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Working With the Hands. By BOOKER T. WASHINGTON. Pp. ix, 246. Price, $1.50. New York: Doubleday, Page & Co., 1904.
A few years ago Booker T. Washington told the story of his early life in his book, "Up From Slavery." The present volume is a continuation of the earlier one. In "Working With the Hands” Dr. Washington describes the growth of the great institution at Tuskegee. It is a story whose significance is not yet appreciated by the American people for the influence of Hampton and Tuskegee is reacting powerfully upon our educational ideals. From time to time many persons have heard Dr. Washington tell a little about his work. All these will welcome a more complete statement of what has been accomplished. Many others who have not heard Dr. Washington will rejoice at an opportunity to visit the school under his guidance. In the book we are taken from department to department, our visit being made more real by the numerous photographic illustrations, until we get a pretty complete conception of the scope of the institution.
The title, "Working With the Hands," is well chosen. Dr. Washington has not only helped to make the school what it is, but to a large degree has given it his spirit and many of his former students are to-day starting similar movements in their communities. Dr. Washington is often represented as being opposed to what is unhappily termed "higher education." This is false. No one can read this book without seeing that Dr. Washington gives at Tuskegee not a mere smattering of Greek and Latin but seeks to equip a man for his life work by teaching him something which will be of immediate service. The needs of the future will be met best by meeting those of the present.
Dr. Washington is building-not finishing-is laying the foundation not the superstructure. How well he is succeeding the reader may judge. None will ever regret the time he spends in reading the story and among those who enjoy it the most will be the white men of the South who wish to know more of what Dr. Washington really does at Tuskegee.
University of Pennsylvania.
BOOKS RECEIVED FROM AUGUST 1 TO OCTOBER 1, 1904.
Anderson, F. M., The Constitutions and Other Select Documents Illustrative of France. 17891901. Minneapolis: H. W. Wilson Co. $2.00.
Boutmy, E., The English People. Putnams.
Brousseau, K., L'Education des Nègres aux Etats-Unis. Paris: Felix Alcan.
Dexter, E. G., A History of Education in the United States. Macmillan. $2.00.
Foulke, W. D., Slav or Saxon. 3d Ed. Putnams. $1.00.
Hall, W. E., A Treatise on International Law. 5th Ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Harris, N. D., History of Negro Servitude in Illinois. McClurg. $1.50.
Haurion, M., Gaston, J., and Rabany, C., L'Année Administrative (1903). Paris: Giard & Brière. 10 fr.
Hawkins, R. C., Our Political Degradation. New York: Grafton Press.
Headlam, G. W., Edited by, DeTocqueville's L'Ancien Régime. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 6s. or $1.50.
Helps, A., The Spanish Conquest in America. Volume 4. New York and London: John Lane. $1.50 (3s. 6d.)
Hosmer, J. K., Gass's Journal of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. McClurg. $3.50.
Johnson, S. V., A Short History of Oregon. McClurg.
Lavisse, E., Histoire de France. Volume 6, No. 1. Paris: Hachette & Cie.
McKinley, W., The Tariff. Putnams. $1.75.
de Molinari, G., The Society of To-Morrow. Putnams. $1.50.
Reich, E., Success Among Nations. Harpers. $2.00.
Russell, R., First Conditions of Human Prosperity. Longmans. $1.00.
Scherer, J. A. B., Japan To-day. Second Ed. Lippincott. $1.50.
New York: A. Wessels Co.
Tapp, S. C., The Story of Anglo-Saxon Institutions. Putnams.
Tompkins, D. D., Public Papers of the Governor of New York, 1807-1817. Vols. 2 and 3. Albany: J. B. Lyon Co.
Unwin, G., Industrial Organization in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 7s. 6d.
Van Dyne, F., Citizenship of the United States. Rochester, N. Y.: Lawyer's Co-operative
Woodruff, C. R., Ed. by Proceedings of Chicago Conference for Good City Government and the Tenth Annual Meeting of the National Municipal League, held April, 1904, at Chicago. Philadelphia: National Municipal League.
I. MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT
Chicago. Police Administration. The General Act for Incorporation of Cities and Villages, passed by the State Legislature in 1872, under which in lieu of a charter the city of Chicago is still working, gives to City Councils the express power "to regulate the police of the city and pass and enforce all necessary police ordinances." This makes the police department of Chicago a purely municipal institution without any control or interference on the part of the State authorities. The executive control over the department is vested in the General Superintendent of Police, appointed by the Mayor with the consent of the City Council for a period of two years. The city is divided into five police divisions, fifteen districts and forty-four precincts. Each division is commanded by an inspector of police, each district by a captain and each precinct by a lieutenant. All members of the force with the exception of the General Superintendent, but including the Assistant General Superintendent, are selected under the provisions of the Civil Service Law. This Act was passed by the State Legislature in 1895 and is being strictly enforced not only as to the police department, but, in fact, as to every other department of the city administration. Every applicant, after having satisfactorily passed an examination, must enter the force as second-class patrolman, the lowest rank. The examination is of a twofold character, testing the physical qualifications, which are given a weight of two, and the mental qualifications given the weight of one. The test for the mental qualifications consists of an examination in spelling (weight 0.1); penmanship (0.1); arithmetic (0.1); duties (0.6); and city information (0.1). Promotion in the police department is by competitive examination, to which only officers of the next lower rank are admitted. The disciplining of the force also rests with the Civil Service Commission, one member of which acts as Police Trial Commissioner; his findings are reviewed and approved by the entire commission. So firmly is the Civil Service established and enforced in the police department that during recent years not even an attempt was made to circumvent its provisions. Some cases in which this was done in former years were taken to the State Supreme Court and each one was decided by that body in favor of the Civil Service Law. Today it is generally accepted as inviolable and nothing is feared more by the members of the force than to be taken before the Trial Commissioner, for swift punishment is sure to come for any violation of the police rules. The strict enforcement of the Civil Service Law had the further effect completely to do away with the use of the police force for political purposes. Its members belong to all political parties, and no man is asked to help to advance the political fortunes of the administration in power. How colorless politically the Chicago police force is might best be shown by the fact that while the present Assistant General Superintendent and two of the five inspectors openly profess to be Republicans; the administration is Democratic. It may safely be said that the only use to which the Chicago police force is put in elections and primaries, is to preserve order and to protect the integrity of the ballot box.
Communication of Hugo S. Grosser, Esq., Chicago Ill.
Numerically the police force is entirely inadequate for the needs of Chicago. Its total membership is but three thousand two hundred and five, of which four hundred and thirty-two are clerks and other employees and two thousand seven hundred and seventy-three, officers of all ranks. Of these 2442 are patrolmen; not less than 747 of these patrolmen are detailed for duty at street crossings, bridges, depots, public offices, on wagons and ambulances, etc.; 338 are "plain clothes men," and 45 act as desk-sergeants, leaving not more than 1312 for actual patrol duty. The area of the city is 122,008 acres. This gives an average area of 44 acres to each member of the force, or an average area of not less than 93 acres to each patrolman available for patrol duty. Chicago has 2806 miles of streets and 1381 miles of alleys, which places an average of not less than 3.2 miles of streets and alleys under supervision of each patrolman available.
The total cost of the police department for 1903 was $3,569,477.77, or $1.90 per capita on the basis of the United States Census estimate for 1903, giving Chicago a population of 1,873,880. This is less than in any other large city, but for some time to come Chicago must try to get along with this small amount, not by its own volition, but forced by dire necessity caused by the proverbial poverty of the municipality. Small and insufficient as it is, Chicago's police force can boast of a splendid record of efficiency, showing an average of 28.12 arrests for each member of the force. About 16.4 per cent. of the arrests were on charges of felonies; 11.9 per cent. for misdemeanors; 51.5 per cent. for drunkenness and disorderly conduct, and 20.2 per cent. for other violations of city ordinances. The total number of arrests for 1903 was 77,986. But the efficiency of the force is not shown by the number of arrests alone. Of all the property reported stolen in 1903, valued at $434,881.75, more than one-half, valued at $233,559.92, was recovered. Over 10,000 injured and sick persons were assisted by the police; 2964 lost children were restored to their parents, and crime and lawlessness, for some time quite rampant in Chicago, was fearlessly suppressed, so that the city today is comparatively free from crime. Taking into consideration the manifold duties of the police, the frequent labor troubles requiring police supervision, and the insufficient number of officers, the department is doing astonishingly well. The officers are displaying a great deal of endurance and courage. In addition to their regular nine hours of patrol duty they attend police courts, justice courts, coroners' inquests, grand jury sessions and criminal courts, and are besides subject to call for any special duty required. Three officers were killed and 249 were injured while in discharge of their duty during the past year.
The police authorities are sparing no efforts to still further increase the efficiency of the force. The drones and derelicts are being weeded out as fast as possible. Special instruction is being given by competent men in first aid to injured persons, in gathering and preparing evidence for prosecution in the criminal courts, and in physical development. A new system of police records is being devised that will aid in promoting the discipline and in improving the entire service, but after all, to be adequately policed the city of Chicago needs an increase of its force of at least one thousand patrolmen.
Cleveland.-Police Administration. Executive control over the police sys2Communication of F. E. Stevens, Esq., Cleveland, Ohio.
tem is divided. The Board of Public Safety executes contracts relating to supplies for the department, provides for the erection and maintenance of police stations and conducts examinations for the appointment and promotion of officers. The Mayor appoints police officers from a list of eligibles submitted by the Board of Public Safety after competitive examination. He is styled the “executive head of the police department," but the stationing, transfer and discipline of the force are entirely under the supervision of the Chief of Police.
The Mayor appoints the Board of Public Safety subject to the approval of a two-thirds vote of the City Council. Upon failure to secure the confirmatory two-thirds vote of the Council, the Board is appointed by the Governor. Twothirds of the Council in this city approved the Mayor's choice. The statutes give the City Council the option of providing for either two or four members of this Board. The Council chose the smaller number. All appointments and promotions depend upon competitive examinations. The Examining Board consists of the City Solicitor and of the two members of the Board of Public Safety or persons delegated by them from the department. Tests of physical qualifications are made by surgeons connected with the department. Civil Service provisions are in full force. Members of the police force take but little part in politics. At present their political affiliations seem to have nothing to do with either appointment or promotion. Recent years have witnessed a very considerable improvement in this regard. The State authorities have no control over the service unless opportunity for control is afforded by the provision that the Governor shall appoint members of the Board of Public Safety in case the Mayor cannot secure for his appointees the approval of two-thirds of the City Council. This contingency has not yet arisen in this city.
The force numbers at present 456 members. There is an average of thirteen patrolmen to each square mile of territory. Making due allowance, however, for patrolmen on night duty, for those deputized for service at police stations and for general officers, the area under the supervision of each member of the force averages about one-fifth of a square mile. The appropriations for salaries and maintenance for the year ending December 31, 1904, amount to $700,000, an average per capita cost of $1.66.
There is no movement on foot for special improvement of the service. Within the past two years the department has been reorganized in the interests of greater efficiency, about 150 patrolmen have been added to the force, and, under the discipline of a young, aggressive and ambitious chief, the morale and tone of the force have been greatly improved.
Buffalo.-Police Administration. The Buffalo police force is governed by a local commission consisting of the Mayor ex officio, and two other Commissioners appointed by him, both of whom, however, may not be of the same political party. No control whatever is exercised by the State authorities.
The entire force is under Civil Service rules, and all promotions as well as original appointments, are made by competitive examinations. A change in the rules has lately been made, which, if it takes effect, will exempt all grades above that of Captain from competitive and subject them to qualifying examina3Communication of A. C. Richardson, Esq., Buffalo N. Y.