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felt to be anomalous and inconvenient; and in this respect it is possible that a reform may be introduced at no distant date.

Inner Temple, London.





DISSERTATIONS ON LEADING PHILOSOPHICAL TOPICS, by Alexander Bain, LL.D., Emeritus Professor of Logic, University of Aberdeen, is a collection of fifteen essays,' mainly philosophical and psychological, all but two of which have been reprinted, practically unchanged from Mind, where they appeared through a series of years. One of the remaining two articles, on "The Scope of Anthropology and its Relation to the Science of Mind," was a paper read to the British Association, in 1885; the other, "On the Pressure of Examinations," is a defense of examinations in schools, being a criticism of a protest against the examination evil, by Mr. Auberon Herbert, in 1888.

THE OFFICE OF THE JUSTICE OF THE PEACE IN ENGLAND: ITS ORIGIN AND Development,' ,"2 by Charles Austin Beard, Ph.D., a dissertation begun under the direction of Prof. York Powell of Oxford, and completed under Professor Osgood of Columbia University, is a study in the history of English local government. It deals with the origin of the office of the Justice of the Peace and its establishment and its development during the Tudor Period, ending with the accession of James I. There are chapters dealing with the relation of the Privy Council to the Justice of the Peace, the Constitution of the office and the procedure of the Justice Court.

WILLIAM PENN,3 by A. C. Buell, is an interesting book that reviews the career of the founder of Pennsylvania from the standpoint of one who has little patience with and no sympathy for Quakerism, and yet who has the highest respect and greatest admiration for Penn himself. Mr. Buell's thesis seems to be that Penn was great in spite of his being a Quaker, a view somewhat novel at least to most students and writers. While there is some basis for criticism of the Quaker settlers of Pennsylvania, his vigorous denunciation of them as a "fanatical rabble" (p. 264), "witless zealots" (p. 225), etc., is neither merited nor justified.

The book is a study of Penn as an agent and promoter of secular civilization rather than as a religious character. The treatment of Penn himself is dispassionate and scholarly, the author regarding him as an "overpowering statesman" though not enough of a practical politician to avoid making an occasional mistake. The Code which Penn drew up for the West Jersey Colony is pronounced "the greatest code in popular government that has fallen from the pen of mortal man." One feature deserving especial commendation is the

1903., 227. Price, $2.50. London, New York and Bombay: Longmans, Green & Co. 2Pp. 184.

Price, $1.50. Studies in History, Economics and Public Law, Vol. xx, No. 1. New York: The Columbia University Press, 1904.

3Pp. vi, 368. Price, $2.25. New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1904.

insertion of the full text of Penn's valuable description of the Indians as he saw them in 1682-83.

Some slight errors exist, namely, "1751" for "1651" (p. 6), "initiation" for "imitation" (p. 28), the date of the "walking purchase" should be 1737 instead of 1733 (p. 348), a reference to the "Established Quaker Church" (p. 286), and calling Joshua Carpenter a Quaker (p. 349).

The book is interestingly written and it is well worth reading for it justifies itself by its sympathetic and yet non-partisan consideration of the motives and actions of its "great" and "good" subject.*


FRANCE AND The United States, by Jules Cambon, consists mainly of speeches delivered by the author while he was ambassador of France to the United States. The addresses are preceded by two essays, the first of which is a sympathetic appreciation of Pierre Loti's "Iceland Fisherman." The second, Diplomacy and the Development of International Law," has value because it defines diplomacy from a contemporary diplomat's point of view.


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As a diplomat and a patriotic Frenchman he seeks by all possible friendly devices to link together France and the United States. So, whether he speaks to patriotic societies in New Orleans or Washington, to university faculty and students in Chicago or New York, his theme is fundamentally the same. He would show to America France as she is; recall past acts of friendship between the two countries, etc.

THE FRIENDS of the late Prof. Carlo Conigliani have recently published a collection of his economic and financial essays which furnish abundant proof of the versatility of their young author.? Not many of them, however, are of interest to the American reader not specially drawn to the study of Italian conditions. Most of them have already been published in Italian periodicals. Among those of a theoretical character are the essays on "Profit," on Loria's "System of Economics and the Scientific Laws of Finance." There are also essays on "American Building Associations," "Gladstone" and "English Finances and Monetary Doctrines in Medieval France."

PIERRE DE COUBERTIN, well known in this country as a clever historical writer, issues each year an interesting summary of the preceding year's events, under the title "Chronique de France." " These summaries, first published in 1900, are not mere catalogues of events, however. In fact, the event usually forms merely the background, the starting-point for a philosophical disquisition on French character, on the economic, social and political condition of the nation. Nearly every aspect of the life of the people is discussed from the author's standpoint. There are sections on the literary movement of the year, the progress

4Contributed by Paul F. Peck, Ph.D.

5France and the United States: Essays and Addresses. Pp. 90. Price, $1.00. New York: D. Appleton & Company, 1903.

"Contributed by Helen Scott Davison, Bryn Mawr College.

Saggi di Economia politica e di Scienza delle Finanze, by Carlo A. Conigliani. Pp. 743. Price, 8 lire. Torino: Fratelli Bocca, editori, 1903.

8La Chronique de France. Publiée sous la direction de Pierre de Coubertin. 2me Année, 1901 and 3eme Année, 1902. Pp. 266 and 272, respectively.

of French colonial enterprises, the development of French science, etc., all in compact, incisive and attractive form.

DESERVING OF HIGH PRAISE is Dr. Samuel B. Crandall's "Treaties: their Making and Enforcement." Although not such an elaborate treatise as Butler's recent work on the "Treaty Making Power" it contains valuable information not found in the latter work and the material is far better digested and arranged. Part I treats of the historical origin and development of the treaty making provision of the Federal Constitution, the methods of negotiation and ratification in the light of precedents, the part played by the House of Representatives in the making of treaties, the various forms of international agreements and the execution of treaties. Part II is devoted to a discussion of the making and enforcement of treaties in foreign countries, particular attention being given to Great Britain and France. Particularly interesting is Part III, which treats of the operation of treaties, the time of going into effect, rules of interpretation, termination, etc. The value of Mr. Crandall's work has been recognized by the Department of State and an edition of his monograph has been purchased for the use of the American legations abroad.

WITHIN THE PALE, by Michael Davitt, 10 the well-known Irish agitator, is a story of the Russian Jew, ending with the Kishineff Massacres in the spring of 1903. Mr. Davitt reviews the history of the race and religious questions in Russia from the viewpoint of a personal observer and describes vividly the atrocities at Kishineff. The twofold purpose of Mr. Davitt's book is to "arouse public feeling against a murder-making legend and to put forward a plea for the objects of the Zionist movement."

IF ANY ONE may be said to have written the history of England, it was Green. That service has never been performed for America, but Mr. Henry W. Elson11 has given us a work which makes us hope that it may yet be written. His aim is "to present an accurate narrative of the origin and growth of our country and its institutions in such a form as to interest the general reader." This single volume contains about as many words as President Wilson's recently published five-volume history, but it is hardly the equal of that work in some other respects. The style is often attractive and nearly always tolerable.

Since the author has made very little use of source material, nothing striking, either in matter or treatment is to be expected. The story of discovery and colonization is told in much the same old way. Had Professor Osgood's notable work on the "American Colonies" appeared earlier, Mr. Elson might have profited by following more closely the treatment which evidently he had found only in outline in magazine articles. This is particularly true with regard to the distinction between the different kinds of colonies.

It is gratifying to find that Mr. Elson has not followed many of his prede

Pp. 255. Price, $1.50. Studies in History, Economics and Public Law. Vol. xxi, No. 1. New York: Columbia University Press, 1904.

10Pp. xiv, 300. Price, $1.20. New York: A. S. Barnes & Co., 1903. 11History of the United States of America.

Pp. xxxii, 811, xl. New York: The Mac

millan Company, 1904.

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cessors in assuming that the next thing of any real consequence after the landing of Columbus was the sailing of the Mayflower. The Susan Constant is mentioned by name and a reasonable amount of space is devoted to the first permanent English settlement. But any one familiar with the story of the Regulators must feel that they deserve more than three lines. The Civil War was a great event, but one may be pardoned for doubting if it deserves one-sixth of all the space given to our history. However, the matter of proportion is a difficult one to settle and it is likely that a committee of experts would find it no easy task to agree upon this question.

Where there is so much to praise it may seem invidious to find fault, yet this is just what the book needs. With the necessary correction it may become an almost ideal one-volume history. At this late day one is surprised to find a serious historian giving credence to the old Pocahontas myth and to the more fully exploded one of the sword reputed to have been sent by Frederick the Great to Washington. Poor old King George has had enough to bear without being made to answer a petition from the Colonists by thundering out a proclamation of rebellion. The thunder preceded the receipt of the petition. The well-known names of Breckinridge, J. E. B. Stuart and others are misspelled. Mistakes in well-known dates throw doubt upon the author's accuracy where he has departed from commonly accepted figures without giving any authority therefor. The date of the Bland-Allison Act is given as 1875, though it is referred to elsewhere as passed in 1878, which is the correct date. According to Stanwood the highest vote received by Blaine in the Republican Convention of 1892 was 182, against Mr. Elson's 132. In view of recent activity against the trusts the Sherman Anti-trust Law would seem to deserve a fuller explanation. 12

MODERN SOCIALISM, 13 edited by R. C. K. Ensor, is a valuable collection of writings of modern European Socialists. There are chapters by Sydney and Beatrice Webb, Millerand, Kautsky, von Vollmar, John Burns and others, while the topics discussed embrace a wide range. The programmes of the Socialistic parties of the different countries are given. Curiously enough no American writer is represented and scarcely any reference is made by the editor to America outside of a brief paragraph, in which he expresses the opinion that Socialism may come to us "in a flood." The articles are well chosen and the book will be of service to students, particularly in showing the political significance of the movement in Europe.

IT WILL BE NEWS to many people to learn that England is troubled with the immigration problem. Such is, however, the case. In his volume on "The Alien Immigrant, "14 Major W. Evans-Gordon, M.P. (lately a member of the Royal Commission on Alien Immigration) is a first hand study of the Jewish immigrant. The body of the book describes a visit to the Russian centers.

12Contributed by David Y. Thomas, Ph.D. 13Pp. xxxvii, 388.

ner's Sons, New York.

Price, $1.50. London: Harper & Bros. Imported by Charles Scrib

14Pp. xii, 323. Price, $1.50. London: William Heinemann. Imported by Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.

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