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of the emperor. Agrippina, wife of Germanicus, returned to Rome, bearing in an urn the ashes of her husband, and joined with Antonia in demanding, but in vain, vengeance of the Senate.
Claudius, her younger son, dishonoured the family by his stupidity and vices; and Livilla was convicted of adultery and the murder of her husband. She was given up by Tiberius to Antonia, who, with the spirit of the ancient Romans, confined her in a room and left her to perish of hunger.
Antonia died in the early part of the reign of her grandson Caligula, who, by his neglect and open contempt, is supposed to have hastened her death. She was probably about seventy-five when she died. Of her private life little is known. She was celebrated for her beauty, chastity, and integrity. Pliny speaks of a temple dedicated to her.
OF Cyrene, wife of Phædimus, a nobleman of that place, lived about, B. C. 120. Nicocrates, having usurped the government of Cyrene, caused Phædimus to be slain, and forcibly espoused his widow, of whose beauty he had become enamoured. Cyrene groaned under the cruelty of the tyrant, who was gentle and kind only to Aretaphila. Determined to free her country from this cruel yoke, Aretaphila obtained several poisons in order to try their strength. Her drugs were discovered, and her design suspected. Calbia, mother of Nicocrates, insisted that she should be tortured, and after some delay Nicocrates consented. But even in the extremity of her anguish, Aretaphila persisted in her first explanation, that the drugs were intended merely to compose love philters for the preservation of his affections. Nicocrates afterwards entreated her forgiveness, but she remained inexorable.
Aretaphila had one daughter by her first marriage, whom she had united to Lysander, brother of Nicocrates, and through whom she persuaded Lysander to rebel against the tyrant. He was successful in his attempt, and Nicocrates was deposed and assassinated. But after Lysander's accession to the throne, he neglected Aretaphila's advice, and imitated the cruelties and the tyranny of his brother.
Disappointed in her son-in-law, she sent secretly to Anabus, a prince of Lybia, to ask him to invade Cyrene, and free it of its oppressors. When Anabus had arrived near Cyrene, Aretaphila, in a secret conference with him, promised to place Lysander in his hands, if he would retain him prisoner as a tyrant and usurper. For this service, she promised him magnificent gifts and a present in money. She then insinuated into the mind of Lysander, suspicions of the loyalty of his nobles and captains, and prevailed on him to seek an interview with Anabus, in order to make peace. Lysander and Aretaphila accordingly set forward unarmed and unattended to the camp of Anabus. When they approached it, Lysander's courage failed him, and he would have retreated. But his mother-in-law urged him on, saying,
"Should you now return, you would be stamped as a coward and a traitor; as a man who, faithless, perfidious himself, was incapable of a generous confidence."
Again, when on the point of meeting Anabus, Lysander hesitated; but Aretaphila seized his hand, and drawing him forward, gave him up to Anabus.
The tyrant was detained in the camp till the stipulated presents arrived. The people of Cyrene, when they learned what had happened, flocked in crowds to the camp of Anabus, and throwing themselves at the feet of Aretaphila, they acknowledged her as their saviour and their queen. Lysander was taken back to the city, fastened in a leather bag, and thrown into the sea; and Calbia was burnt at the stake. It was then decreed that the administration of the government should be given to Aretaphila, assisted by a council of the nobles. But she declined the honour, preferring the privacy of domestic life. She retired to her own habitation amidst the prayers and blessings of the people.
WAS the daughter of Aristippus of Cyrene, who flourished about, B. C. 380, and was the founder of the Cyrenaic system of philosophy. Arete was carefully instructed by her father; and after his death she taught his system with great success. She had a son, Aristippus, to whom she communicated the philosophy she received from her father.
DAUGHTER of Ptolemy I., son of Lagus, king of Egypt, and of Berenice, was married to Lysimachus, king of Thrace. Lysimachus fell in battle in Asia, and his kingdom of Macedonia was taken possession of by Seleucus. Seven months afterwards, Seleucus was assassinated by Ptolemy Ceraunus, elder brother of Ptolemy Philadelphus, who also put to death the two children of his halfsister Arsinoe, after he had inveigled her into a marriage with him. Their mother he then banished to the island of Samothracia, where she remained till she was summoned to Egypt to become the second wife of her brother, Ptolemy II. Philadelphus, king of that country, who reigned from B. C. 284 to 276. This is the first instance of the unnatural custom of incestuous marriages which prevailed among the Greek kings of Egypt. Though Arsinoe was now quite advanced, her brother was much attached to her, and called one of the districts of Egypt after her. She is said to have founded a city, called by her own name, on the banks of the Achelous, in Ætolia.
A DAUGHTER of Lysimachus, king of Thrace, was the first wife of Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of Egypt, by whom she had three children, Ptolemy, Lysimachus, and Berenice. Suspecting her of plotting against his life, Ptolemy banished her, and she fled to Cyrene, where she was kindly received by Magas, half-brother of the king of
Egypt. Magas married her, and adopted her daughter, Berenice. Berenice was betrothed to Demetrius, son of Demetrius Poliorcetes, who came from Macedonia to marry her; but instead, transferred his affections to Arsinoe, which led to his assassination, and the marriage of Berenice to Ptolemy III., who was probably her brother, by which the kingdoms of Egypt and Cyrene were again united. The history of this princess is very confused; and there is much difference of opinion on the subject.
DAUGHTER of Ptolemy III. Euergetes, was married to her brother, Ptolemy IV. Philopater; she is called Eurydice by Justin, and Cleopatra by Livy. She was present at the battle of Rhaphia, a city not far from Gaza, in Palestine, fought between her husband and Antiochus the Great, B. C. 217, and is said to have contributed not a little to gain the victory. Ptolemy afterwards, seduced by the charms of Agathoclea, ordered Arsinoe to be put to death.
DAUGHTER of Lygdamis, became queen of Caria, in Asia Minor, when her husband died. According to Herodotus, she was one of the most distinguished women of antiquity. She attended Xerxes in his expedition against Greece, B. C. 480, and furnished five ships, which were only inferior to those of the Sidonians. In the council of war before the battle of Salamis, she strongly represented to Xerxes the folly of risking a naval engagement, and the event justified her opinion. In the battle she displayed so much courage, that Xerxes exclaimed, "The men behave like women, and the women like men!" To her Xerxes intrusted his children, that they might be safely transported to his kingdom, when, agreeably to her advice, he abandoned Greece, to return to Asia.
These great qualities did not secure her from the weakness of love; she was passionately fond of a man of Abydos, whose name was Dardanus, and was so enraged at his neglect of her, that she put out his eyes while he was asleep. This, however, instead of diminishing her passion, seemed to increase it. At length she consulted the Delphic oracle, to learn how to conquer her love; and being advised to go to Leucadia, the ordinary resort of desperate lovers, she, like the poet Sappho, took the fatal leap from that promontory, and was drowned and buried there. Many writers confound this Artemisia with the wife of Mausolus, who lived some time after.
THE queen of Caria, wife of Mausolus, immortalized by her attachment to her husband, built for him, at his death, the celebrated and stately tomb, that was considered one of the seven wonders of the world. It was called the Mausoleum, and from it all other magnificent sepulchres have received the same name. It was built by four architects, and the expense of its construction was enormous; the philosopher Anaxagoras exclaimed,
when he saw it, "How much money changed into stones!"
Artemisia frequently visited the place where her husband's ashes were deposited; mixed the earth that covered him with water, and drank it, for the purpose, as she said, of becoming the living tomb of her departed lord. She offered the richest prizes to those who should excel in composing a panegyric on his virtues. Yet in the midst of all her grief, she did not suffer it to interfere with the duties of her elevated position, but took the command of her army in a war against the Rhodians, in which she is said to have shown undaunted bravery. She took possession of the city of Rhodes, and treated the inhabitants with great severity. She caused two statues to be erected: one of the city of Rhodes, habited like a slave; and the other of herself, branding the city with a hot iron. Vitruvius adds, that the Rhodians never dared to remove that trophy from its place; such an attempt being prohibited by their religion; but they built a wall around it, which prevented it from being seen. She lived in the fourth century before Christ.
Or Miletus, and daughter of Axiochus, lived principally at Athens. She gained the affections of Pericles, who, according to Plutarch, divorced his first wife, with her own consent, in order to marry Aspasia. We are told little of her beauty, but much of her mental powers and cultivation. In eloquence, she surpassed all her contemporaries. She was the friend, and, according to Plato, the instructress of Socrates, who gives her the high praise of "having made many good orators, and one eminent over all the Greeks, Pericles, the son
of Xanthippus." On this and similar authority | better than your's, would not you choose them we learn, that Pericles was indebted to Aspasia for much of his high mental cultivation. The Athenians used often to bring their wives to hear her converse, notwithstanding what was said of her immoral life. She is accused of having excited, from motives of personal resentment, the war of Peloponnesus; yet, calamitous as that conflict proved to Greece, Aspasia inflicted on the country still more incurable evils. Her example and instructions formed a school at Athens, by which her dangerous profession was reduced to a system.
rather than your own?" "Yes," answered she. 'But," says Aspasia, "if she had an husband of more merit than your own, would not you choose the former?" Upon this Philesia blushed. Aspasia then addressed herself to Xenophon. "If your neighbour, Xenophon, had an horse better than your own, would not you choose him preferably to your own?" "Yes," answered he. "If he had an estate or farm of more value than your
Aspasia, on occasion of a check of the Athenian army, came herself into the assembly of the people, and pronounced an oration, inciting them to rally and redeem their cause; her speech was allowed to be far more eloquent than those of Gorgias, and other famous orators who spoke on the same conjuncture.
Hermippus, a comic poet, prosecuted Aspasia for impiety, which seems to have consisted in disputing the existence of their imaginary gods, and introducing new opinions about celestial appearances. But she was acquitted, though contrary to the law, by means of Pericles, who is said to have shed tears in his application for mercy in her be
It should not be omitted that some modern writers have maintained opinions on the life of Aspasia very different from those popularly entertained. They say, the woman whom Socrates respected, the woman who for years was the bosom counsellor of so eminent a man as Pericles, never could have been devoid of personal purity; vice palls; vice may please by charms of exterior, but never could keep up mental enthusiasm such as Aspasia certainly excited and retained with Pericles. They suggest that aspersions were thrown upon her character by Aristophanes, to wound Pericles through her bosom; but that the friend, the adviser, the sympathizing companion of the man who has been called Princeps Gracia, was not a courtezan. We may here recall some verses of Croly, who, in a note to the poem now quoted, evidently leans to the opinions just stated.
"And throned immortal by his side
A woman sits with eye sublime,
But if their solemn love were crime,
Socrates, who was the intellectual admirer of this fascinating woman, in his Dialogue of Æschines, gives an account of the method which Aspasia took, in order to persuade Xenophon and his wife to observe the reciprocal duties of a married state in the best manner. The persons in the Dialogue are Aspasia, Xenophon, and his wife, whom Mr. Le Clerc supposes from a passage in Laertius to have been named Philesia.
"Tell me, Philesia," says Aspasia, "whether, if your neighbour had a piece of gold of more value than your own, you would not choose it before your own?" "Yes," answered Philesia. "If she had a gown, or any of the female ornaments,
own, which would you choose?" "The former," answered he, "that is, that which is more of value." "But if his wife was better than your own, would not you choose your neighbour's?" Here Xenophon was silent upon this question. Aspasia therefore proceeded thus: "Since both of you, then, have refused to answer me in that point only, which I wanted you to satisfy me in, I will tell you myself what you both think: for you, Philesia, would have the best of husbands, and you, Xenophon, the best of wives. And therefore if you don't endeavour that there be not a better husband and wife in the world than yourselves, you will always be wishing for that which you shall think best; you, Xenophon, will wish you might be married to the best of wives, and Philesia, that she might have the best of husbands."
Pericles died at the age of seventy, B. C. 429; and after this we hear nothing of Aspasia, excepting that she transferred her affections to Lysicles, a grazier, who, in consequence of her influence, became, for a time, one of the leading men in Athens.
ASPASIA, or MILTO,
MISTRESS of Cyrus the younger, was born about 421, B. C. of free parents, at Phocis, in Ionia. She was brought up virtuously but in poverty, and being very beautiful, with a profusion of light curling hair, very uncommon in that country, she attracted the notice of one of the satraps of Cyrus, who forced her father to give her to him for the seraglio of this prince. Her modesty, dignity, and grief had such an effect on Cyrus, that he made her his wife in every thing but the name, consulting her in the most important affairs, and following her counsels. He changed her name to Aspasia, that being the appellation of the celebrated wit and beauty of Miletus. Aspasia bore her honours with the greatest moderation, and availed herself of the change in her fortunes only to rescue her father from his poverty. When Cyrus was killed, B. C. 401, in the ambitious attempt to dethrone his brother Artaxerxes, Aspasia was taken prisoner and brought before the conqueror. Artaxerxes treated her with the greatest attention, and made her the first among his women, although he could not marry her, as his wife Statira was still living. He ordered her to be clothed in magnificent apparel, and to be sumptuously lodged; but it was long before his attentions or kindness could efface the memory of Cyrus, whom she had tenderly loved. She showed the utmost indifference, through her whole life, to her own personal aggrandizement, and would seldom accept any present which she did not need. On one occasion Cyrus had sent her a chain of gold, remarking that "It was wor
thy the wife of a king;" but she requested him to send it to his mother Parysatis. This so pleased Parysatis, that she sent Aspasia many grand presents and a large sum of gold, all of which Aspasia gave to Cyrus, after praising the generosity of his mother.
"It may be of service to you," said she, "who are my riches and ornament."
THE daughter of Ahab king of Samaria, and of Jezebel, daughter of Ethbaal king of the Sidonians, was wife of Jehoram, king of Judah, who walked in the idolatrous ways of the house of Ahab. Jehoram died in the year B. C. 885, and the kingdom devolved on Ahaziah their son. Ahaziah reigned only one year, and on his untimely death, Athaliah arose and slew all the seed-royal of the house of Judah,' although they were her grand-children, and ascended the throne B. C. 884, and reigned six years. At the end of that time, Joash, a son of Ahaziah, who had been concealed six years in the temple by his aunt Jehosheba, the wife of Jehoida the high-priest, was produced by Jehoida before the priests and soldiers, and anointed king. Athaliah hastened to the temple and attempted to excite a reaction in her own favour by raising a cry of treason, but in vain, for Jehoida gave instant orders that she should be removed from the sacred enclosure and slain. This command was immediately obeyed, B. C. 878. The discovery of Joash is the subject of a tragedy by Racine, written by command of Madame de Maintenon.
A FEMALE philosopher of the age of Plato, whose lectures she attended in male attire.
BATHSHEBA, or BATHCHUAH,
DAUGHTER of Eliam Ammiel, was wife of Uriah the Hittite. While her husband was absent at the siege of Rabbah, David, king of Israel, accidentally saw her and fell violently in love with her. In consequence of this, he contrived the death of her husband, and married her. Bathsheba's eldest child by David died, but she bore four others to him, of whom Solomon and Nathan are reckoned in the genealogy of Jesus Christ.
Bathsheba is represented as very beautiful; and she must have been a woman of extraordinary powers of mind, as she exercised over her husband, king David, such paramount influence. Though he had, by his other wives, several sons older than Solomon, and Adonijah seems to have been his favourite, yet she induced him to promise that Solomon her son should succeed to the throne. The scene in David's death-chamber, when, at her appeal, the old king calls back, as it were, the full powers of his strong mind to give her again the solemn promise that her son shall reign, is sufficient confirmation of her influence. After David's death she was treated with profound reverence by
her son, king Solomon. The period of her death is not recorded; but the last time she is mentioned, when she "sat on the right hand" of her son, who was "on his throne," was about B. C. 1012.
A PHRYGIAN Woman, wife of Philemon, who received Jupiter and Mercury kindly, after these gods had been denied hospitality in the whole country, while travelling in disguise. A deluge afterwards destroyed all but Philemon and Baucis, who entreated the gods to make their cottage a temple, in which they could officiate as priest and priestess, and that they might die together. Both of these requests were granted. Their story has been a favourite theme of poetry.
ONE of the four wives of Ptolemy I., the founder of the dynasty of the Lagidæ in Egypt, and the mother of Ptolemy II., called Philadelphus. She had another son, Magas, by a former husband, who was afterwards king of Cyrene.
A DAUGHTER of Ptolemy II., Philadelphus, and sister of Ptolemy III., Euergetes. She was married to Antiochus II., king of Syria, who divorced his wife Laodice on the occasion. But after the death of Philadelphus, Antiochus divorced Berenice and took back Laodice, who, enraged at her husband's having married Berenice, murdered them both, as well as a son Berenice had by Antiochus, B. C. 248.
THE daughter of Ptolemy Philadelphus and Arsinoe, married her brother Euergetes. Being passionately attached to him, she made a vow to consecrate her beautiful locks to Venus, in case of his safe return from a dangerous expedition. He came home unhurt, and she performed her vow; but some time after, the hair disappeared from the temple, and Conon, the astronomer, published that they had been placed among the stars; and he gave to a constellation the name of Berenice's hair, which it still retains. She was put to death by her own son, B. C. 221.
SOMETIMES called Cleopatra, was the only legitimate child of Ptolemy VIII. (Soter II.), reigned six months, and was then murdered by her husband, Alexander II., to whom she had been married only nineteen days.
A DAUGHTER of Ptolemy IX., Auletes, who began to reign in Egypt B. C. 81, was sister of the celebrated Cleopatra. While her father was at Rome, from B. C. 58 to B. C. 55, Berenice was made regent; but on the restoration of Auletes, he put his daughter to death. Berenice first married Seleucus, whom, it is said, she caused to be strangled; and afterwards, Archelaus, who was also put to death by Auletes.
Or Chios, one of the wives of Mithridates Eupator, king of Pontus, B. C. 123, generally called Mithridates the Great, was put to death by his command, together with his other wives, lest they should fall into the hands of his conqueror, Lucullus.
DAUGHTER of Costoborus and Salome, Herod the Great's sister, was married first to her cousin Aristobulus, son of Herod and Mariamne. He, belonging to the Asmonean race, and having a brother who married the daughter of Archelaus, king of Cappadocia, often upbraided Berenice that he had married below himself in wedding hér. Berenice related these discourses to her mother, and exasperated her so furiously that Salome, who had great influence over her brother Herod, made him suspicious of Aristobulus, and caused him to order the murder of his own son. Berenice married again; and, having lost her second husband, went to Rome, and got into the favour of Augustus; and also of Antonia, wife of Drusus, son of Augustus, which, in the end, proved of great service to Herod Agrippa, her son by Aristobulus.
DAUGHTER of Lucius Piso, of an ancient and an honourable family in Rome, married Cæsar, after his divorce from his third wife, Pompeia. In her, Cæsar found a wife such as he desired, whose propriety of conduct placed her "above suspicion." To her virtues she added beauty, talents, prudence, an extraordinary eloquence, and a generosity and magnanimity of mind truly Roman. Unmoved by all reverses of fortune, she showed herself equally dignified when wife to Cæsar, senator of Rome, as when consort to the master of the world. Warned, as she thought, in a dream, of her husband's fate, she entreated him not to leave his house on the ides of March; but, urged by the conspirators, he disregarded her prayers, and was assassinated before his return, March 15th, B. C.
Calpurnia, superior to the weakness of ordinary minds, pronounced publicly, in the rostra, the funeral eulogium of her husband in an impressive and eloquent manner. Having declared a loss like hers to be irreparable, she passed the remainder of her life in mourning, secluded in the house of Mark Antony, to whom she entrusted the treasures and papers of Cæsar, that she might be the better enabled to avenge his death.
DAUGHTER and successor of Metabus, king of the Volsci, and ally of Turnus in his contests with Eneas in Italy. She was killed on the field of battle. She is celebrated by Virgil for her valour.
CARMENTA, or NICOSTRATA, AN ancient poetess of Latium, flourished before the foundation of Rome, in which, afterwards, divine honours were paid her. According to Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Carmenta was born in Arcadia, where she was known by her name of Nicostrata. Her son Evander being implicated in an unintentional homicide, she found means for an emigration, which she conducted herself, about 60 years prior to the Trojan war. She led her followers into Italy, and established her son Evander as king of that country, which afterwards contained Rome. She found it inhabited by a savage race, without religion, without courtesy, without agriculture. She taught them to sow grain, she polished them by introducing poetry and music; and she built their first temple, and lifted their thoughts to a superintending Deity. For these great benefits she was revered as prophetess, priestess and queen, and received her celebrated name of Carmenta, in allusion to the oracular power with which she was supposed to be gifted.
That she was a woman of wonderful genius and a remarkably practical mind, there can be little doubt; as the Romans would not otherwise have acknowledged, for such a length of time, her talents and merits. In their proudest days, the Romans never forgot the honours due to the benefactress of their rude ancestors. Cicero speaks of an officer in his day called Flamen Carmentalis, who had charge of the rites instituted by this ancient prophetess. Virgil alludes to this remarkable woman in the eighth book of the Eneid:
Dehinc progressus, monstrat et aram, Et Carmentalem Romano nomine portam, Quam memorant Nymphæ priscum Carmentis honorem Vatis fatidicæ.
It is supposed to be from her name that verses were named Carmina by the Latins. She was well skilled in the Greek language, and of extraordinary learning for the age in which she lived.
DAUGHTER of Priam, king of Troy, was regarded as a prophetess; and, during the siege of Troy, uttered various predictions of impending calami