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JUNE, 1915




Colonel of the 8th Mass. Infantry, U. S. V.

HAT the newspapers often called Massachusetts West Point is officially known

the Training School of the Massachusetts Volunteer Militia. It completed this month, the second year of its existence, and graduated its first class. It was established to train young men to become company officers, by imparting to them correct military information, and developing in them, character, power, interests and ideals useful in military life.

The idea of such a school is not new. It found expression long ago in the organization of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company and the two Independent Corps of Cadets, but failed to realize its full purpose, because trained members of these organizations were not in practical touch with companies needing officers. A company, located in Worcester, would not choose its officers from Boston gentlemen, however well qualified. The Training School meets this difficulty by opening its doors yearly to one Cadet from each company, or equivalent unit, in the State, who is nominated by the captain, and is supposed to be the man likely to be selected and approved as the next lieu


The present demand for this kind of school originated among the NonCommissioned Officers of the Second

Regiment, who complained of a lack of opportunity to prepare themselves by proper instruction and training to become officers. The Governor appointed a Board to study the matter and to interpret and formulate this demand into practical recommendations. In accordance with the report of this Board the School was established. It begins each year with a three days' camp at Framingham, including Labor Day. Throughout the year there are monthly conferences at the Charlestown Armory, lasting twenty-four hours, and the work of the year is ended by an encampment of eight days. This encampment was held last year with the regulars at Plattsburg Barrack, New York, and this year will be held with the cadets of the United States Military Academy upon the Hudson. The course lasts two years, during which period the School is assembled for practical work on fifty-eight days. During his term of two years, each Cadet must continue his membership in the militia, and perform all regular tours of duty with his organization.

Instruction is tabulated, and, at each monthly conference, the work of the past month is reviewed, the work of the next month outlined, and lesson papers distributed for the ensuing month. These papers are answered, one each week, and mailed to the Ad

*NAPOLEON BONAPARTE From the Painting by Delaroche

jutant for correction. Between monthly conferences the methods employed are those of the ordinary correspondence school. Cadets receive a mental rating according to these answers and other written examinations, which combined with a deportment rating, gives each Cadet his class standing. The Administrative Staff consists of a Commandant of Cadets and a faculty, who are officers from the Regular Army or Militia Officers, detailed as instructors. The State pays each Cadet two dollars a day for attendance and mileage from and to his home. The allowance for attendance is turned over to the Treasurer, as a fund to support the school, which is supplemented by other small addismall additions from the regular State appropriations for Militia purposes.

Without attempting to give in detail an outline of the various courses, the general purpose of the school is to turn out graduates who look, think, feel, and act like officers, and are

practically acquainted with the duties of a Company Commander.



Soldiers are not so much driven by force or fear, as they are led by the power of commanding. At any rate it is a more economical means of control. The power of commanding is an art, chiefly based upon Prestige. To be an officer, a man must have by nature, or acquire in some way, this quality of Prestige. It is the thing which dominates and compels obedience in others. In the presence of persons, who impress us with their superiority, we naturally assume a receptive attitude, and readily accept their ideas. We see examples of this in daily life. A young lawyer of Bostor was acting junior to Mr. Samuel J. Elder. Before the trial of the case he told something of how he thought the case should be conducted. case was actually tried upon a different theory. After it was over he said, Mr. Elder did not approve of his plan, and he accommodated himself to the wiser lead of his senior. His surrender was voluntary and complete. It was the natural submission to the Prestige of greater knowledge, skill and experience. Some time last winter, Mr. Walter Trumbull, Captain of the Harvard Eleven, talked to some boys in a settlement class on football. Some of them expressed in after conversation a wish for him as a coach. They were asked if they would do just what he told them, to which all replied with a universal, "SURE." There was no doubt about their willingness to obey. They even felt glorified by the suggestion of serving under such leadership. These are examples of the effect of Prestige in calling into play the instinct of subordination. Under similar circumstances one accepts a lead, and obeys as naturally as one eats when hungry, or sleeps when tired. There is within us a disposition susceptible to leadership and an impulse to obey, which is called out by contact with a personality whose superiority compared.

*From "Steps in the History of England"-Silver Burdett Co.


with our own seems boundless. It makes discipline easy. One drops into the habit of obeying as naturally as one acquires other habits by yielding to instinctive impulses.

Prestige always awakens admiration, trust, awe, and sometimes fear. Great Captains like Alexander, Cæsar, Hannibal and Napoleon had a personal magnetism, to which they added the Prestige, which comes from bravery, hard work, professional learning, and success. Taine gives an account of Napoleon's meeting his Generals before the Italian campaign, which illustrates the effect of his personality: "The Generals of divisions, amongst others, Augereau, a sort of swashbuckler, uncouth and heroic, proud of his height and his bravery, arrive at the staff quarters, very badly disposed towards the little upstart, despatched them from Paris. On the strength of the description of him which has been given them, Augereau is inclined to be insolent and insubordinate. He considers Napoleon a favorite of Barras, a General who owes his rank to the events of Vendemiaire, who has won his grade by street fighting, and he looks upon him as bearish, because he is always thinking in solitude, is of poor aspect, and has the reputation of a mathematician and dreamer. The generals meet in the anteroom and Bonaparte keeps them waiting. At last he appears, At last he appears, girt with his sword; he puts on his hat, explains the measures he has taken, gives his orders, and dismisses them. Augereau has remained silent; it is only when he is outside that he regains his self-possession and is able to deliver himself of his customary oaths. He admits, with Massena, that this little devil of a General has inspired him with awe; he cannot understand the ascendancy by which from the very first he has felt himself overwhelmed."

The ordinary officer is not a man of genius, and must build up his own. Prestige by hard work. He must acquire knowledge of his profession,


and above all the force of character, which accepts responsibility and leads to decision and determination. Prestige is partly science, but mostly character. Military character building is not so much a matter of imparting knowledge, as of developing the right cmotional tone, and inspiring the will to do. The impulses to act come from the will and feelings and not from the understanding. The purpose of Military education is to acquaint the future officer with the type of soldier efficient in war, and to stimulate within him a love of that type, which will burn like a passion to fulfill itself by making him become what he thinks he ought to be. The process is to impart knowledge of the type, inspire love of the type, and a will to become like the type. After that it is the efforts he makes to assimilate and make the type his own that count. This combination of thinking, feeling, and doing is the way to the goal.

The Training School tries to be helpful to the Cadets in acquiring the qualities which are the basis of this superiority. It presents to them in various lights great soldiers and their deeds as examples, seeking to awaken in them a love for ideals, and a will to model themselves upon such char


Correct sentiments grow with discipline and the right kind of training. The Cadets soon begin to estimate themselves as soldiers, and assume the obligations which go with the profession. They accept standards, and pride demands that they fulfill the role they have assumed. They are controlled by an impulse to play up to their estimation of themselves and to that ideal, which they believe is the standard to which their actions should conform. They assume a military bearing; are smart, precise, exact and prompt in action; put into their work physical and mental efforts; obey cheerfully; exercise self control; are neat and orderly in their persons and belongings; are courteous; and loyal

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