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days. She was educated at Cracow, the ancient
capital of Poland-a city filled with monuments
and memorials sadly recalling to the mind of every
Pole the past glory of his native land. There,
and in Warsaw and Vienna, she passed the days
of her early girlhood.

This was the first struggle for freedom in which Mlle. Jagiello, who was then at Cracow, took an active part. She was seen on horseback, in the picturesque costume of the Polish soldier, in the midst of the patriots who first planted the white eagle and the flag of freedom on the castles of the ancient capital of her country, and was one of the handful of heroes who fought the battle near Podgorze, against a tenfold stronger enemy. Mr. Tyssowski, now of Washington, was then invested with all civil and military power in the republic. He was elevated to the dictatorship for the time of its danger, and by him was issued the celebrated manifesto declaring for the people of Poland the great principles of liberty to which we have already alluded. He is now a draughtsman in the employ of our government.

After the Polish uprising which commenced in Cracow was suppressed, Mlle. Jagiello reassumed female dress, and remained undetected for a few weeks in that city. From thence she removed to Warsaw, and remained there and in the neighbouring country, in quiet retirement among her friends. But the struggle of 1848 found her again at Cracow, in the midst of the combatants. Alas! that effort was but a dream-it accomplished nothing-it perished like all other European attempts at revolutions of that year, so great

She was about nineteen when the attempt at revo


fire is yet smouldering under the ashes covering
the Old World-ashes white and heavy as death to
the eye of the tyrant, but scarcely hiding the red
life of a terrible retribution from the prophetic
eye of the lover of freedom.

lution of 1846 broke out at Cracow. That strug-in grand promises, so mean in fulfilment. But their
gle," says Major Tochman, "so little understood in
this country, although of brief duration, must and
will occupy an important place in Polish history.
It declared the emancipation of the peasantry and
the abolition of hereditary rank, all over Poland;
proclaimed equality, personal security, and the
enjoyment of the fruits of labour, as inherent
rights of all men living on Polish soil. It was
suppressed by a most diabolical plot of the Aus-
trian government. Its mercenary soldiery, dis-
guised in the national costume of the peasants,
excited against the nobility the ignorant portion
of the peasantry in Gallicia, which province, with
other parts of ancient Poland, had to unite in in-
surrection with the republic of Cracow. They
were made to believe, by those vile emissaries,
that the object of the nobility was to take advan-
tage of the approaching revolution, to exact from
them higher duties. In the mean time the civil
and military officers of the Austrian government
circulated proclamations, at first secretly, then
publicly, offering to the peasants rewards for every
head of a nobleman, and for every nobleman de-
livered into the hands of the authorities alive.
Fourteen hundred men, women, and children, of
noble families, were murdered by the thus excited
and misled peasantry, before they detected the
fraud of the government. This paralysed the re-
volution already commenced in Cracow.


"The Austrian government, however, did not reap the full fruit of its villany; for when the peasants perceived it, they arrayed themselves with the friends of the murdered victims, and showed so energetic a determination to insist on the rights which the revolution at Cracow promised to secure to them, that the Austrian government found tself compelled to grant them many immunities."

Mlle. Jagiello then left Cracow for Vienna,
where she arrived in time to take an heroic part
in the engagement at the faubourg Widen. Her
chief object in going to Vienna was to inform
herself of the character of that struggle, and to
carry news to the Hungarians, who were then in
the midst of a war, which she and her country-
men regarded as involving the liberation of her
beloved Poland, and presaging the final regenera-
tion of Europe. With the aid of devoted friends,
she reached Presburg safely, and from that place,
in the disguise of a peasant, was conveyed by the
Hungarian peasantry carrying provisions for the
Austrian army, to the village of St. Paul.

After many dangers and hardships in crossing
the country occupied by the Austrians, after swim-
ming on horseback two rivers, she at last, on the
15th of August, 1848, reached the Hungarian
camp, near the village of Eneszey, just before the
battle there fought, in which the Austrians were
defeated, and lost General Wist. This was the
first Hungarian battle in which our heroine took
part as volunteer. She was soon promoted to the
rank of lieutenant, and, at the request of her
Hungarian friends, took charge of a hospital in
Comorn. Whilst there, she joined, as volunteer,
the expedition of 12,000 troops, under the com-
mand of the gallant General Klapka, which made
a sally, and took Raab. She returned in safety
to Comorn, where she remained, superintending:
the hospital, until the capitulation of the for-


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She came to the United States in December, 1849, with Governor Ladislas Ujhazy and his family, where she and her heroic friends received a most enthusiastic welcome.



"Those who have never seen this Hungarian or Polish heroine," says a writer in the National Era, to which we are indebted for this sketch, may be interested in hearing something of her personnel. She is of medium height, and quite slender. Her arm and hand are especially delicate and beautiful, and her figure round and graceful. She is a brunette, with large dark eyes, and black, abundant hair. Her lips have an expression of great determination, but her smile is altogether charming. In that the woman comes out; it is arch, soft, and winning—a rare, an indescribable smile. Her manner is simple and engaging, her voice is now gentle or mirthful, now earnest and impassioned-sometimes sounds like the utterance of some quiet, home-love, and sometimes startles you with a decided ring of the steel. Her enthusiasm and intensity of feeling reveal themselves in almost every thing she says and does. An amusing instance was told me when in Washington. An album was one day handed her, for her autograph. She took it with a smile; but on opening it at the name of M. Bodisco, the Russian ambassador, pushed it from her with flashing eyes, refusing to appear in the same book with the tool of a tyrant!'


"Yet, after all, she is one to whom children go, feeling the charm of her womanhood, without being awed by her greatness. She bears herself with no military air; there is nothing in her manner to remind you of the camp, though much to tell you that you are in the presence of no ordinary woman.'




IS ONE of the most gifted and accomplished of the living female writers of Great Britain. Her father, Mr. Murphy, was an Irish gentleman of high repute as an artist, and held the office of Painter in Ordinary to her Royal Highness Princess Charlotte. By her order he undertook to paint the Windsor Beauties," so called; but before these were completed, the sudden death of the princess put a stop to the plan. Mr. Murphy lost his place; and his pictures, from which he had anticipated both fame and fortune, were left on his hands, without any remuneration. It was to aid the sale of these portraits, when engraved and published, that his daughter, then Mrs. Jameson, wrote the illustrative memoirs which form her work, entitled "The Beauties of the Court of King Charles II.," published in London, in 1833. Prior to this, however, Mrs. Jameson had become known as a graceful writer and accomplished critic on the Beautiful in Art, as well as a spirited delineator of Life. Her first work was the "Diary of an Ennuyée," published in London, in 1825, about two years after her marriage with Captain Jameson, an officer in the British army. Of this marriage-union it has never been- -we will only say here, that it seems to have exercised an unforSara J Clarke.

tunate influence over the mind of Mrs. Jameson, which is greatly to be regretted, because it mars, in a degree, all her works; - but especially her latter ones, by fettering the noblest aspirations of her genius, instinctively feminine, and therefore only capable of feeling the full compass of its powers when devoted to the True and the Good. We shall advert to this again. The "Diary of an Ennuyée" was published anonymously; it depicted an enthusiastic, poetic, broken-hearted young lady, on her travels abroad; much space being given to descriptions of works of art at Rome, and other Italian cities. This, on the whole, is Mrs. Jameson's most popular and captivating work; it appeals warmly to the sensibilities of the young of her own sex: its sketches of adventures, characters and pictures, are racy and fresh; and the sympathy with the secret sorrows of the writer is ingeniously kept alive to the end. Her second work was "Memoirs of Celebrated Female Sovereigns," in two volumes, published in London, in 1831. To this she gave her name. With much to commend, these

Memoirs" are unsatisfactory, because the writer bases her plan on a wrong principle, namely, the inferiority of the female sex to the male. Mrs. Jameson adopts the philosophy of men, which places reason as the highest human attribute; the Word of God gives us another standard; there we are taught that moral goodness is the highest perfection of human nature.

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In other portions of our work,* we have explained our views on these questions, and only remark here, that Mrs. Jameson seems, while writing these "Memoirs of Queens," to have attempted, by her deep humility as a woman to propitiate her male critics on behalf of the author.

In 1832, appeared" Characteristics of Women, Moral, Poetical, and Historical;" in many respects this is the best and most finished production of Mrs. Jameson's genius. "Visits and Sketches at Home and abroad; with Tales and Miscellanies," was published in 1834; and soon afterwards, "Memoirs of the Loves of the Poets," &c., appeared. In the autumn of 1839, Mrs. Jameson visited America; going directly from New York to Toronto, Upper Canada, where she passed the winter. Her husband had been stationed for many years in Canada; she had not seen him since her marriage; it has been said that they parted at the altar; but the painful circumstance that they only met as acquaintances, not even as friends, was too well known to require an apology for stating it here. Yet we would not allude to this but for the sake of correcting the false impressions which some of her late works leave on the mind to mislead the judgment of young read"Winter Studies and Summer Rambles," is the title of the work published in 1842, in which Mrs. Jameson records her observations on Canada and the United States, as far as she travelled. The shadow over these original and spirited pictures is unhappiness in wedded life! Everywhere she finds marriage a slavery, a sin, or a


See General Preface," also "Remarks on the Fourth Era," and "Sketch of Queen Victoria."

sorrow The shaft in her own bosom she plants in that of every other married pair; like a person afflicted with a painful disease, she hears only of the afflicted, and fancies the world to be a hospital of incurables. As we observed in the beginning, the cloud over her early life has darkened her spirit. She has, naturally, a love for the innocent and the pure, is a true woman in her warm sympathies with her sex, and had she been fortunate (like Mrs. Howitt) in the connexion which possessed for her, as it does for the noblest and purest of both sexes, the holiest elements of happiness and the best opportunities of self-improvement, she would have been a shining light in the onward movement of Christian civilization; she would have devoted her heart and her genius to the True and the Good, instead of bowing her woman's soul to man's philosophy, and deifying the worship of the Beautiful in Art. In this work"Winter Studies," &c., Mrs. Jameson, commenting on the gratitude due those great and pure men, who work out the intellectual and spiritual good of mankind, closes thus:-"Such was the example left by Jesus Christ-such a man was Shakspeare - such a man was Goëthe!" To understand the depth of this moral bewilderment, which could class Goëthe with the Saviour, we will insert from the volume which contains the shocking comparison, her own account of the last mental effort of her German idol.

"The second part of the Faust occupied Goëthe during the last years of his life; he finished it at the age of eighty-two. On completing it, he says, 'Now I may consider the remainder of my existence as a free gift, and it is indifferent whether I do any thing or not;' as if he had considered his whole former life as held conditionally, binding him to execute certain objects to which he believed himself called. He survived the completion of the Faust only one year.

"The purport of the second part of Faust has puzzled many German and English scholars, and in Germany there are already treatises and commentaries on it, as on the Divina Commedia. I never read it, and if I had, would not certainly venture an opinion where doctors disagree;' but I recollect that Von Hammer once gave me, in his clear, animated manner, a comprehensive analysis of this wonderful production—that is, according to his own interpretation of it. I regard it,' said he, as being from beginning to end a grand poetical piece of irony on the whole universe, which is turned, as it were, wrong side out. In this point of view I understand it; in any other point of view it appears to me incomprehensible.'"


The next work of Mrs. Jameson was "Sacred and Legendary Art," two volumes, published in London in 1848, in which the peculiar tastes and talents of the authoress had a fine scope, and deserve what has been freely awarded her, high praise. The sequel, "Legends of the Monastic Orders," one volume, published in 1850, is tinctured with the same false views noticed in some of her previous works. She seems quite inclined to forgive, if not to justify, all the profligacy, ignorance, and errors which monkery engendered and

entailed on the Christian world-because these institutions preserved and ennobled works of art! As an author there is a false air of eloquence thrown over some of her writings, even where simplicity would be more suitable. Generally, in her descriptive passages, there is something pantomimic, theatric, unreal; everything figures in a scenic manner. She is, no doubt, a sincere lover of pictures, probably understands them better than most connoisseurs, but readers tire of " Raphaels and Correggios," when too often thrown in their faces, and call them "stuff."

Now that we have honestly stated what we do not like in Mrs. Jameson's books, we are happy to dwell on their merits, and the many commendable qualities of the authoress, which these suggest. She has an earnest and loving admiration for genius, a discriminating sense of the benefits it confers upon the world, and an unselfish eagerness to point out its merits and services. All this is seen in her very pleasing descriptions of the many celebrated men and women she had encountered. She has a deep sense of the dignity of her own sex; she seeks to elevate woman, and many of her reflections on this subject are wise and salutary. We differ from her views in some material points, but we believe her sincerely devoted to what she considers the way of improvement. Of her extraordinary talents there can be no doubt.

From "Visits and Sketches," &c. ARTISTS.

I have heard young artists say, that they have been forced on a dissipated life merely as a means of "getting on in the world" as the phrase is. It is so base a plea, that I generally regard it as the excuse for dispositions already perverted. The men who talk thus are doomed; they will either creep through life in mediocrity and dependence to the grave; or, at the best, if they have parts as well as cunning and assurance, they may make themselves the fashion, and make their fortune; they may be clever portrait painters and bustmakers, but when they attempt to soar into the ideal department of their art, they move the laughter of Gods and men; to them higher, holier fountains of inspiration are thenceforth sealed.

That man of genius who thinks he can tamper with his glorious gifts, and for a season indulge in social excess, stoop from his high calling to the dregs of earth, abandon himself to his native powers to bring himself up again; O believe it, he plays a desperate game! One that in nearly ninety-nine cases out of one hundred is fatal.



To think of the situation of these women! And then to look upon those women who, fenced in from infancy by all the restraints, the refinements, the comforts, the precepts of good society - the one arranging a new cap- - the other embroidering a purse - the third reading a novel — far, far removed from want, and grief, and care-now sitting in judgment, and passing sentence of excommunication on others of their sex, who have

been steeped in excitement from childhood, their nerves for ever in a state of terror between severe application and maddening flattery; cast on the world without chart or compass with energies misdirected, passions uncontrolled, and all the inflammable and imaginative part of their being cultivated to excess as part of their profession— of their material! Oh, when will there be charity in the world? When will human beings, women especially, show mercy and justice to each other, and not judge of results without a reference to causes ?"

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Unless I could know what were the previous habits and education of the victim-through what influences, blessed or unblessed, her mind had been trained her moral existence built up ought I to condemn ? Who had taught this woman self-knowledge? Who had instructed her in the elements of her own being, and guarded her against her own excitable temperament? What friendly voice had warned her ignorance? What weariness of spirit- what thankless husband or faithless lover had driven her to the edge of the precipice?

M. You would then plead for a female gambler? A. Why do you lay such an emphasis on female gambler? In what respect is a female gambler worse than a male? The case is more pitiable more rare therefore, perhaps, more shocking; but why more hateful?


It is this cold impervious pride which is the perdition of us English, and of England. I remember, that in one of my several excursions on the Rhine, we had on board the steamboat an English family of high rank. There was the lordly papa, plain and shy, who never spoke to any one except his own family, and then only in the lowest whisper. There was the lady mamma, so truly lady-like, with fine-cut patrician features, and in her countenance a kind of passive hauteur, softened by an appearance of suffering, and ill health. There were two daughters, proud, pale, fine-looking girls, dressed à ravir, with that indescribable air of high pretension, so elegantly impassive- -so self-possessed - which some people call l'air distingué, but which, as extremes meet, I would rather call the refinement of vulgarity — the polish we see bestowed on debased materialthe plating over the steel-the stucco over the brick-work!



Every feeling, well educated, generous, and truly refined woman, who travels, is as a dove sent out on a mission of peace; and should bring back at least an olive-leaf in her hand, if she bring nothing else. It is her part to soften the intercourse between rougher and stronger natures; to aid in the interfusion of the gentler sympathies; to speed the interchange of art and literature from pole to pole: not to pervert wit, and talent, and eloquence, and abuse the privileges of her sex, to

sow the seeds of hatred where she might plant those of love to embitter national discord and aversion, and disseminate individual prejudice and error.


Conversation may be compared to a lyre with seven chords-philosophy, art, poetry, politics, love, scandal, and the weather. There are some professors, who, like Paganini, “can discourse most eloquent music" upon one string only; and some who can grasp the whole instrument, and with a master's hand sound it from the top to the bottom of its compass. Now, Schlegel is one of the latter he can thunder in the bass or caper in the treble; he can be a whole concert in himself.

From "The Loves of the Poets"

The theory, then, which I wish to illustrate, as far as my limited powers permit, is this: That where a woman has been exalted above the rest of her sex by the talents of a lover, and consigned to enduring fame and perpetuity of praise, the passion was real, and was merited; that no deep or lasting interest was ever founded in fancy or in fiction; that truth, in short, is the basis of all excellence in amatory poetry, as in every thing else; for where truth is, there is good of some sort, and where there is truth and good, there must be beauty, there must be durability of fame. Truth is the golden chain which links the terrestrial with the celestial, which sets the seal of heaven on the things of this earth, and stamps them with immortality."


"Winter Studies and Summer Rambles."

The true purpose of education is to cherish and unfold the seed of immortality already sown within us; to develop, to their fullest extent, the capacities of every kind with which the God who made us has endowed us. Then we shall be fitted for all circumstances, or know how to fit circumstances to ourselves. Fit us for circumstances! Base and mechanical! Why not set up at once a "fabrique d' education," and educate us by steam? The human soul, be it man's or woman's, is not, I suppose, an empty bottle, into which you shall pour and cram just what you like, and as you like; nor a plot of waste soil, in which you shall sow what you like; but a divine, a living germ planted by an Almighty hand, which you may, indeed. render more or less productive, or train to this or that form- -no more. And when you have taken the oak sapling, and dwarfed it, and pruned it. and twisted it, into an ornament for the jardinière in your drawing-room, much have you gained truly; and a pretty figure your specimen is like to make in the broad plain and under the free air of heaven.

The cultivation of the moral strength and the active energies of a woman's mind, together with the intellectual faculties and tastes, will not make a woman a less good, less happy wife and mother. and will enable her to find content and independ ence when denied love and happiness.


It is too true that mere vanity and fashion have lately made some women authoresses; more write for money, and by this employment of their talents earn their own independence, add to the comforts of a parent, or supply the extravagance of a husband. Some, who are unhappy in their domestic relations, yet endowed with all that feminine craving after sympathy, which was intended to be the charm of our sex, the blessing of yours, and somehow or other has been turned to the bane of both, look abroad for what they find not at home; fling into the wide world the irrepressible activity of an overflowing mind and heart, which can find no other unforbidden issue, and to such "fame is love disguised." Some write from the mere energy of intellect and will; some few from the pure wish to do good, and to add to the stock of happiness, and the progress of thought; and many from all these motives combined in different degrees.

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"Clan Albin" is decidedly of the genre ennuyeux, the only kind that Voltaire absolutely condemns. It is full of good sentiment, but insipid and tiresome, and gives no indication of the talent afterwards abounding in Mrs. Johnstone's works. Her next book was 66 Elizabeth De Bruce," very superior to her first, containing portions that were highly praised by able critics. A very charming, In Germany I met with some men, who, per- well-written work, in that difficult class-"Chilhaps out of compliment, descanted with enthu- dren's Books," succeeded. "The Diversions of siasm on female talent, and in behalf of female Hollycot" may take place near Miss Edgeworth's authorship; but the women almost uniformly "Frank and Rosamond." Like her stories for spoke of the latter with dread, as something for- juvenile readers, it is sprightly and natural — inmidable, or with contempt, as something beneath culcates good principles, and much useful knowthem what is an unworthy prejudice in your sex, ledge; and, what is rarer, it is totally free from becomes, when transplanted into ours, a feeling; any thing sentimental or extravagant. Mrs. Johna mistaken, but a genuine, and even a generous stone has continued to improve in style, and to defeeling. Many women who have sufficient sense velop many amiable qualities as a writer; her huand simplicity of mind to rise above the mere pre- mour is sui generis, equal in its way to that of judice, would not contend with the feeling: they Charles Lamb. Some of the sketches in her "Edwould not scruple to encounter the public judg-inburg Tales ". those of "Richard Taylor," and ment in a cause approved by their own hearts, but "Governor Fox," are not surpassed by any thing they have not courage to brave or to oppose the in Elia. These and many others were published opinions of friends or kindred. in a monthly periodical, established at Edinburgh about the year 1830, bearing the title of "Johnstone's Magazine," of which she was editor and, we believe, proprietor. It was continued ten or fifteen years. In this was published the "Story of Frankland the Barrister," which is one of the most perfect gems of this kind of literature-wit, pathos, nice delineation of character, are all to be found in it, while the moral lesson is enforced very powerfully. "The Nights of the Round Table" was published in 1835, and contains some admirable tales. "Blanche Delamere" is still a later work; in it she has attempted to show what might be done, and ought to be done by the nobility, to lessen the load of misery pressing on the working classes. We may add, that in all her later works, Mrs. Johnstone, like most thinking writers in the British empire, directs her pen to subjects connected with the distresses of the people. Her tales illustrative of these speculations have neither the wit nor the fancy of their predecessors; the mournful reality seems "to cast a cloud between, and sadden all she sings."

but Mrs. Johnstone neither emulates nor imitates in the slightest degree the light that preceded her. Many writers, who were quite lost in the eclipse of the "Great Unknown," have since asserted that he did not suggest the idea of Scotland, as a scene for fiction; that their works were begun or meditated before "Waverley" appeared; among whom, Mrs. Brunton, author of "Discipline," whose testimony is unquestionable, may be placed. Perhaps, there was at that time a national impulse towards "Scotch Novels," just as the taste for nautical discoveries produced Columbus, and the attempt at steam-boats preceded Fulton.


Johnson talks of "men being held down in conversation by the presence of women"-held up, rather, where moral feeling is concerned; and if held down where intellect and social interests are concerned, then so much the worse for such a state of society.

Johnson knew absolutely nothing about women; witness that one assertion, among others more insulting, that it is a matter of indifference to a woman whether her husband be faithful or not. He says, in another place: "If we men require more perfection from women than from ourselves, it is doing them honour."

Indeed! if, in exacting from us more perfection, you do not allow us the higher and nobler nature, you do us not honour but gross injustice; and if you do allow us the higher nature, and yet regard us as subject and inferior, then the injustice is the greater. There, Doctor is a dilemma for you.



Is a native of Scotland, and well deserves a distinguished place among contemporary writers FIRST known to the public by her nomme de of fiction. Her first work, "Clan Albin," was plume of "Fanny Forester," was born in the inamong the earliest of that multitude of novels terior of the State of New York; her birth-place which followed "Waverley" into the Highlands; | she has made celebrated by the name of “Alder

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