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himself, or that he cannot do the subject ample justice; or else that there is no need of further argument. Thus: " Nay! but I cannot proceed with this thought." Nay, but hush my speech." Demosthenes, with great force employed this figure. See pp. 42, 44, 46.

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'All study is not reading, any more than all reading is study. By study I mean- But let one of the noblest geniuses and hardest students of any age define it for me: Study,' says Cicero, ' is the persistent and intense occupation of the mind, directed with a strong effort of the will to any subject.'" — Everett.

'They are not uncivil to him, but they are peremptory to the extent of - Rotch may shudder to think what."

"Richter says, in the island of Sumatra there is a kind of "light-chafers,' large fireflies, which people stick upon spits, and illuminate the ways with at night. Persons of condition can thus travel with a pleasant radiance which they much admire. Great honor to the fireflies! But!"


"If you should transfer the amount of your reading day by day from the newspaper to the standard authors- But who dare speak of such a thing?"

"If you go to church, and a panic occurs—but perhaps you don't go to church."

See also, Mackintosh for Peltier, sentence beginning, "When Carrier ordered five hundred children," &c.

And see 2 Cor. v. 6; xii. 2: Gal. iii. 4: Eph.

iii. 3.

It may be observed at this point that the purposes of interruption may be gained by a rhetorical pause, and may be represented by a dash. A distinguished literary man says that one of the most impressive things he ever heard was a sentence of Emerson's spoken in the course of a half extemporaneous lecture on Italy in a New England town. He was describing the Venus de Medici, and simply said, "I walked-round-and round-the MarbleLady"; but such was the depth and dignity of his tones, the distinct and lingering quality of his enunciation, that the little sentence drew a wondrous picture for his audience, and made an immense impression upon them. In this case the pause was a silent parenthesis. The following is a similar example:

"The blood and spirit of Le Fevre, which were waxing cold and slow within him, and were retreating to their last citadel - the heart — rallied back; the film forsook his eyes for a moment; he looked up wistfully in my Uncle Toby's face, then cast a look upon his boy; and that ligament, fine as it was, was never broken. Nature instantly ebbed again; the film returned to its place; the pulse fluttered — stopped - went on - throbbed-stopped again moved stopped Shall I go on? No.". - Sterne.

7. Interpolation. The impassioned moods of eloquence generate spontaneity of thought; hence thoughts crowd the mind, and interpolation results. This form of speech is, therefore, suited to earnest delivery, and is very effective when the minds of both speaker and hearers are so aroused that conti

nuity of thought is not disturbed by the interpolation. Sometimes the speaker, by interpolation, introduces a thought which without this oratorical setting would be extremely offensive, or at least objectionable to the audience. Hence "side thrusts" belong

to this class of speech. Exclamation and apostrophe usually fall under interpolation. Examples are numerous; the following are representative :

First, I say that the infantry—but how to prevent you from doing that which has often injured you! Your thinking that the occasion demands far less than it does demand -your selecting the grandest plans in your decrees, while in execution you make not the paltriest exertion."

Demosthenes. First Philippic.

See also, quotations, pp. 52, 54.

"Would my learned friend have had the boldness to say to this hero that he must hide his tears (the tears shed by a hero)," &c.


"An honorable gentleman whom I see in his place, but who, I believe, neither hears nor sees me at this moment [Mr. Jenkinson, who was fast asleep on the Treasury Bench], knows full well that all I am saying is strictly true.. That honorable gentleman can attest the veracity of this recital; but it were vain flattery, I fear, to hope that he will rise up to-night and vindicate by his voice and his vote the principles of the cause he then supported."- Fox.

It has been often observed that the Romish preachers use this figure in calling attention to the Virgin Mary. Fénelon gives an example from one of the greatest French orators, M. L'Esprit Fléchier, Bishop of Nismes. In his panegyric on St. Joseph

he introduces his Ave Maria thus: "Everything seems to concur to the glory of my subject; the Holy Spirit, Jesus Christ, and Mary, are concerned in it; why may I not hope for the assistance of one of them, the grace of the other, and the intercession of the Virgin? to whom we will address ourselves in those words that the angel said to her, and which St. Joseph no doubt often repeated; Hail! Mary."

See also, Ro. iv. 16, 17: 1 Cor. v. 6-8; ix. 21: 2 Cor. vi. 13; xi. 23; xii. 2, 3.

8. Self-Depreciation. This is a species of subtle flattery, implying the superiority of the audience, and is natural to every orator who has refinement of taste. Though Demosthenes was fearless and daring in any cause he advocated, still he constantly and artfully introduced, directly and indirectly, selfdepreciation.

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Whenever he touches upon his own praise,' says Plutarch," he does it with an inoffensive delicacy. Indeed, he never yields to it at all except when he has some great point in view. On all other occasions he is extremely modest." See pages 38, 39.

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Cicero begins his oration for the poet Archias with the remark: "If I have any ability, and I feel how little that is," &c.; and his oration for Quintius by saying that he endeavors to make amends for his want of talent by application.

A masterly example of this figure is the address of Mark Antony:

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I come not, friends, to steal away your hearts:
I am no orator, as Brutus is,

But, as you know me all, a plain, blunt man,

That love my friend; and that they know full well
That gave me public leave to speak of him.
For I have neither wit, nor words, nor worth,
Action, nor utterance, nor the power of speech,
To stir men's blood: I only speak right on;

I tell you that which you yourselves do know,
Show you sweet Cæsar's wounds, poor, poor dumb

And bid them speak for me: but were I Brutus,
And Brutus Antony, there were an Antony
Would ruffle up your spirits, and put a tongue
In every wound of Cæsar that should move
The stones of Rome to rise and mutiny."

Shakespeare. "When he brought it forward first in a time of war and calamity, I gave to the proposition my feeble support."


"Gentlemen, I feel entitled to expect both from you and the court the greatest indulgence and attention. I am indeed a greater object of your compassion than even my noble friend whom I am defending. He rests secure in conscious innocence and in well-placed confidence that it can suffer no stain at your hands. Not so with me. I stand before you a troubled and, I am afraid, a guilty man, in having presumed to accept the awful task which I am now called upon to perform a task which my learned friend who spoke before me, though he has justly risen by extraordinary capacity and experience to the highest rank in his profession, has spoken of with that distrust and diffidence which becomes every Christian in a cause of blood. If Mr. Kenyon had such feelings, what must mine be? gentlemen, who am I? A young man of little experience, unused to the bar of criminal courts, and sinking under the dreadful consciousness of my defects. I have, however,


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