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at the Trial of Warren Hastings, and The Arcot Debts; Brougham, Speech on Law Reform, and Defence of Queen Caroline; Grattan, Speech on Irish Rights (1780), and Debate on Pensions (1786); O'Connell, The Irish Coercion Bill; Thomas Erskine, Plea in Case of Lord Sandwich versus Captain Baillie, and Defence of Lord George Gordon (1781); Canning, Speech on King's Message respecting Portugal (1826).
From British to American secular orators is the next step. James Otis, Patrick Henry, the two Adamses, Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, John C. Calhoun, Robert Y. Hayne, Fisher Ames, Rufus Choate, William Pinkney, Edward Everett, Abraham Lincoln, Charles Sumner, Wendell Phillips, and John B. Gough, are men with whom the student of oratory should be thoroughly familiar. The following speeches of these men should receive critical study: British Writers of Assistance, Otis: In Behalf of American Independence; also, In Behalf of British Refugees, Henry: Oration on American Independence, Samuel Adams: The United States ought to be Free and Independent (July 2, 1776), and Inaugural (1797), John Adams: South American Independence, also Speech at Lexington, Ky. (1843), Clay: Plymouth Address; Reply to Hayne; also, Plea at the Trial of the Knapps, Webster: Speech on the Force Bill, Calhoun: Speech on Foot's Resolution, Hayne: Speech on Madison's Resolution, Fisher Ames: Eulogy on Daniel Webster, Choate: Case
of the Nereide, Pinkney: Phi-Beta-Kappa Oration (1824), also Dudley Observatory Oration, Everett Gettysburg Speech, Lincoln: Crime against Kansas (1856); Barbarism of Slavery (1860); and True Grandeur of Nations, Charles Sumner: Sims' Anniversary (1852); Removal of Judge Loring; also Toussaint L'Ouverture, Phillips.
The field of sacred eloquence and oratory must also pass under the student's patient and careful review. Judah's Plea before Joseph (Genesis xliv. 18-54); Joshua's Exhortation to Israel (Joshua xxiii.); Nathan before David (2 Sam. xii. 1–12); Ezra's Sermon (Nehemiah viii. 1-12); Elijah's Speech on Carmel (1 Kings xviii.), and the prophetic announcements of Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, and the Minor Prophets, will furnish the student with valuable lessons in eloquence and oratory.
In the New Testament, the various discourses of our Lord should be examined. So, likewise, should the preaching of John the Baptist (Matt. iii., Mark i., Luke iii.); the speech of Stephen (Acts vii.); the sermons of Peter (Acts ii. iii. x.); and the sermons of Paul (Acts xiii. xvii. xxiii. xxvi.). In these partially reported Bible sermons and speeches will be found or suggested many of the fundamental principles of successful oratory. Among the church
fathers, the character and lives of the following, together with their sermons upon the texts specified, should be studied and mastered: Tertullian, James
i. 4; Athanasius, Ps. xlv. 7, 8; Chrysostom, I Thess. iv. 13; and Augustine, Matt. xx. 30-34.
Approaching the sixteenth century, the list of distinguished preachers rapidly increases. The German pulpit presents the following: Luther, Gal. iv. 1-7; Melancthon, John x. 28; Theremin, Matt. xxvii. 61; Tholuck, Luke ii. 34, 35; Stier, 1 Cor. xv.
From the British pulpit we select the following: Hugh Latimer, Rom. xv. 4; John Knox, Is. xxvi. 13-16; Chillingworth, 2 Tim. iii. 1-5; Tillotson, Acts xxvi. 8; Hugh Blair, John xvii. 1; Barrow, 1 Col. i. 23; Jeremy Taylor, Matt. xvi. 26; South, Gen. i. 27; John Wesley, Rom. xiv. 10; Whitefield, Rom. xiv. 17; Richard Watson, Job vii. 27; Robert Hall, Eph. ii. 12, also fer. xv. 9; Dr. Chalmers, John ii. 15; John Foster, Acts xii. 1-11; Edward Irving, John v. 39; Henry Melville, Gal. vi. 7 Spurgeon, Job xxxv. 10; Guthrie, Ez. xxxvi. 10; John Caird, Rom. xii. 11; Robertson, John xviii. 38; and Punshon, Danicl, King of Babylon.
The French pulpit presents for study the following brilliant names: Bossuet, Judges vi. 12-16; also, sermon On the Death of Madame Henriette Anne d'Angleterre: Bourdaloue, Luke xxiii. 27, 28: Fénelon, 1 Thess. v. 17: Massillon, Luke iv. 27: Vinet, 1 Cor. ii. 9: D'Aubigné, Is. viii. 20, Eph. ii. 5, John iii. 6; and Adolphe Monod, 1 John iv. 8. The American pulpit will be found full of interest to the student of sacred oratory. Read Cotton Mather,
John xiv. 1: John
Ps. lxxxix. 35: President Edwards, Deut. xxvii. 35: Dr. Griffin, Col. i. 20: John M. Mason, Luke vii. 22: Stephen Olin, Summerfield, 3 Peter i. 11: 1 John iv. 19: Dr. Channing, Hopkins, 1 Tim. vi. 20, 21: John P. Durbin, 2 Chron. vi. 18: Lyman Beecher, Is. lix. 14, 15: Dr. Storrs, Ps. xvii. 15: Bishop Simpson, I John v. 4: Professor Park, Ps. xc. 2: H. W. Beecher, 2 Tim. iii. 16, 17: Dr. Tyng, Heb. x. 28, 29: Moody, John iii. 14, 15: Phillips Brooks, James i. 27.
The designs and limits of this treatise forbid sketches of all the foregoing secular and pulpit orators, therefore we must restrict investigation; and for the purpose of illustrating the correct method of working in this field, we select as a representative, Demosthenes and his Oration on the Crown.
LIFE AND CHARACTER OF DEMOSTHENES.
THIS prince of ancient orators was born B. c. 385. Prior to his time there is no name in the field of secular or political oratory that with his is at all worthy of comparison. During his time and since, there is, by his admirers, thought to be nothing in forensic oratory that quite measures up to his high attainments. Hence, what were the circumstances connected with his career, and what were his methods of work in the study, and what his behavior on the bema, are questions deserving the most critical study.
In early life Demosthenes was compelled to battle against much adversity. He was only seven years of age when his father, who was reputed wealthy, died. Shortly after this his guardians defrauded him of his patrimony, which otherwise would have given him ample support. In consequence of this loss he was denied the privileges of systematic schooling and nearly all other opportunities of culture. He was sickly in his youth, and so ill-favored as to receive offensive nicknames. His voice at the outset was weak, and he was a stammerer. His breath was short, his manner repulsive, and to the