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thousand years he would discover that the foregoing reasoning has proved too much; for God is not obeyed; and he has never been obeyed by all; still he is Sovereign. A king is a king though there are rebels in his dominions.

(3) One should avoid the use of arguments which may be turned against him upon some other occasion. Though successful to-day in their use, he may meet great embarrassment to-morrow. The preacher for instance, in his zeal to inspire benevolence, or to increase the contributions of the church for a given cause insists, without qualification, that benevolent gifts on earth shall meet reward in heaven; he may afterwards find himself embarrassed while preaching upon the doctrine of "justification by faith alone."

(4) If one is strong upon the ground occupied he should avoid yielding to temptations to take other grounds respecting whose strength he is not confident. Success in oratory, as in military tactics, is achieved by simply remaining on the defensive when the enemy's success is conditioned upon dislodging the one thus entrenched.51

(5) One should avoid the presentation of given argumentative propositions if he doubts his ability to maintain them. It is very demoralizing to put one's self into position where an advance must be followed by a retreat. State only what can be proved; then

prove it.

(6) Avoid what is sometimes termed "logical scent;" better termed, illogical scent. The follow

ing is an illustration: A minister announced that he was to preach upon the "Final Judgment." But his sermon was upon the "Use of Tea and Coffee." The development was thus: "If asked to contribute to the Missionary Cause you reply that you are not able. And yet you are constantly indulging in luxuries." Then followed a lengthy discussion upon the use, expenses and effects of tea and coffee. In the conclusion the preacher remarked that all these things were luxuries and would most certainly be brought into the final judgment.

Dr. Campbell contributes the following respecting a lecturer who advertised that he would speak upon Optics. The development was thus: "Optics is the science of telescopes and spectacles; but these are useless without eyes. Now eyes are external senses of seeing, but our senses point us to our Creator, and this idea lies at the foundation of the Christian religion; our introductory lecture therefore upon Optics will be upon the Evidences and Excellences of the Christian Religion."

The narrations of illiterate people abound in these illogical wanderings. Cousins and second cousins. are constantly introduced; the question frequently recurring, What was I saying?

(7) Avoid, especially in popular address, all technical terms. They are extremely wearisome to the mass of people. Our Lord never used them; this is one reason why "the common people heard him gladly." Much upon this subject can be learned by listening to stump speakers and to those

lawyers who are eminently successful before jurors. See also pp. 97-102.

(8) Seek to present fully and fairly the more important arguments. It is an established rule in argumentation that one strong argument perfectly elaborated is worth a score of weak ones however well developed. "One whole truth is worth sixty half truths."

"Arguments should be weighed rather than numbered," said Cicero. Like Gideon, it is often well to dismiss all but the mighty handful. Judges vii. 2-8. The law of selection requires that the stronger shall displace the weaker. The success of many lawyers depends largely upon their ability to select two or three strong points in the case, dwelling upon and grouping all else about them.

(9) If it becomes necessary to introduce several comparatively weak arguments, the greatest care must be exercised in their arrangement and grouping.

Take the following example: A person was charged with murder. The advocate accused him thus: "You hoped to receive an inheritance, a rich inheritance; you were in great poverty, and actually beset by your creditors. You had offended the man whose heir you expected to be, and you knew that he contemplated changing his will.” "No one of these arguments alone," says Quintilian, "has any great weight, but, taken together, if they strike not like the lightning, yet like hail they come down with repeated blows."

(10) Arguments based upon comprehensive generalizations are to the popular mind the most satisfactory. Generalization is the application of the principles of induction by which one rises from particular instances to general laws. Of this characteristic Burke and Macaulay are remarkable examples. Their fulness of knowledge enabled them to pour forth "a copious stream of examples, illustrations, and analogies, by which their arguments were enriched and enforced." A recent writer says of Macaulay: "He always seems to make us travel on a high causeway, from which the country to right and left, the prospect behind and that in front, lie visibly stretched beneath us, like a plain from a mountain ridge."

(11) Seek in popular address to present arguments in the graphic style. The free introduction of poetic-prose speech will secure this end. Dr. Guthrie is an example of the vigorous graphic, and Edward Everett of that which is more flowing. Vivid and pertinent illustrations are often more effective than the closest line of argument. "It is proverbial," says Carlyle, "that a man of logic cannot prosper." See the Bible method of proving the Omnipotence of God, Ps. cxxxix. See pp.


(12) In proportion to the closeness of the reasoning the speaker should seek for the glow and fire of earnestness. Cold logic can melt nothing. The moment that the discourse drags in consequence of the argumentation, should the elegance of the speech

and the force of an enkindled soul come to the rescue. "Set your logic on fire," was a favorite direction of Dr. Lyman Beecher.

(13) In the formal arrangement of arguments seek such methods as harmonize with the rhetorical

instincts and intuitions of humanity. "You can find," says J. Q. Adams, Lectures on Rhetoric and Oratory, "hundreds of persons able to produce a crowd of good ideas upon any subject, for one that can marshal them to the best advantage. Disposition is to the orator what tactics, or the discipline of armies, is to the military art. And as the balance of victory has almost always been turned by the superiority of tactics and of discipline, so the great. effects of eloquence are always produced by the excellence of disposition. There is no part of the science in which the consummate orator will be so decidedly marked out, as by the perfection of his disposition." See Vol. I., pp. 80-84.52

(14) Seek to argue persuasively. The adhesive elements in speech are vital. Unless the hearer is persuaded, the case is practically lost. To vanquish one is not enough; to lead him from a state of indecision, indifference or torpor to a settled determination should be the constant aim. If the arguments are hard let the words be proportionately gentle and kind, though violating the laws of rhetorical harmony.

In the conclusion of an address, reasoning for the purpose of carrying conviction, must, therefore, always yield to the arts of rhetorical persuasion. The words of Dr. John Hall are worthy of note:

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