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her writings would have been more extensively known, and would not be buried, as they now are, in classic dust. Her Latin style is peculiarly excellent.

most complete success. Her brow was encircled | sway in Bologna. Had Laura written in Italian, by a silver crown, ornamented with laurel leaves, which was offered by Dr. Bazzani in the name of the faculty. In investing her with the gown which was the ensign of her degree, he addressed her with a Latin oration; to which she made a most elegant extemporaneous reply in the same language. A dinner was given the next day, at the request of the cardinal de Polignac, when all the men of eminent ability were confronted with Laura, and every effort was made to sound her depths; but it was found that not one of these illustrious personages could compete with, or meet her at all points, so various were her acquirements, so subtle her wit, and so solid her understanding.

She was modest and unaffected; her memory was very great, her understanding strong, and her conversation enlivened by sallies of wit. She died in 1778, of a disease of the lungs.

Her mortal remains were interred with solemn obsequies. She was buried with the doctor's gown, and silver laurel. Her works remaining are:-An epic poem in manuscript; some poems published by Gobbi; "De problemate quodam Hydrometico, De problemate quodam Mecanico, published by the institute;" some experiments and discoveries on the compression of the air.

The highest honours were, after this, bestowed upon her; and the senate, considering that she reflected honours upon the city, settled a pension on her, to enable her to continue her studies without anxiety. The attentions she received brought her into the world, and obliged her to make many visits, and go to assemblies. Mingling in society, she was destined to give up her life of solitary study. She formed an attachment for Dr. Veratti, a celebrated physician, and professor of the institute; this ended in a marriage, when she shone as a wife and mother with admirable domestic qualities, equalling her scholastic ones.


ONLY daughter of Edward Baynard, an eminent physician, was born at Preston, Lancashire, England, 1672. She was well instructed in the classics and sciences, and wrote Latin with ease and correctness. At the age of twenty-three, she had the knowledge of a profound philosopher. She often said "that it was a sin to be content with a little knowledge."

To the endowments of mind, she added the virtues of the heart; she was pious, benevolent, and simple in her manners; retired, and perhaps too

tion of her small income for charitable purposes; and to this she added an ardent desire and strenuous efforts for the mental and moral improvement of all within her influence.

It may here be remarked, that women, who possess some trivial accomplishments, some little skill in music, or futile propensity to write ephe-rigid in her habits. She always put aside a pormeral verses, assume that these occupations place them above household duties, which are therefore neglected; and that, on the other hand, which is perhaps a more general error, many women declare that the attention due to their families' physical comforts, condemns their own minds to intellectual barrenness, and so clips the wings of their immortal souls that they can reach no flight beyond the consideration of domestic matters. They trust the education and training of their children to hired teachers; while the higher duty of stitching seams, and superintending joints of meats, must be reserved for their own superior intelligence and personal vigilance.

The life of Laura Bassi offers a lesson to both of these classes. She was mother of a numerous offspring, all of whom were most carefully attended to; as a wife, she was a model of tenderness. Mistress of a household, her frugality, and, at the same time, generous hospitality were remarkable; in fine, her abode was a scene of domestic comfort and happiness. But these essential occupations did by no means interfere with her scientific pursuits. Not only did she keep up with the other professors, but it was conceded that not a man in the university could read and speculate to the extent she manifested, by her experiments in natural philosophy, and her treatises on logical subjects. Besides this, for twenty-eight years, she carried on in her own house a course of experimental philosophy; until the senate selected her to give public lectures on the subject, in the university, as professor of this science. It is a great pity The following character is given of this lady in that the pedantic custom of using the Latin lan- Mr. Collier's Historical Dictionary. “Anne Bayguage for scientific and literary purposes still held | nard, for her prudence, piety, and learning, de

About two years previous to her death, her spirits seem to have been impressed with an idea of her early dissolution; a sentiment which first suggested itself to her mind while walking alone, among the tombs, in a church-yard; and which she indulged with a kind of superstitious complacency. On her death-bed, she earnestly entreated the minister who attended her, that he would exhort all the young people of his congregation to the study of wisdom and knowledge, as the means of moral improvement, and real happiness. "I could wish," says she, "that all young persons might be exhorted to the practice of virtue, and to increase their knowledge by the study of philosophy; and more especially to read the great book of nature, wherein they may see the wisdom and power of the Creator, in the order of the universe, and in the production and preservation of all things." "That women are capable of such improvements, which will better their judgments and understandings, is past all doubt, would they but set about it in earnest, and spend but half of that time in study and thinking, which they do in visits, vanity, and folly. It would introduce a composure of mind, and lay a solid basis for wisdom and knowledge, by which they would be better enabled to serve God, and to help their neighbours."

serves to have her memory perpetuated: she was not only skilled in the learned languages, but in all manner of literature and philosophy, without vanity or affectation. Her words were few, well chosen and expressive. She was seldom seen to smile, being rather of a reserved and stoical disposition; their doctrine, in most parts, seeming agreeable to her natural temper, for she never read or spake of the stoics but with a kind of delight. She had a contempt of the world, especially of the finery and gaiety of life. She had a great regard and veneration of the sacred name of God, and made it the whole business of her life to promote his honour and glory; and the great end of her study was to encounter atheists and libertines, as may appear from some severe satires written in the Latin tongue, in which language she had great readiness and fluency of expression; which made a gentleman of no small parts and learning say of her,

"Annam gens Solymaa, Annam gens Belgica jactat, At superas Annas, Anna Baynarda, duas."

Fam'd Solyma her Anna boasts,

In sacred writ renown'd; Another Anna's high deserts,

Through Belgia's coasts resound: But Britain can an Anna show,

That shines more bright than they, Wisdom and piety in her

Sheds each its noblest ray.'

Anne Baynard died at Barnes, in the county of Surrey, in 1697.


AN English portrait-painter, was born in Suffolk, in 1632, and died in 1697. She was the daughter of the Rev. Mr. Cradock, minister of Walton-upon-Thames, and was instructed in her art by Sir Peter Lely, whose works, and those of Vandyck, she studied with the greatest care. Her style was formed on the best models of the Italian school, and her colouring was clear, strong and natural.

She also paraphrased some of the Psalms of David.


THE aunt of Josephine's first husband, was born at Paris, in 1738. Her father was receiver-general of finances, and he gave her a brilliant education. From her earliest youth, she showed a great taste for poetry. At the age of seventeen, she was married to count de Beauharnais, whom she did not love, and she soon separated from him by taking up her residence in the convent of the Visitation. Here she assembled around her the most distinguished literary and scientific men; but she was criticised as well as flattered; and though Buffon called her his daughter, Le Brun wrote epigrams against her.

In 1773, Madame de Beauharnais published a little work entitled "A Tous les penseurs Salut," in which she undertook the defence of female authorship. But this was considered a strange instance of audacity, though the women of France

then ruled everything from state affairs down to fashionable trifles. Le Brun, a bitter and satirical poet, answered Madame de Beauharnais in a strain of keen invective. "Ink," said he, "ill becomes rosy fingers."

Madame de Beauharnais published a volume of fugitive poems; also "Lettres de Stephanie," an historical romance, several other romances, and a comedy entitled "La Fausse inconstance ou le triomphe de l'honnéteté. She died in 1813. We insert a specimen of her poetry.

(Written in 1773.)

Mon sexe parfois est injuste:
Mais j'absous ce sexe charmant;
Il fut ainsi du temps d'Auguste,
C'est tenir à son sentiment.
Je voudrois le flèchir, sans doute;
Pour des titres, j'en ai plus d'un;
Mes traits n'ont rien que de commun;
Je me tais, et même j'écoute....
N'importe, il me faut renoncer
A l'espoir flatteur du lui plaire;
Auprès de lui j'aurois beau faire.
Tout en moi paroît l'offenser,
Et mes juges, dans leur colère,
M'ôtent jusqu'au droit de penser.
Un jour que j'étois bien sincère,
J'exerçai ma plume à tracer
Les charmes de leur caractère
Par-là, j'ai su les courroucer.
Cependant j'exalte ces dames,
J'encourage leurs défenseurs;
Je leur donne à toutes des ames;
Je chante leurs graces. leurs mœurs,
Et leurs combats, et leur victoire;
Je les compare aux belles fleurs
Qui des campagnes font la gloire:
Elles rejettent mon encens,
Et, ce qu'on aura peine à croire,
Me traitent, dans leur humeur noire,
Presque aussi mal que leurs amans.
Mes vers sont pillés, disent-elles ;
Non, Chloé n'en est pas l'auteur;
Elle fut d'une pesanteur...
Le temps ne donne pas des ailes.
Mon Dieu! reprend avec aigreur,
A coup sûr l'une des moins belles,
Jadis je la voyois le soir;
Alors elle écrivoit en prose;
Peut-être, hélas! sans le savoir,
Et hasardoit fort peu de chose.
Mesdames, à ne point mentir,
Je prise fort de tels suffrages:
Mais craignez de m'enorgueillir
En me disputant mes ouvrages;
Ne me donnez point le plaisir
De me croire un objet d'envie;
Je triomphe quand vous doutez;
Rendez-moi vite vos bontés,
Et je reprends ma modestie.

BEAUMONT, MADAME LE PRINCE DE, AN able and lively French writer, whose works, in the form of romances, letters, memoirs, &c., were written for the improvement of youth in morals and religion. She was born at Rouen, April 26th, 1711, and died at Anneci, 1780.


DESCENDED from an illustrious house in Dauphiny, abbess of St. Honoré de Tarascon, was eminent for her knowledge of Latin, and her fine style of writing. She was honoured by her admirers with the name of Scholastica. She gave


early such indications of genius, that a monk, Denis Fauchier, undertook the care of her education. In a little time she made so great a progress, that she equalled the most learned men of the age. Her Latin and French poems, letters, and treatises, for acuteness and solidity, have been classed with the ancient philosophers. She maintained a correspondence with many learned men in France and Italy. Francis I. of France was so charmed with the letters of this abbess, that he carried them about him, and showed them as models worthy of imitation. He went with his sister, Margaret of Navarre, to Tarascon on purpose to see this celebrated lady. She died in 1547.

to England. But her intelligence (though well grounded, as the event showed) being disregarded and ridiculed, she renounced all state affairs, and amused herself during her stay at Antwerp, with the pleasures of the city.

After some time she embarked at Dunkirk for England, and in the passage was near being lost; the ship was driven on the coast for four days, but by the assistance of boats the crew were all saved.

Mrs. Behn published three volumes of poems; the first in 1684, the second in 1685, the third in 1688. They consist of songs and other little pieces, by the earl of Rochester, sir George Etherage, Mr. Henry Crisp, and others, with some pieces of her own. To the second volume is annexed a translation of the duke de Rochefoucault's moral reflections, under the title of "Seneca Unmasked." She wrote also seventeen plays, some


A CELEBRATED English poetess, was descended from a good family in the city of Canterbury. She was born in the reign of Charles I., but in what year is uncertain. Her father's name was John-histories and novels. She translated Fontenelle's

son. He was related to lord Willoughby, and by his interest was appointed lieutenant-general of Surinam and thirty-six islands, and embarked for the West Indies when Aphra was very young. Mr. Johnson died on the passage, but his family arrived at Surinam, where Aphra became acquainted with the American prince Oroonoko, whose story she bas given in her celebrated novel of that name. She relates that "she had often seen and conversed with that great man, and been a witness to many of his mighty actions; and that at one time, he and Imoinda his wife, were scarce an hour in a day from her lodgings." The intimacy between Oroonoko and the poetess occasioned some reflections on her conduct, from which she was subsequently cleared.

History of Oracles, and Plurality of Worlds, to which last she annexed an essay on translation and translated prose. The Paraphrase of Ænone's Epistle to Paris, in the English translation of Ovid's Epistles, is Mrs. Behn's; and Mr. Dryden, in the preface to that work, pays her the following compliment: - "I was desired to say, that the author, who is of the fair sex, understood not Latin; but if she do not, I am afraid she has given us who do, occasion to be ashamed." She was also the authoress of the celebrated Letters between "A Nobleman and his Sister," printed in 1684; and of eight love-letters to a gentleman whom she passionately loved, and with whom she corresponded under the name of Lycidas. She died, after a long indisposition, April 16th, 1689, and was buried in the cloisters of Westminster Abbey.

The afflictions she met with at Surinam, in the death of her parents and relations, obliged her to return to England, where, soon after her arrival, she married Mr. Behn, an eminent merchant in London, of Dutch extraction. King Charles II., whom she highly pleased by the entertaining and accurate account she gave him of the colony of Surinam, thought her a proper person to be entrusted with the management of some affairs during the Dutch war, which was the cause of her going to Antwerp. Here she discovered the design formed by the Dutch, of sailing up the Thames, in order to burn the English ships; she made this discovery through her lover, Vander Albert, a Dutchman. This man, who had been in love with her in England, no sooner heard of her arrival at Antwerp, than he paid her a visit; and after a repetition of all his former professions, pressed her extremely to allow him by some signal means to give undeniable proofs of his passion. She accepted this proposal, and employed him in such a manner as made her very serviceable to king Charles I.


AN ornament of Dutch literature, was born at Flushing, in 1738, and died at the Hague, in 1804. Few female authors have united to so great talents such dignity and purity of morals. Several of her numerous works are considered classics in Dutch literature; especially her romances of "William Leevend;" "Letters of A. Blankhart to C. Wildschut;" and the " History of Sara Bürgerhart." She wrote her most important works in conjunction with her friend Agatha Deken, and the share of each of them in the composition is unknown. Agatha Deken survived her friend only nine days.


AN actress of some celebrity, was born in 1733. Her mother was a Miss Searle, the mistress of lord Trelawny, who afterwards married captain Bellamy. He separated from her on discovering her infidelity. Miss Bellamy was brought out by Mr. Garrick at the Covent-Garden theatre at the age of fourteen, and met with much success for some years. She died at Edinburgh, in deep distress, in 1788. Her life was a series of errors and misfortunes. She wrote her own memoirs in six

The latter end of the year 1666, Albert sent her word by a special messenger that he would be with her at an appointed time, when he revealed to her that Cornelius de Witt and De Ruyter had proposed the abovementioned expedition. Mrs. Behn could not doubt the truth of this communication, and sent information of it immediately by express volumes.

BELLINI, GUISEPA, COUNTESS, WAS born at Novara in 1776, of one of the most noble families of Italy. She was endowed with a good understanding and great benevolence of character, which strong sentiment of piety guided and maintained. She was married in the bloom


of youth to the count Marco Bellini, whose character and disposition entirely assimilated with hers. Crowned with all worldly advantages, they were doomed to the affliction of losing their only This blow was sensibly felt by the bereaved parents, who thenceforth, unable to enjoy the pleasures of society and idle diversions, resolved to seek alleviation by devoting themselves to works of beneficent utility. Already extremely opulent, a large accession of fortune enabled them to mature an idea they had planned for the public utility; when, in 1831, death removed from the poor their friend and benefactor, the count Bellini.

The widowed countess, remembering her husband's maxim that the "best way of assisting the poor population was by giving them the abilities to maintain themselves," took counsel with the most intelligent and experienced of her fellowcitizens, and, with the assistance of able and practical heads, planned and founded a gratuitous school for arts and trades, for the benefit of the children of both sexes of the Novarese poor. This foundation she endowed with the sum of 100,000 francs. This good work was regularly established by royal permission and concurrence of the municipal authorities, February 9th, 1833.

The countess Bellini died in 1837.


WIFE of Thomas Bendish, Esq., was the daughter of General Ireton, and grand-daughter of Oliver Cromwell; whom she resembled in piety, dissimulation, personal arrogance, and love of display. After managing her salt-works at Southtown, in Norfolk, with all the labour and exertion of the most menial servant, she would sometimes spend an evening at the public assembly at Yarmouth, where her princely behaviour and dignified

manners ensured her the respect of her neighbours. This remarkable woman, who, in public life, would have become famous by her great mental powers and self-command, died in retirement in 1727.

BENGER, ELIZABETH OGILVY, Was born at Welles in England, in 1778, and had to struggle with many difficulties in early life. So few books could she procure, that she used to read the open pages of the new publications in the window of the only bookseller's shop in the little town in Wiltshire in which she lived, and return, day after day, in the hope of finding another page turned over. She, nevertheless, acquired a respectable portion of learning. On her removal to London, she obtained kind literary friends and patronage, and was generally esteemed for her virtues, manners, and talents. She died January the 9th, 1827. Besides a drama, two novels, and poems, she wrote " Memoirs of Mrs. Hamilton;""Lobin and Klopstock;" and "Lives of Anne Boleyn; Mary, Queen of Scots; the Queen of Bohemia; and Henry IV. of France."



WAS an English portrait-painter. Her principal works were in crayons, oil, and miniature, and were exhibited to the public in the Artists' and Royal Academy Exhibitions from 1622 till 1783.


Or the academy of the Ricovrate of Padua, was born at Rouen, and died at Paris in 1712. Her works were several times crowned by the French academy, and by that of the Jeux-Floraux. Two of her tragedies were represented at the French theatre, " Brutus," in 1691, and "Laodamia." It is thought she composed these pieces conjointly with Fontenelle, her friend and countryman. She wrote several other works in verse, showing ease and sometimes delicacy. She acquired some celebrity by her placet to Louis XIV., to petition for the two hundred crowns given to her annually by that prince; it is to be seen in the "Recueil de vers Choisis du père Bonhors." She discontinued writing for the theatre at the advice of Madame la Chanceliére de Pont-Chartrain, who gave her a pension; even suppressing several little pieces, which might have given wrong impressions of her manners and religion. Two romances are likewise ascribed to her; "The Count d'Amboise," and Ines of Cordova." Some of the journalists attributed to her, others to Fontenelle, the account of the "Island of Borneo."


ONE of the first ornaments of the Berlin National Theatre, was born in 1760, at Gotha, where her father, whose name was Flittner, had an income by a respectable office. After his death, her mother married the well-known director Grossmann. He visited, with his family, the cities on the Rhine, Cologne, Bonn, Mentz, &c., where Frederica was married to Mr. Unselmann, whe


enjoyed great popularity for his rich comic talent, | Bertana, a gentleman of Modena, where she reand she then made her first appearance on the stage. Her agreeable voice induced her to appear first at the opera. She soon acquired by her singing and acting, in naïf as well as in sentimental parts, the undivided approbation of the public; and was called, with her husband, to Berlin, where she became one of the first actresses that Germany has produced, both in tragedy and comedy. In 1803 she was divorced from her husband to marry the renowned Mr. Bethmann. She died in 1814. A truly creative fancy, deep and tender feeling, and an acute understanding, were united in her with a graceful, slender figure, an expressive countenance, and a voice, which, from its flexibility and melodiousness, was fit to touch the deepest chords of the heart, and to mark with rare perfection the nicest shades of thought and feeling.

sided after her marriage. She was not only celebrated for her poetry, but possessed a vigorous and polished prose style. She cultivated music and painting, and turned her attention to what was at that time a respectable and sensible object of study, astrology. Besides these accomplishments, Lucia was gifted with all the virtues of her She was amiable and gentle, and her excellent disposition was manifested in an attempt she most earnestly made to effect a reconciliation between two rival men of letters, Caro and Castelvetro. She conducted the matter with the utmost delicacy and good sense-appealed to the better feelings of each-and tried to show how unworthy of their superior abilities, and solid reputation, was this unmeaning bickering. She died in Rome in 1567. Her remains were interred in the church of St. Sabina, where her husband elevated a superb monument to her memory. The estimation of various learned societies endeavoured to immortalize her by other - medals were struck to her fame, which may yet be found in Italian Museums. The following from her pen has been much admired:



Or musa mia lieta e sicura andrai

Per folti boschi e per ameni colli,
Cogli occhi asciutti che già furon molli
Al chiaro fonte ove mercè trovai.


IN the sixteenth century the literary annals of Italy shone with illustrious names, and among these may be found many women assiduously cultivating poetry and science, and attaining no mean proficiency in these elevated pursuits. Naples boasted Vittoria Colonna, and a few years afterwards, Laura Terracini. Padua possessed Gaspara Stampa; Brescia, Veronica Gambara; and Modena, Tarquenia Molza. At Bologna, among many poetesses at that time, we find Ippolita Paleotti writing elegant verses in Greek and in Latin; the nun Febronia Pannolini, remarkable for her choice prose, and flowing hymns, as well in Latin as in Italian; and Valeria Miani, who achieved that difficulty some male sceptics arrogantly refuse to feminine capacity - a successful tragedy. But among all the Bolognese women, the crown must be yielded to Lucia Bertana. Not only contemporary authorities award her this praise, but Maffei, in his "History of Italian literature," gives her the third place among the most admirable poetesses of the sixteenth century, preferring only Vittoria Colonna and Veronica Gambara. She was born at Bologna, of the family Dall'Oro, in 1521; and became the wife of Gerone

Quivi con le sorelle canterai

I miei pensieri per letizia folli,
Piochè i desiri miei fatti ha satolli
Questo Aristarco, e me tratta di guai.

Ed al gran Castelvetro in atto umile,

Dirai, se il ceil mi dà tanto valore
Degno di voi, ed al gran merto eguale,

Che posta avrai mai sempre e lingua e stile
In celebrar questo chiaro splendore
Onde mi farai forse anche immortale.


WIFE of William Blake, the artist, was born in humble life, and first noticed by the young painter for the whiteness of her hand and the sylph-like beauty of her form. Her maiden name was Boutcher, not a pretty name to set in rhyme, but her lover inscribed his lyrics to the "dark-eyed Kate." He also drew her picture; and finding she had good domestic qualities, he married her. They lived long and happily together. A writer, who knew them intimately, thus describes her:

"She seemed to have been created on purpose for Blake: she believed him to be the finest genius on earth; she believed in his verse; she believed in his designs; and to the wildest flights of his imagination she bowed the knee, and was a worshipper. She set his house in good order, prepared his frugal meal, learned to think as he thought, and, indulging him in his harmless absurdities, became as it were bone of his bone and flesh of his flesh. She learned-what a young and handsome woman is seldom apt to learn to despise gaudy dresses, costly meals, pleasant company, and agreeable invitations - she found out the way of being happy at home, living on the simplest of food, and contented in the homeliest

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