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"Thou shalt plant in terror, and I will reap in blood; thou shalt sow the earth with corn, and I will strew it with ashes; thou shalt go forth with the sickle, and I will follow after with the scalping-knife; thou shalt build, and I will burn, till the white man or the Indian shall cease from the land. Go thy way for this time in safety; but remember, stranger, there is eternal war between me and thee!"

See also, quotations from Demosthenes, in this volume, pp. 40, 41, 42, 43, 53. See John M. Mason's sermon, The Gospel for the Poor, sentence beginning "He who pretends to be my comforter," &c.

And see Ps. xviii. 20-23; lxvi. 13-20: John ix. 25: Acts xxvi. 29: Ro. xi. 1: 1 Cor. xv. 8-10: 2 Cor. xi. 21-33; xii. 2-11: Gal. i. 10; ii. 20: the book of Job.

15. Isolation, or Singling out. This figure seeks to isolate each hearer, making the warning or appeal direct, emphatic, and personal. Note the following examples:

"I confine myself to you who are now here assembled. I include not the rest of men, but consider you as alone existing on the earth. The idea which fills and terrifies me is this: I figure to myself the present as your last hour," &c. Massillon.

See also, quotation from Demosthenes, pp. 44,. 46, 47. And see 2 Sam. xii. 7: Ps. cv. 6; cxiv. 5 : Acts xxvi. 27: Ro. ii. 1: 1.Cor. xv. 36.

Such are some of the figures of oratory and emphasis. The knowledge of their classification is comparatively unimportant, but the ability wisely to

employ them is essential in the highest types of


At the bar, we are forced to say, that there appears to be no one, in the skilful use of finished and poetic oratory, to take the place of Choate, Wirt, and Pinkney.. The modern lawyer is technical, and is technically successful, but true oratory is with him a lost art.43

And if the modern pulpit orator would escape the charge of insipidity, let him become familiar with the poetry of eloquence. But it must be borne in mind that the history of oratory establishes nothing more clearly than the fact that distinction in this field is not purchased save by prolonged, intense, and even painful application.

XVIII. Hence also the ideal orator must become familiar with all the tactics and artifices of oratory.

Some of these tactics, like those in military science, can be named, and the place for their use assigned, but others so much depend upon circumstances of time, place, and occasion, and are so variously involved, that they have not been classified, and, therefore, the circumstances under which they can be legitimately used must be left to the instincts and intuitions of the orator. Some of the more important of these forms of speech are the following:

1. Counselling with the hearer and asking an opinion. This figure is technically called "anacœnosis." The examples under it are numerous. Note the following:

"I put it to your oaths; do you think that a blessing of that kind that a victory obtained by justice over bigotry and oppression—should have a stigma cast upon it by an ignominious sentence of men bold enough and honest enough to propose that measure?"- Curran.

"Shall we try argument? Sir, we have been trying that for the last ten years. Have we anything new to offer upon this subject? Nothing." Patrick Henry.

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"Tell me, then, if it do not add as much to the perfection as to the benevolence of God that, while it is expatiating over the vast field of created things, there is not one portion of the field overlooked by it?" — Dr. Chalmers.

“Well, if you go to war now, you will have more banners to decorate your cathedrals and your churches. You may raise up great generals; you may have another Wellington and another Nelson, too, for this country can grow men capable for every enterprise. Then there may be titles and pensions, and marble monuments to eternize the men who have thus become great; but what becomes of you, and your country, and your children?"— John Bright.

See also, "Figure of Interrogation," p. 44.

And see Is. v. 3, 4: Jer. xxiii. 23: Mal. i. 6; iii. 8: Matt. xxii. 42; xxvii. 22, 23: Mark xii. 9: Luke ix. 18; xxii. 27: Acts iv. 19: 1 Cor. iv. 21; x. 15: Gal. iv. 21. 44

2. Presuming upon the agreement and knowledge of the hearer. This form of speech involves a compliment to the hearer, and is often resorted to in order to gain his good-will. Sometimes it is used to make the case appear extremely plausible. Note the following examples:

"You cannot think so. You remember! You are well aware." - Demosthenes.

"Yes, my good lord, I see you do not forget them. I see their sacred forms passing in sad review before your memory."- Curran.

"Gentlemen of the jury, I observe plainly, and with infinite satisfaction, that you are shocked and offended at my even supposing it possible you should pronounce such a detestable judgment."— Erskine.

The preacher in his appeals to conscience wisely employs this form of speech.

See also, Jer. ii. 19: Matt. xviii. 12: Acts xx. 2, 3, 26, 27; xxvi. 7, 8: Ro. iii. 9: 1 Cor. vi. 19: 1 John ii. 21, 29.

3. Admission of difficulty.


They tell us, sir, that we are weak-but when shall we be stronger?" — Patrick Henry.

"I am aware of the difficulties I have to encounter in bringing forward this business; I am aware how ungracious it would be for this House to show that they are not the real representatives of the people; I am aware that the question has been formerly agitated on different occasions by great and able characters, who have deserted the cause from despair of success; and I am aware that I must necessarily go into what may, perhaps, be supposed trite and worn-out arguments."― Lord Grey.

4. Compliment to the hearer.

"But be that as it may, gentlemen, he now comes before you perfectly satisfied that an English jury is the most refreshing prospect that the eye of accused innocence ever met in a human tribunal." - Mackintosh for Peltier.

See also, Acts xxiv. 3.

5. Self-Correction. When a speaker discovers that either a stronger or more guarded expression

can take the place of the one already commenced, and therefore changes. it, the speech is termed selfcorrection. The self-correction may be deliberately planned beforehand, for the purpose of increasing, through contrast or climax, the emphasis; then the speech is clearly a device of oratory. As: "What did I say?" "Oh, I correct myself.”

"Rejoice, my friends; the tyrant dies this day! This day, do I say? The very moment in which I kept silence he suffered for his crimes- he dies!"


Apollonius of Tyana.

"If you can say this that he is guilty-upon the evidence, it is your duty to say so, and you may with a tranquil conscience return to your families, though by your judgment the unhappy object of it must return no more to his. Alas, gentlemen! what do I say? He has no family to return to. The affectionate partner of his life has already fallen a victim to the surprise and horror which attended the scene now transacting." — Erskine for Hardy.


Rats, did I say? Mice! mice!"- Randolph. "That it should come to this! But two months dead! Nay, not so much

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See also, Prov. viii. 19; John xvi. 32: Ro. viii. 34; ix. 1, 2: 1 Cor. ix. 7, 8; xvi. 5, 8: 2 Cor. xii. 5: Gal. i. 6; ii. 20; iii. 4; iv. 9: 1 John ii. 2; v. 16, 17.

6. Self-Interruption. In oratory this form of expression should be accompanied by much animation. It implies either that the speaker has been hurried on until he has reached the limits of the endurance of his hearers and would, therefore, check

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