffed trousers; Aunt Patience wore a superb cap, with the daintiest of fluted ruffles; and placid Aunt Patience had flounces galore.

Polly could hardly persuade herself that she was awake, for poets are often as surprised as any one at the realization of their dreams; and it was bewildering, indeed. to see the Popcorn family skipping and leaping around each other, amid the clapping of fairy palms, for the little Heat Fairies were as delighted at the change they had wrought as any of the Pop

corns.

It was the strangest, prettiest sight in the world-like the blossoming of white roses, or the bursting of snowy foam into bubbles and spray; like the flowering of some graceful fancy in a poet's brain; like white butterflies springing from worn-out chrysalides.

Polly rubbed her puzzled eyes as she saw Penelope holding up an embroidered petticoat and listening graciously to-was it the prince, of whom her sister dreamed? Or was it only one of those poky Popcorn cousins, whose advances Penelope had always pretended to despise? How different he looked with those nodding plumes! and Penelope appeared pleased and content.

Funny little Pat was prancing about with Primrose in his arms; while solemn Peter was turning himself inside out in his delight, and executing a double somersault in the air; and even Mamma Phoebe was frolicking with the Popcorn uncles and aunts and cousins, till Polly's head whirled.

How was it with herself? Polly looked at her unchanged dress with a thrill of dismay;

but just then she felt a sudden sharp pain, which set her trembling like a poplar-leaf, and, lo Polly Popcorn was no longer an insignificant little person, but a beautiful maiden in a spotless, fluffy gown, with just a hint of the detested yellow garb in the golden slippers on her pretty feet, soon twinkling in and out to the tune of "Pop! goes the weasel!" as merrily as if she had never been pinched into a corner in the old farm-house. One of the Heat Fairies had touched her with his flametipped wand, and in an instant her dreams had come true!

Stories of Pigeons

The story is told of a flock of pigeons that outwitted a hawk. Hawks can fly high with less effort than the pigeons, and they both know it. This flock of pigeons were terribly frightened one day by the appearance of a hawk between them and the cote. If the hawk flew higher than the pigeons, he would swoop down and catch at least one of them. The pigeons worked hard to keep above the hawk; he lazily rose in the air, keeping just under them. Suddenly the pigeons closed their wings and literally fell below the hawk, falling so rapidly as to astonish the hawk. Before he recovered, the pigeons were safely housed in the cote, in the well-house, and two were in the kitchen. The other day-it was Sunday-a man came out of a stable with a bag in his hand. He came out into the middle of the street, and, looking up, gave a peculiar call. There was nothing in sight. He called again and again. Suddenly a beautiful gray pigeon dropped at his feet. In a moment another seemingly fell. In a few minutes about one hundred pigeons were on the street, all fluttering and crooning and bobbing about, a mass of beautiful grays, with touches of silver and green and gold and red, as the setting sun touched them. They almost touched the man, he was so close to them. He opened the bag and threw out cracked corn, and soon the flock were busily eating. They rose in a body, circled round and round, and then began lighting on the roof of the house and stable. Above the stable was a large cote, that had room for about fifty pigeons.

The Elephant's Change of Temper Do you suppose that when an elephant has a toothache the ache is in proportion to his size? If so, it must be terrible for an elephant to have the toothache. A dentist tells this story of an elephant that belonged to a circus. He was very good-natured, but one day when his keeper went near him he made a vicious switch at him with his trunk. The keeper knew the elephant so well that he said at once the elephant was sick; something was the matter with him. He sat at a safe distance from the elephant and watched him. The elephant trumpeted loudly and acted as though he was very angry, but no one could decide what was the cause of the change in this good elephant's disposition. This continued for three days. At the end of that time one of the men said, "Why, when Jack (that was the elephant's name) lies down, he keeps rubbing one side of his head; I think he has got the toothache;" and everybody immediately said, Yes, that's what's the matter." The elephant was chained safely to posts and iron rings, so that he could not move, and the dentist was sent for. The dentist looked in his mouth and saw that one tooth was badly decayed. He touched it, and the elephant trumpeted as though in great pain; then the dentist went to work and filled the tooth. After a time the elephant seemed to understand that the dentist was trying to do something for his pain, and he gave every evidence of appreciating the attention. Some weeks later the dentist visited the winter quarters of the elephant and the elephant recognized him. It was rather an expensive operation, for it cost one hundred dollars to fill that one tooth. Doubtless, then, the elephant's toothache is a larger ache than either you or I ever know when our teeth ache.

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The Spectator

Among quiet people of only ordinary means hospitality has its penalties, and under most conditions it is something of a trial to both of the parties to it. The Spectator has long been of the conviction that those not in the habit of being entertained had as well not be invited out, and that those not in the habit of entertaining had much better not make exceptions to the general rule of their lives. For these convictions he has good reasons founded on personal experience, strengthened by the confessions of many others who have been bored as the Spectator has been bored. When the unaccustomed grand dinner or ball must be attended, the whole course of the family life of the quiet man is disarranged, and he says fifty times to himself on the momentous day, "I wish this abominable thing were over." Now, this is not a very festive mood of preparation for the entertainment that is provided; the consequence is inevitable. He is not entertained, he contributes nothing to the enjoyment of others. Of course he keeps all this to himself, and his women folk are left ignorant of the suffering he tries to conceal. But they see that something is the matter, and they contrast the head of their house unfavorably with the men who are more at ease on such occasions, with men who are trained by long experience to know what to do and what to say at such solemn functions. For the head of a family to be thus depreciated in the opinion of his own nearest and dearest is a loss very hard to make up, and one that the Spectator cannot contemplate unmoved. The going out unaccustomed places works its active hardship most upon the man; but when the unaccustomed entertainment is given, then the women are apt to get a dreadful amount of punishment. Something is sure to go wrong. The ducks will be tough beyond experience; the salt will get into the ice-cream; the champagne will be put on the hearth to warm, and the claret will be placed in the ice-buckets. These things are sure to happen. The guests will notice them and be uncomfortable for fear that the hosts are suffering; and the hosts-well, the hosts will wish that it was all well over with. And when it is over, what will happen? Mrs. Host will be sure to have a good cry, and waken in the morning with a headache that gives promise never to get any better. So the Spectator is convinced that real kindness would permit the quiet people to stay quietly at home, and that real wisdom would prevent such quiet people from turning their home upside down and spending more money than they can afford in order to make both themselves and their friends uncomfortable.

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The Spectator has said what he has with much hesitation, and he does not mean to go around, as some writers have been known to do, and ask his friends if they have read his piece in The Outlook on mistaken hospitality. No, the Spectator will "lay very low" about this, because he knows, just as well as he knows that he is a sinful man, that he will-if his life be spared a few years longer-have to go to many places of entertainment which will afford him no more enjoyment than two or three hours in a dentist's chair. Indeed, he would not say what he does if he did not hope that some one else would take up the matter in the same view, and, expressing these ideas in better and more popular fashion, work a reform which might result in the Spectator's exclusion from the twelve-course dinner and the post-midnight ball. And yet, when he thinks of it, the Spectator would not be left out. To be left out entirely would indicate that the Spectator is a surly fellow and only fit for social Coventry. No, he does not wish to be left out; he only desires that within his little and usually happy circle such things may not be. Then there would be no question of inclusion or exclusion, and all of such could take their slippered ease without the dread of those other times when a man, with the feelings of a trooper or the thoughts of a monk, would have to tie up his neck in stiff white linen and imitate the manners

and the sentiments of a waiting gentle

woman.

But balls and dinners are not the only forms of mistaken hospitality. There is such a thing as house company-house company which suffers and makes to suffer. The Spectator, in what he is saying and what he has said, makes no allusion to those who have ample places and generous means. To them hospitality is a matter of course, as much a matter of course as the comfortable balance in the bank. The Spectator alludes only to those quiet people who live in small houses which are not larger than the regular occupants need for their comfortable and decent lodgment. Why such persons should stuff their houses with visitors passes the Spectator's comprehension.

Notes and Queries

I am just entering the pastorate of a Congregational church in a town of some 3,000, where probably onethird of the inhabitants do not go to church. Our church during the last two years has been through very trying experiences and has had no settled pastorate. Can you advise me as to methods of work, etc.? As far as I have read, I am a strong believer in Christian evolution. Am inclined to the taking up of the social questions of the day, believing that they are vital questions for Christian churches to consider and deal with. What commentaries would you recommend me to procure on " Acts" and "Romans " dealing with the practical life of to-day?

M.

Lacking definite information, we can only in a general way respond to your request for advice. Draw around you the most faithful and active of the church, avoiding all semblance of personal partiality. Through these as a nucleus endeavor to

quicken all with the spirit of Christian service. To

draw in the unchurched, the "Men's Sunday Evening Club," presenting a varied programme for the second service, the core of which is a short but earnest address on some vital subject, has proved very effective. Probably Dr. Abbott's commentaries come nearest to what you inquire for. We suggest that you read Dr. Gladden's “Ruling Ideas of the Present Age."

Who enjoys it? The guests certainly don't, for they are placed in narrower quarters than at home; the hosts don't like it, for they are frequently all but crowded out of house and home; the servants like it least of all, for their work is doubled and trebled, and their wages only increased by inadequate tips which insult rather than compensate. When such a visit is over, the hosts are apt to say, "Well, thank goodness! that is over," and the guests when they get home will congratulate themselves, and possibly remark with sighs of satisfaction, "Ah, bless us! are we not glad indeed to be at home again!" Writing these things down, they look cynical. And yet the Spectator is not a cynical man. trary, he loves his kind as much as the next one. Upon this occasion, however, he speaks beginning" How did my heart rejoice to hear.” plainly, because he feels deeply. A man with five thousand dollars a year cannot be expected to do the things that a man with ten times that income would do without a second

"Till I fancy but thinly the veil intervenes

Between the fair city and me,"

closes the second verse of Mrs. Ellen H. Gates's pel Hymns Complete, "I will sing you a song of that hymn, No. 20, Gospel Hymns No. 1, or No. 15 Gosbeautiful land."

On the con

thought. Then why should Mr. Rusticus in
his cottage, or Mr. Suburban in his Queen
Anne villa, be expected to fill up his few little
rooms in imitation of Mr. Midas, who has half
a dozen houses of fifty rooms each, and ser-
vants so numerous that they can hardly keep
out of each other's way? If he happen to be
in himself a pleasant fellow, it is Mr. Midas's
bounden duty to be hospitable to the utmost;
but the others, unless they have gifts approach-
ing genius, should entertain as little as possi-
ble, and then on the smallest possible scale.
This suggestion is made out of kindness to
all concerned, for the visited suffer no more
in such times than the visitors; both are

thoroughly uncomfortable, and both are heart-
ily glad when the encounter at close quarters
is finished.

The Spectator has known persons so ill-
advised in their hospitality that they have in-
vited guests to stay with them even though
they live in flat or apartment houses. Few
flats that are constructed are large enough to
accommodate more than two persons; and
then the relations of these persons should be
most intimate and confidential—such, for in-
stance, as husband and wife. Flats are so
small that the amount of individual privacy to
be enjoyed in them is most inconsiderable.
Even the privilege to sigh, to sneeze, or to
snore must be shared with the other occu-
pants. Under such circumstances, what could
be more uncomfortable than to be in a flat
with visitors-visitors with whom a degree of
formality needs to be preserved? The Spec-
tator knows whereof he speaks, as he has in
such circumstances been both the visited and

the visitor. Emerson in one of his essays
gives this counsel: "Lovers, preserve your
strangeness." That advice might be given to
friends quite as well. An intimacy which has
no reserve is sure to end in disenchantment, if
not in estrangement and active hostility. An
intimacy accompanied by great discomfort is
sure to end that way. So this is why the
Spectator, from a full and a sad experience,
has written in this way and counseled against
ill-considered and mistaken forms of hospital-
ity. Cherish the kindly feeling with all your
heart, do the good and the generous deed
with an open hand, but do not make both
deed and feeling costly alike to him who gives
and him who receives.

Kindly quote the first line of the hymn on the topicThe Church," containing

"There my best friends, my kindred dwell, There God my Saviour reigns."

W. R. B. It is in one of Watts's versions of the 122d Psalm,

Can you give me the remainder of the familiar
quotation commencing "I'd rather be a toad and
live upon the vapor of a dungeon-"? Also, can
you tell me who is the author of these lines?
B. J.

The remainder is :
"Than keep a corner in the thing I love
For others' uses."

-Shakespeare's Othello, Act III., Sc. 3.
Please it form me where I can get the poems
written by Eugene Field. Some of them have been
published of late in "McClure's Magazine."
B. D.
Collections of Mr. Field's poems are published by
Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.

Will you kindly inquire for us through the columns of your paper whether any art school in our country or elsewhere has among its students a Christian organization or any united effort on a Christian or philanthropic basis? At present we know only of an art students' church in Paris, which has given pleasure to American students abroad. In one art school in Ohio a short weekly prayermeeting found favor with many of the students. During the past winter several students have taken classes in a mission Sunday-school, and now a plan is made to work through the churches. We very much desire to have Christian fellowship with other art schools such as exists between colleges, in order that our own work may be encouraged and strengthened. Any one who can inform us concerning anything that is done elsewhere will do us a great favor. ART STUDENTS.

Can any of the older readers of The Outlook furnish me with a sonnet called " April," published at least twenty years ago in the " Atlantic Monthly "? It began:

No days such honored days as these,
When first fair Aphrodite reigned."

I had supposed it was by Helen Hunt Jackson, but
I am not able to find it.
E. H. K.

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Any church desiring to dispose of about fifty copies of "The Church Hymn-Book," compiled by Edwin F. Hatfield, 1872, or twenty-five copies of "Gospel Hymns Consolidated," in fair condition, will please correspond with

REV. CHAS. N. GLEASON.

Edgartown, Mass.
To whom does T. B. Aldrich refer in the words,
"There's one, a later-laureled brow,

With purple blood of poets in his veins,"
etc., in No. XXV. of his "Later Lyrics," entitled
"When from the tense chords of that mighty lyre"?
J. J. W.

Can some one please inform me the name and address of the proper person to correspond with to know definitely about The Society of Mayflower Descendants," and to whom to apply for membership? F. R.

Correspondence

What Converted Me to Silver Coinage To the Editors of The Outlook:

Up to a few years ago I had given little attention to the currency question. So far as I considered it at all, it seemed conclusive that one standard was all there could legitimately be, one final money article into which all currency, and thus all financial transactions, must be convertible. How simple most of the public questions seem when regarded superficially!

When the political prominence of the currency question became accentuated by the panic, the withdrawal of gold, the loss of business, and the idleness of men with families to support, I began to read and think. I was a gold-standard man, and was prejudiced by the fact of silver advocacy coming almost wholly from the small, silver-producing States. This looked like protection in the manufacturing Statesself-interest carried into public affairs. I first read President Andrews's "Honest Dollar."

saw

clearly enough that contracting the standard money meant a corresponding reduction in prices. General Walker and other authorities confirmed my own opinion that the quantity of standard money had a direct and marked effect on prices. On a steadily declining market men will hold back from investing and buying; they will buy as little as possible; the enterprising men will suffer, failures will be more frequent, debts will be harder to pay. Industries are chiefly carried on by energetic, sanguine men who use borrowed capital and credit to the fullest extent. A regular decline in their merchandise in hand adds greatly to their chances of failure. The disinclination to invest tends strongly to repress industry, the failure of employers dislocates employment. Thus it was apparent that appreciation of the standard money and depreciation of prices tended to depress industry, precipitate panics, and throw industrious men into unsteady employment or enforced idleness. The rate of wages is a small matter compared with the steadiness of work. The personal demoralization of workers and workers' families is greatly increased by lack of work and broken income.

Next my attention was directed to Mexico, where my own business connections gave me some personal knowledge. In the twenty years of our gold standard we had been beset with panic and depression. Almost half of that period has been "dull times," and three distinct financial panics had turned business men gray, and had converted numberless wageearners into vagrants and tramps. Starting from a revolutionary collection of States, with almost no industries, and with an ignorant population, Mexico had progressed and prospered in a phenomenal way. My own business with Mexican merchants, manufacturers, and miners had steadily grown. Scarcely ever a failure occurred, and frequent interviews with Mexican customers brought the information that wages had advanced, that business and employment was steady, and capital abundant. Foreign investments flowed in freely.

All this while Mexico had free coinage of gold and silver, and, consequently, a silver currency which was steadily depreciating in comparison with foreign currency and gold. But prices did not depreciate. A house or a machine or a horse or wheat was worth as much this year as last, and would be worth as much next year, barring minor fluctuations. Fears of a decline retarded no one, the actual decline bankrupted no one. Men had regular work. Imported goods were converted from the foreign invoices to the local currency, sold and paid for accordingly, without other difficulty than we find in pounds sterling or francs or marks into dollars.

International exchange is exchange, and a bushel of wheat or an ox's hide will bring a yard of woolen, a cwt. of tin, just the same whether a pound sterling stands for five American dollars or nine Mexican dollars. It will take no more work to produce the wheat or the hide, whether it is rated at two shillings or at four. Ithus found that no disadvantage had accrued to Mexico by reason of her free coinage and silver standard, but manifest advantage. Our own conditions are not identical with those of Mexico, but the unfavorable influences of a coin contraction and lowered prices are intensified by our greater dependence upon trade and credit. As we have suffered vastly more than Mexico, as we are better situated to stand on our own feet, I reached the conclusion that free coinage had no terrors in store for us, but, on the contrary, would immediately restore prosperity, and thus I became a free-coinage man at the old ratio independent of other nations. By your leave I shall later say a word about the so-called 50-cent dollar and repudiation.

N. O. NELSON.

and stimulus to all readers. Brooklyn is behind many other cities in some respects. It is badly lighted. It is not as well paved as it ought to be, though during the past year so many improvements have been made that this reproach will soon be but a matter of history. Brooklyn has not many art treasures, no good book-store, only a few monuments, and it is lacking in trees. But it has a splendid park, is crowded with fine churches, and has one of the best libraries in the country. Besides, "the Brooklyn Institute" is already becoming worldfamous. There is one aspect of the higher life of Brooklyn which is not receiving the praise it deserves. In one respect she can hold herself head and shoulders above other cities, and that is because of the concerts which are held every summer at Brighton Beach. These concerts owe their existence to the self-sacrificing efforts of a few noble and clever Brooklyn women who have formed themselves into a society for the cultivation of musical taste among the masses. For eight years they have worked and striven, in the face of discouragement and sometimes almost overwhelming odds, to not only exalt the musical taste of the public, but to furnish to that public the best music obtainable in the country, at a cost within the reach of the humblest lover of music. As I am not a member of this society, nor acquainted with its president or officers, I can say all this without suspicion of flattery, or in any way as an advertisement. It is a simple act of justice. The public is far too insensitive to its benefactors. It often takes as a matter of course opportunities, advantages, which it would not have were it not for the self-sacrifice of some people whose sole motive is the public good. Here we have the opportunity of hearing the finest music in the world, rendered by one of the best orchestras in the country, conducted by one of the greatest conductors the world has ever seen, a man famous on two continents. What do we pay for these concerts? Twenty cents apiece, occasionally forty cents! I can buy as many tickets for the whole season as I have time to use, and they will cost me no more than the price charged for one seat in the Opera-House during the winter. It seems to me that when the Music Hall at Brighton is not well filled, it shows a singular disregard of great opportunities for culture, for recreation, for refreshment of the spirit, for the uplifting of the soul. The Evening Telegram" had the other evening an article on the Music Cure." It spoke of how music soothes tired nerves, and gives rest and relaxation to worn-out hearts, acting as medicine in many cases of troublesome disease. When I read this article, I thought of these Seidl concerts this summer. The great difference between this "Seidl Society' and I many others is that its object is not self-interest, it is pure benevolence. It is plain that such music cannot be furnished at such a price without some people putting their hands in their pockets and giving largely. Is this not as good as endowing a library, giving to a college, as good as many of the charities which win applause from every one? I have often thought that if some rich men would endow the Metropolitan Opera-House in New York, and make it possible for these great singers and musical artists to be heard by the great mass of music-lovers, of hungry, thirsty, aspiring men and women, who now cannot afford even a glimpse of the inside of the Opera-House, or one strain of glorious song to gladden and refresh them, it would be as noble an act as the founding of the Astor Library, or the building of the Chicago University, or President Low's gift to Columbia. For it cannot be denied that music has an indispensable place in the culture of the community. Even if it did not minister to the culture of the mind, the higher development of the whole nature, it would have its glory in that it is a recreation, a solace amid the whirl and stress of daily life. The people cannot do without it. If the higher forms of it are denied them, they will seek it in places which are a disgrace and a blot on our civilization. It is not alone for the people of Brooklyn that these noble women of Brooklyn are working. They are of help to the development of the higher life of New Yorkers as well. Of course it takes longer for people in New York to reach Brighton than for people in Brooklyn. But the concerts are worth the journey. Indeed, the whole community cannot be too grateful to Mrs. Langford and the other women who are doing so much for the cultivation of taste for the higher forms of musical art. KENYON WEST.

66

Non-Resistance

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To the Editors of The Outlook: Will The Outlook please explain the difference between non-resistance in extreme cases and selfishness?

It is so easy to let things go as they are and to feel that we need not interfere in other people's affairs,

One Phase of the Higher Life of Brooklyn that the doctrine of non-resistance as explained by

To the Editors of The Outlook:

The articles in The Outlook upon the higher life of different cities have been a means of instruction

Tolstoï seems to me a very dangerous one.

Already, not only Congressmen, but some Church members, are saying that the missionaries in Arme

nia ought to come home, that they really have no right to be there if the Turks do not want them.

Must we believe that England and Russia did right in not resisting Turkish wickedness by force if need be? To some of us it has looked like selfishness, but is it to be counted to them for righteousness? Must my sympathy, my love for my neighbor, be wholly for the Turk, and not for the Armenian, especially the Armenian woman? Is it, after all, through love for the Turk that Christendom has used only mild persuasion?

How is it possible to love one's neighbor as one's self, and not defend her when she is in danger, whether it be from a wild beast or a devil in human form?

Are we to suppose that if the good Samaritan had arrived a few minutes earlier he would have stood by until the thieves had pounded the man into a state of unconsciousness, and then have come forward and offered his services?

And, taking the other side, would not the greatest love of the robber try to prevent his committing a crime, using force if necessary?

It is better for a robber to be killed than that he should commit a crime.

Christ teaches resistance in time of danger in Matt. xii., 29.

The extreme doctrine of non-resistance seems to me pernicious. Christianity is positive, not negative. The slaves would be slaves still but for the Union Army. Christ cast out devils. We have not that power, but we can restrain them. A man who does not believe in government ought to live where there is none, or he is not true to his convictions. G. W. S.

Regents' Examinations

To the Editors of The Outlook: Now that the final examinations in the public schools of New York State are over for the year, and those of our Seniors of the High Schools who "passed the Regents" have received their diplomas of graduation and have gone forth to prepare for more advanced education, or have entered the career of business life-to them I send this first appeal, trusting that by and through them the Faculties of our High Schools may be influenced; that they may arouse our Boards of Education throughout the State, and through that power that the Board of Regents may awaken to the great importance of a decided change in their examination papers.

Every year come the reports of mental and physi. cal "breakdowns" caused by over-exertion and strain of study to pass "the Regents." While the general plan of examinations may be beyond criticism, a proper change in details would prevent the constantly recurring cases of positive injustice to individual students.

I would suggest a uniformity in the text-books used, or the preparation of several sets of examination papers, so that each school may have papers whose questions apply directly to the books that have been there studied. I have known of cases where Regents' papers have contained questions that could not be answered by any information contained between the covers of the text-book on the subject that has been used by a particular school, although the book had been carefully selected, and ranked among the best to be obtained.

I would suggest a system of substitute papers, so that a student who, for any reason, is unable to take the examination with his class may have an opportunity for a private examination at another time. A case occurred recently in one of our largest schools where a student who was prepared to take them found that Regents' examinations upon three of his subjects were set down for the same date. An appeal was made to the Board of Regents to secure change of date or permission for a private examination. This not being granted, the student was obliged to omit the subject, solely on account of lack of time for taking it.

We frequently have cases where students who are fully prepared for the work fail to secure their diplomas because of illness at examination time.

I would suggest that all papers securing a mark of seventy or more from the local teacher should be forwarded to the "Regents" for revision, so securing a thoroughly impartial marking. Upon a close paper it is often next to impossible for a teacher to avoid being somewhat influenced by personal prejudice, or by the previous work which the student has done in the class-room.

I have known a case of this kind where a teacher had marked a paper below a pass-thrown it out as beyond question a failure. An appeal was made, and, against strong opposition by the teacher, the paper was forwarded to Albany, and the pupil promptly and unhesitatingly given a pass."

A high standard for examinations is what makes the diplomas of value, and while I would not reduce the standard, I would plead for more equal and exact justice to individual students and individual schools. What can be done about it? ITHACA.

FOR

[PUBLISHER'S DEPARTMENT]

THE WESTERN COLLEGE AND SEMINARY

ORTY years ago, at Oxford, Ohio, two young women were graduating from a new institution which was destined to become an important factor of educational life in the Central West. Mount Holyoke Seminary, at South Hadley, Massachusetts, was then laying the foundations for the present system of women's colleges in America. The associates and friends of Mary Lyon, who were familiar with the Mount Holyoke system, as it had been applied with such happy results in the East, were desi ous of seeing the same system introduced under favorable auspices in the great States west of the Alleghanies. Of this Seminary Miss Helen Peabody was a graduate, and for a time had been a member of its Faculty. When, therefore, the Western Female Seminary received its charter, in the year 1853, and a little later called Miss Peabody to inaugurate the Mount Holyoke system at Oxford, it was as a daughter of Mount Holyoke that the school began its work. No. better selection could have been made for the responsible duties that awaited her. The school to-day is a living monument to the long, faithful, and capable service of its first Principal. Added to her natural endowments and training, which abundantly qualified her for her position, were indomitable courage and perseverance. On January 14, 1860, she saw that first, dearly bought home of the Western burned to the ground. A second structure and a better one rose from the ruins. On April 7, 1871, she again saw the Seminary building in ashes. A third edifice was placed on

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Miami country, in one of the most beautiful and healthful regions of Ohio. There is a campus of sixty-five acres, and the picture one has of it from the pike, a mile out of Oxford, is not soon forgotten. The long drive winding up to the main building; a glimpse of Alumnæ Hall, with its ivy-clad tower; the pretty little brook; the summerhouse; the smooth-clipped lawn; the acres of woodland stretching away at one side; the great front porch, embowered in rose and honeysuckle-all of these are gathered up in one's first impressions of the very agreeable outdoor surroundings with which the Western is favored. Nor is the impression indoors less pleasing. The cool and quiet library, with its handsome alcoves, its inviting shelves, and its splendid Tillinghast window; the art gallery; the pretty parlors; the pleasant chapel; the well-lighted reading-room, with its tables of fresh periodicals and its easy chairs; the neat and restful rooms for the pupils-all add to the favorable impression made upon the visitor.

The Western is a home as well as a school. It has never been an ambition of the management that the College should be large in its numbers. The wish is rather to select students who will maintain in scholarship and in character the high standard of excellence of which it is justly proud. The number admitted to its classes is limited, and for this reason the home feeling is the more easily cultivated. It is a household where each pupil comes

The Front Porch

school was unfaltering. Since her resignation as Principal, eight years ago, Miss Peabody has lived in Pasadena, California. Her home is a kind of Mecca for those who were her students in the thirty-three years during which she presided over the institution. Their reverence for the godly woman, whose days of active service are over, has been handed down from mothers to daughters, and all who know her history delight to do her honor.

Miss Leila S. McKee, of Danville, Kentucky, a graduate of Wellesley, succeeded Miss Peabody, and is now the able and capable President of the College. She has raised the standard of instruction to full college work, and is keeping it abreast with the best colleges of the country. Until her administration the school was continued on the Mount Holyoke plan, and each student was required to do a certain amount of domestic work daily. In later years this plan has been greatly modified, both at Mount Holyoke and Oxford. Although the lighter housework is done by the students, it occupies but half an hour daily, and is really more in the nature of relaxation than that of serious work.

A prominent feature of the College is its location. The buildings rise from an eminence which overlooks the

into intimate relations with all the members. A visitor almost invariably speaks of the sympathy that seems to exist between the faculty and the students. This is a recognition of a great factor constantly operative in the life of this College. Each teacher knows every girl in the institution, and the girls all know each other. The in

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terest of one is made the interest of all, and a staunch little democracy exists within the boundaries of the campus, in which character is constantly acting upon character. And this feeling of kinship does not cease when the school-days are over. The alumnæ are thoroughly loyal to the institution, and are its most devoted friends. They have a lively organization and several branch societies in which good fellowship and kindly interest are cultivated and perpetuated. These meetings and reunions of the alumnæ have given a stability to the College as helpful to its work as they have been delightful to the members. A substantial proof of this is a handsome fire-proof building presented to the College in 1893 at a cost of fifty thousand dollars, and known as Alumnæ Hall. A library having a capacity of one hundred thousand volumes occupies the whole north end of this building. The cases and shelving for the books are of electroplated bronze, made after the pattern of the new Congressional Library at Washington. Laboratories for the departments of physiological and biological sciences occupy the ground floor: a lecture-room and several of the recitation-rooms are located on the second floor; while the whole upper floor of this building is devoted to art. The departments of Art and Music offer

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