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The recommendations of the Royal Commission are given and the American experience is recited. The author believes in a restricted immigration under the oversight of some responsible department.
WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY DOCUMENTS RELATING TO RECONSTRUCTION, edited by Prof. W. L. Fleming, 15 is a series of reprints illustrating the peculiar social, political and economical conditions that prevailed in the Southern States after the Civil War. Four numbers have appeared. They are "The Constitution and Ritual of the Knights of the White Camelia," the "Revised and Amended Prescript of the Ku-Klux-Klan," "Union League Documents" and "Public Frauds in South Carolina," etc.
ESPECIALLY OPPORTUNE is a revised and enlarged edition of William Dudley Foulke's "Slav or Saxon," first published in 1887. It is Mr. Foulke's thesis that a great struggle between Slav and Saxon for the supremacy of the world has already begun. The recent and abundant evidence of Muscovite ambition since the publication of the second edition in 1899 Mr. Foulke thinks confirms the prophecy made in the original edition of his book. Intriguing Russian diplomacy and broken promises in regard to Manchuria and Korea which led to the war with Japan, Russia's perfidy towards Finland in destroying the liberties of her people and the exile of the most distinguished Finnish citizens, the outrages against Jews, and the arbitrary confiscation of Armenian church property are some of the additional counts in the indictment against Russia. The United States, Mr. Foulke insists, should unite with England and Japan in the demand that Chinese markets shall be open to all nations on equal terms and that "not another foot of Chinese territory shall ever be ceded to Russia." A treaty guaranteeing the territorial integrity of China, he declares, would be of inestimable value to mankind. Concerning the present struggle he expresses the opinion that if Russia is victorious Japan will cease to exist as a nation and will be "russified" after the manner of Finland, and that the Russian despotism, language, literature and religion will be imposed upon the conquered
THE "METRIC FALLACY," by Halsey and Dale,17 treats of the present status of the metric system in various countries. The fallacy, according to the authors, consists in the belief that countries in which the metric system may be legally used are using that system to the exclusion of others. As a statement of the existing chaos in weights and measures the book is admirable, though many of the objections to the metric system are equally applicable to any system intended to diminish the present confusion. The advantages of the metric system are very lightly touched upon even if they are appreciated by the authors, whose caustic treatment does not add weight to their argument.18
Published by the Author, West Virginia University, Morgantown,
New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1904.
16 Pp. 210. Price, $1.00.
THE CHARITY ORGANIZATION SOCIETY of New York City is to be congratulated upon the social service it has rendered by publishing as the first annual report of its Committee on the Prevention of Tuberculosis, "A Handbook on the Prevention of Tuberculosis." The handbook is a volume of some 400 pages, which reviews the work of the committee and contains in addition special articles by such experts on various phases of the subject as Dr. Hermann M. Biggs, Dr. S. A. Knopf, Dr. A. Jacobi, Miss Lilian Brandt, two sets of plans for a municipal sanitarium, lists of institutions treating tuberculous patients, bibliography, etc. The volume will be of great value to all who have to deal not merely with specific cases of the disease but to those interested in housing reform and preventive work in various cities.
IN HIS BOOK on Governor Tryon of North Carolina, Mr. Marshall De Lancey Haywood1 declares that ever since he learned to rely upon documentary evidence rather than the individual opinions of writers he has been convinced that history has dealt too harshly with the memory of the Revolutionary Governor of that colony. He regards it as entirely natural that Tryon did not turn at the outbreak of the Revolution against the monarch who had twice confided to him the government of important provinces-North Carolina and New York. "In New York his years of toil in the upbuilding of that province have been to a large extent lost sight of, while the minutest details of his hostility are cherished and exaggerated . . . Tryon committed no act during the entire Revolution which did not have its counterpart in the warfare carried on by Americans." The book is well written, and prepared with an evident desire to tell the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth.
A CENTURY OF EXPANSION, by Willis Fletcher Johnson, A.M., L.H.D.,20 is a popular presentation of an interesting phase of American history. The author directs attention in the Preface to the fact that the history of American expansion is "something far more than a record of geographical extension, or even of wars and treaties. It involves the history, in large measure, of constitutional development and interpretation, of domestic institutions, of foreign relations and of our whole national life." The opening chapters are devoted to the English Conquest of the Ohio Valley in the French and Indian War, the acquisition of the Northwest Territory through the expedition of George Rogers Clark and of a part of the Mississippi Valley in the negotiations at the conclusion of the Revolutionary War.
The author makes several mistakes in matters of detail. His statement that after the French and Indian War England left the territory south of the Ohio to the Colonies (p. 13) ignores entirely the royal proclamation of October 7, 1763, in which the charter rights of the original colonies were disregarded, the governors of the Atlantic colonies being expressly forbidden to make any grants of land beyond the heads or sources of the rivers which flow into the Atlantic Ocean (cf. Winsor's "Mississippi Basin," pp. 428-31; also Winsor's "Westward
19Governor William Tryon and his Administration in the Province of North Carolina, 1765-1771. By Marshall Delancey Haywood. Pp. 223. Raleigh: (Uzzell), 1903. 20 Pp. xi, 316. Price, $1.50. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1903.
Movement," ch. iv). Two slight inaccuracies occur in the brief reference to the expedition of James Willing (p. 45). This expedition did not stop in Natchez, but continued to New Orleans, capturing an English merchant vessel as far down the river as Manchac. Contrary to the author's view, Natchez did not at that time belong to Spain, as the conquest by Galvez did not occur until nineteen months after this expedition started from Pittsburg. In fact, this expedition was not directed against the Spanish at all, but was intended to procure oaths of neutrality from the inhabitants of British West Florida, who were living along the Mississippi River. It is surprising to note the fact that the author gives full credence to the Marcus Whitman legend (pp. 187-89). He makes the startling contention that the United States should not have “accepted any compromise whatever" in the "54.40" contest (p. 190).
The most serious defect in the book is the inadequate treatment, or the entire omission, of important phases of some of the subjects discussed. Under this head should be placed the account of the peace negotiations in 1783 and the movements which culminated in the annexation of Texas. His discussion of the constitutional right of the United States to acquire new territory (pp. 105-6) is not convincing. His position with reference to the comity of nations and international equity is unfortunate (pp. 306–7).
The book is written in an attractive style and will instruct as well as entertain. 21
TO THE SERIES of the Bibliothèque d' Economie Sociale mentioned in the ANNALS for March, 1904, M. Henri Joly has contributed a volume on "L'Enfance Coupable."22 In this he continues his studies outlined in a former volume on "Corruption de nos Institutions" for M. Joly finds that the increase of juvenile crime is due in large measure to the break up of some social institutions, as the family, apprenticeship which leads to begging on part of children and to the increase of morally abandoned children. Certain customs of courts and institutions are sharply criticised. The book deserves a reading by those dealing with dependent and delinquent children.
AMERICAN PAUPERISM AND THE ABOLITION OF POVERTY, by Isador Ladoff, 28 is largely made up of an ill-adjusted mass of material from reports of institutions, State Boards of Charities, Government bureaus, etc., with comments by the author. The book is written as a critique of capitalistic society. The tables given are probably true and there is no doubt that the social conscience needs quickening. It may be questioned whether all such things will be avoided under a socialistic regime as the author believes.
THE GOVERNMent and the CIVIL INSTITUTIONS OF NEW YORK STATE, by Robert Lansing and Gary M. Jones, 24 is a little book devoted (1) to a review of the growth of the province of New York as shown by the provisions of the various 21Contributed by Franklin L. Riley, Ph.D., University of Mississippi. Price, 2 fr. Paris: Lecoffre, 1904.
22 Pp. 222. 23Pp. 230. 24Pp. 204.
Price, 50 cents. Chicago: C. H. Kerr & Co., 1904.
Constitutions, and (2) to a critical and analytical study of the present State Constitution. There is a chapter on political parties and elections and a brief resumé of the rights and duties of citizens. The book is intended to supplement a treatise on Federal Government and institutions to be used as a text-book in the schools.
TO WRITE A SERIES of essays which shall criticise strongly various social evils of a proud people and which at the same time shall explain the spirit and interpret the life of that people to strangers somewhat suspicious of what comes from that land is no easy task. In his volume on "The Present South" Mr. Edgar Gardner Murphy 25 has done just this with remarkable success. Mr. Murphy, formerly a pastor in Montgomery, Alabama, now executive secretary of the Southern Educational Board, is an inheritor of the old traditions of the South. He would be the last to claim that he spoke for the Southernershe speaks as one. Yet this little volume is one of the most important books which the South has produced in many a year. It is not certain that all Southerners will endorse it unreservedly, but it is a powerful and dignified utterance of a typical, educated man of the South upon home problems.
Mr. Murphy discusses from various points of view the development of democracy in the South out of the old aristocratic régime. As a result there is some repetition which in nowise detracts from the interest of the book. Three great problems are treated: education, child labor, the negro. There is no attempt to minimize the evils in the present situation, but their genesis is traced and measures of meeting them discussed. 20
MANUEL DE MORALE ET NOTIONS DE SOCIOLOGIE, par Gaston Richard," contains a clear analysis of the province of morals and sociological principles. The author says in the first part of his book that morals has for its object, theoretically, the whole of the relations between knowledge and action; practically, the relation between personal conduct and the conditions of social order from which the personal conduct is inseparable. The author regards ethics or morals as a science. In the second part of his book, "Notions Elementaires de Sociologie," he defines the position of sociology to be "between the pure descriptive studies; history, ethnology, paleontology and the abstract and analytic studies of which political economy is considered a type. It is less concrete than the former and less abstract than the latter."
A history of sociology is given and some discussion as to the two methods: the deductive and abstract and the inductive and concrete. An analysis is made of the value of statistics and other collected data. In conclusion he discusses the question of progress, showing the optimistic and pessimistic view. The author is inclined to the optimistic view.
28 Pp. xii, 334. Price, $1.50. New York: Macmillan Company, 1904. 25Contributed by Carl Kelsey.
MR. WOLF VON SCHIERBRAND'S "America, Asia and the Pacific, "28 is a forecast of the part which the Pacific Ocean and the lands contiguous thereto are to play in the future history of the world. It is the Pacific and its shores, islands and vast inland regions, the author says, which are to become the chief theater of events in the world's history. They are to become what the Atlantic and the countries bordering thereon were in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. For the mastery of the Pacific a long and gigantic struggle embracing all the leading nations of the globe is soon to ensue. The equipment of the various contestants, their points of strength and weakness are examined and the conclusions advanced that the United States is the best equipped nation for the coming struggle. If the people of the United States will only make wise use of their opportunities this nation will play in the Pacific the dominant note in the concert of the great powers. Of our rivals for the mastery Germany is the most dangerous and France the least. So Japanese competition need not be taken into account while Russia will emerge from the present war too weakened to cope with us in the struggle. The talk of "yellow peril," Mr. von Schierbrand says, was started by Russia, is unworthy of consideration and should be relegated to the limbo of oblivion. The part to be played by the Isthmian Canal in the extension of our trade with South America and our commercial opportunities in China are the subjects of stirring chapters. The Dutch East Indies are likely, the author believes, to be lost to Holland and the chances are they will fall into the hands of the United States.
FULL OF WHOLESOME PHILOSOPHY and interesting suggestions is Prof. N. S. Shaler's little book, "The Citizen,"29 the aim of which is to "set forth the relation which the individual bears to the government that controls his conduct as a citizen." Professor Shaler addresses himself primarily to young men and women whom he says are commonly but erroneously supposed to be incapable of understanding "large matters relating to the management of public affairs." With this frame of mind the author undertakes to describe in sixteen essays the elemental facts which young people should know concerning the relation of the citizen to the society and government of which they are a part. Some of the many topics discussed are the beginnings of government, the nature of liberty, the limits of freedom, the practice of citizenship, party allegiance, the citizen and the law, the origin and distribution of wealth, education, health, immigration, suffrage, the negro question, imperialism, municipal government, etc. In the discussion of these topics little evidence of partisanship can be found. The author's view of the negro question is sensible and in accord with the Booker Washington idea of industrial education. Strongly in favor of an educational qualification for suffrage he yet protests against the dislike of the negro as a race, condemns severely mob violence and lynch law and in a plea for freedom of opinion takes occasion to criticise somewhat caustically those who after the late war with Spain refused to tolerate opposition to the Government's imperialistic policy.
28 Pp. ix. 334. 29Pp. 346.
New York: Henry Holt & Co., 1904.
Price, $1.40. New York: A. S. Barnes & Co., 1904.