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a part of, the college. At the threshold of the third century Yale is beginning to be a university.
The bicentennial anniversary, which is to be held from Sunday to Wednesday, October 20-23 inclusive, 1901, will, if it proves all that is hoped for it, emphasize, indeed, all that has been best in Yale's past, but, far more, will give fresh impulse and direction to all that is expected of Yale's future. The first milestone in Yale's past did not go unmarked. On Commencement Day in September, 1752, as President Woolsey notes, Ezra Stiles, then senior tutor, pronounced a Latin discourse summarizing the history of the collegiate school. Of the completion of Yale's first century no notice was taken, as, says President Woolsey, "the present and the future filled the minds of men to the exclusion of the past." The celebration of Yale's one hundred and fiftieth anniversary was held on August 14, 1850, the elder Professor Silliman being the president of the day. The procession in order of collegiate age to the Center Church, on the historic Green, where President Woolsey delivered a historical address, included more than one thousand graduates. Later there was a collation at tables arranged in tents in front of the library in the form of a triclinium, with a
marquee tent in the center, around which were grouped portraits of former officers and benefactors. The list of speakers included ex-President Day, Professor Felton, of Harvard, Oliver Wendell Holmes, the Rev. Dr. Leonard Bacon, Daniel Lord, the eminent New York lawyer, and William T. Gould, Esq., of Augusta, Ga. (class of 1816). Mr. Gould paid a special tribute to Calhoun, who, with another distinguished graduate, Chancellor Kent, had but just passed away. but just passed away. The programme included chorus singing by the Beethoven Society, composed principally of undergraduates, four verses of the sixty-fifth Psalm being rendered, in Sternhold and Hopkins's version, just as they were sung at the Commencement of 1718. In this there is a suggestion of one feature of the programme of the bicentennial, when, if the new Alumni hall is completed, it will be the scene of inspiring chorus singing by the students, under the direction of Dr. Horatio W. Parker, of Boston, and Professor Samuel S. Sanford, who are at the head of the newly created department of music. In other features, however, the occasion will be quite different from an ordinary Commencement. Graduates of all ages will meet simply as graduates, class reunions being discouraged. There will be, of course, a procession, a memo
rial address, a poem, the conferring of honorary degrees, and, for the students, torchlight processions with historical floats, and perhaps a revival of street singing, so closely associated with older college days. But, as Professor Theodore S. Woolsey, one of the Executive Committee, says, "the idea at the basis of all our plans" will be to emphasize the intellectual side of Yale life, history, and development. It is hoped to have an exhibition illustrating the history of American painting (perhaps of modern painting, too), with especial reference to the Trumbull collection owned by Yale, to be supplemented by as many of Trumbull's other paintings as can be obtained, a catalogue of all his works being issued, as has been done in the cases of Copley and Stuart. It is also hoped to unveil, on the Yale campus, a statue of Nathan Hale, the typical college patriot of the last century, in recognition of the civic relations of university life. The committee on publication expects to publish, in three or four considerable volumes, the diary of President Stiles, covering the period 1769-95, the most valuable Americana in the possession of the College. There will also be an issue of from twenty to thirty volumes containing contributions in their several departments by members of all the faculties-a notable testimonial of original work to mark the close of two hundred years at Yale-and, in contrast, an edu
cational exhibit, showing Yale's text-books, curriculum, and methods of instruction at stated intervals from the beginning. Above all, it is intended especially to emphasize Yale's long and honorable record as a champion of the claims of science, from the days of President Clap, in the middle of the eighteenth century, a leading mathematician, who did much to interest his students in applied science, and of President Silliman's lectures, which contributed more, perhaps, than any other one influence early in this century toward popularizing science, to the days of Dana, Marsh, Chittenden, and others who have continued the noble traditions.
Properly Yale takes this time to appeal to her alumni and friends for unusual gifts, as was done fifty years ago, when President Woolsey made a statement of the needs of the College. Then the general funds amounted to only $140,000, while the funds for specific objects (othe than professorships) amounted to only $80,000. The average income from these and the fees paid by the students was $23,000, while the expenses for the salaries of the President, nine professors, and other officers reached not quite $19,000, leaving but $4,000 for numberless incidental expenses. The salary of a professor in those days was less than $1,150, a sum pronounced by President Woolsey "entirely inadequate to maintain a family in respectability in New Haven." Among
ing these words, President Is
ring in his report of 188 to the reas that ought to be met at the blantern.a says: The buildings wil be reterred to at the beginning, but not because they are regarded as properly holding the first rank." In the first place, it is hoped by the financial committee of the bicentennial to collect from the graduates a fund of $2,000,000, of which about $59.00 has already been subscribed. As much as is necessary will be devoted to a commemorative hall. the rest being applied to the general university funds. One plan out of several under consideration contemplates building the hall in two wings to be connected by a gallery that may be hung with pictures and objects of historical interest. The wing containing the hall proper would be devoted to great gatherings of Yale men (it is hoped to have it ready for the bicentennial exercises), and would also be used as a center for State and other musical events on a large scale. The other wing would be devoted to a dining-hall for the general use of students. Quite apart from the $2,000,000 graduate fund, a table has been prepared of specially needed endowments and buildings, varying in amounts from $35,000 to $250,000, and totaling $3,445,000, which wealthy friends of Yale may feel moved to contribute as special personal gifts. Perhaps the most interesting of these special amounts is the $200,000 desired as a retiring fund for professors, a reform first inaugurated at Yale.
Yale thus asks at this time for five and a half millions--not a great sum when compared with the endowments of even the newer universities. The salary of a full Yale professor to-day is only $3,750 (as against one of $7,000 paid at more than one other university), in many cases, owing to special conditions, falling short of that amount. The salary of President-elect Hadley will be $6,500 (as against the $10,000 offered the other day by a Western university). It is only because of their self-denying loyalty to Yale that many of her most eminent men have consented to remain in New Haven at a
325,747,31 to $736,537 46,et $194,959,89 has been increase for sa of professors and instructors ber of these, including lecturers, bas creased nearly 125 per cent, now about 25 while the number of students in a departments has increased near y 138 per cent. per cent, now about 2.500. Bat for what is known as the Vale University Fund, a deficit in the cur rent expenses could hardy have been avoided. This is a fund contr·buted by graduates in such a yearly amount, large or small, as they feel disposed to give, much as they pay their club tees. The aggregate is applied as income whet ever the University most needs it, while a small part is added each year to principal, In the nine years since the fund was started, the total contributed is $85,698,25. The last year (1898-99) there were 2,344 different subscribers, and the principal of the fund now amounts (June, 1899) to $7,664.28, the amount contributed last year being $11,632,75,
Turning from Vale as a "plant" to the character of its " product,” the type of the change of even a comparatively few years is found in Commencement as now ob served. No longer is it an exhibition of immature oratory, but a dignified cere monial, with fine, noble music and its long procession of candidates for the various degrees in academic hood and gown, the qualifications of candidates for the honorary degrees being set forth in felicitous phrase by the official presenter, while an address by the President gives a completing touch. This change speaks of the lessened importance of “the gradu ate" as such on the “Commencement stage," unrepresented there as he is now by either valedictorian or salutatorian one of many modern influences invading our older academic life, the more con
spicuous there than in new and therefore modern universities. Among these influences are: The demand for a different kind of education to meet the different requirements of modern life; the resulting revolution in methods and ideals in teaching; a readjustment of values touching the relative importance of things taught; and the effect of the new social conditions of modern life itself, due to an unimagined increase in wealth. The demand for a modern education is not, at Yale, something apart, outside, in the air. It finds its local basis in the changed character of its constituency and the changed occupations of its graduates. A new, or at least unworked, source of statisticsthe very full records kept by class secretaries has been made by Professor John
C. Schwab to yield significant results. His conclusion on constituency, as stated in the "Yale Review," is that "nearly two-thirds of collegiate graduates of recent times at Yale College are sons of fathers who have enjoyed neither an academic nor a professional education;" that "the hereditary aristocracy of college graduates is a thing of the past." Regarding occupations of Yale graduates, his table-covering approximately eighty years-shows that while law has with fair uniformity enlisted one-third of each college generation, the ministry, which claimed forty per cent. at the beginning of the century, now claims but six or seven per cent. While business now claims about thirty-seven per cent. and is gaining, medicine and teaching remaining fairly constant at about ten
per cent. Professor Schwab's conclusion is that "the typical college graduate of to-day is no longer the scholar, but the man of affairs."
These being the facts, it is remarkable with what tenacity the traditional scheme of college education at Yale resisted the encroachments of modern demands. Up to 1884 the collegiate course was based on the "discipline" theory of compulsory classics and mathematicseighty-seven per cent. of the student's work being prescribed, and instruction in history, political economy, natural science, metaphysics, literature, and the modern languages being largely incidental. In this connection it is interesting to note that more than a century ago, in 1776, the seniors petitioned that Mr. Dwight, then a tutor, might instruct them in rhetoric, history, and belles-lettres. By more than a coincidence, the request was made at the time that marked the rise of our first "school" of poets of patriotism, composed principally of Yale men, including Trumbull, Dwight. Humphreys, and Barlow. But, despite this early sign of the new departure, education by compulsion held its own a system so well de