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the brief struggle between Spain and the United States. He traces the remote origin of the instinct of war back to the brutish passions and vagaries of barbarous multitudes or "hordes," of which the followers of the Mahdi furnish a recent type. The defects of Greek and Roman civilization, and of course the militarism incident to it are then passed in review. This enables Signor Ferrero to analyze keenly the prevailing conditions in the Ottoman Empire, the "death throes" of which he finds to be a heritage from the bellicose convulsions of ancestral hordes and a manifestation of impotence before the giant strength of a European civilization whose real development is one of peace. The Napoleonic Wars constitute a natural prelude to the particular forms of militarism as evolved in the contemporary history of France, Italy, England and Germany. The character and purposes of the militarism prevailing in these countries are examined, and the relative influence of Cæsarism and Jacobinism noted on the conditions more especially of the Latin states. A study of the economic forces that now tend to militate against war concludes the book. These, the author hopes, may usher in "the age of Pax Christiana of longer duration and more glorious
than the Pax Augusta."
The historical method of treating the theme has led the author at times to lengthen his illustrative episodes unduly. Stilted phrases and numerous errors, also, which occur in the translation diminish the force of the propositions advanced, although they do not greatly obscure the earnestness and logical power with which Signor Ferrero has marshaled his deductions from the past and assumptions from the present. The impartial reader, nevertheless, is hardly convinced that the primary instincts of the human race have become so altered in the course of civilization as to render the love of country any the less sensitive to dishonor, or the desire for national and individual aggrandizement any the less inclined to profit by an opportunity, even at the risk of war.
WILLIAM R. SHEPHERD.
Tenement House Problem. Including the Report of the New York State Tenement House Commission of 1900. By various writers. Edited by Robert W. de Forest and Lawrence Veiller. Pp. xxx, 470; 516. Two vols. Price, $6.00. New York: Macmillan Company, 1903.
These volumes contain more helpful material on the housing problem and ways to meet it than any score of volumes hitherto published. They will be classics wherever public or individual interest in the housing conditions of the working classes exists. In fact, they will be needed wherever social needs are scrutinized and social wrongs challenged, for, while primarily devoted to housing they contain valuable chapters on tuberculosis, the social evil, public baths, immigration policy, playgrounds and park systems. Very properly is the study designed as a "contribution to the causes of municipal reform, to report progress made, and to guide progress still to come." These volumes are the production of two men who more than any others were responsible for the successful installa
tion of New York's Tenement Department, as well as for the agitation leading immediately to the legislation creating that Department.
The first volume, of nearly five hundred pages, is devoted to problems peculiar to tenements. The historical resumé is followed by a critical exposition of the essentials of the tenement problem and the essentials of remedial and preventive policies. This discussion is of interest to builders, and statesmen, as well as lay students. The chapter on the period 1834–1890 is of a high order of historical writing, it seems to the reviewer, in that it marshals facts and lines them up "according to height." Essentials stand out so clearly that even casual reading shows both the greatness of the ideals and the weakness in execution of the organizations that waged the early battles against overcrowding. True, it is easier to see in retrospect the need for sustained effort and eternal vigilance than it was when distinct gains seemed to have been achieved. But to us who review the history of over a half century of agitation, the lesson is clear. An incomplete victory means sure defeat, or to paraphrase the Indian hater, "the only safe problem is a dead problem."
Descriptive matter follows containing facts with regard to housing in various American and European cities, with interesting illustrations. Special studies are added on The Non-Enforcement of Laws in New Buildings, Fires and FireEscapes, Back-to-Back Tenements, Sanitation, Small Houses for Working Men, Financial Aspects of Recent Tenement House Operations in New York, Speculative Building, The Tenant's Side, The Inspector's Side, Tuberculosis in Tene
The second volume of about five hundred pages deals with the collateral or incidental problems mentioned above. Here again illustrations render excellent service in telling the story of baths, playgrounds, etc. The various appendices give the proceedings of the New York Commission, testimony, etc., the new code, the act which created the present department, other proposed legislation, valuable data as to rentals, and illuminating schedules which will help wherever an investigation is intended.
New York City.
WILLIAM H. ALLEN.
Contemporary France. By GABRIEL HANOTAUX. Translated by JOHN CHARLES TARVER. With portraits. Vol. I. (1870-1873). Pp. xiv, 696. Price,
$3.75. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1903.
M. Hanotaux brings to the writing of his "History of Contemporary France" an unusual combination of abilities as an historian, for he combines with the scientific training of a man of letters a practical experience derived from having been premier of France some years ago. Moreover, the "atmosphere" of the period of which he writes was actually breathed by him. As he himself says, speaking of the war of 1870: "I was at that time sixteen. The generation to which I belong was barely emerging from childhood: it saw everything, its intellect was matured by that cruel spectacle. I came to Paris to begin my studies some months after the commune. The city was dejected and there were traces of
hidden agitation. From that time pressing questions arose in me: What had been the causes of the greatness of France in the past? What were the causes of her defeat? What would be the moving forces in her approaching resurrection? My manhood has applied itself to the solution of the problems put by my youth. It has sometimes allowed itself to be diverted from its studies, but it has never lost sight of them." (p. viii.)
Beginning with the condition of France in 1870, M. Hanotaux shows how specious were the foundations of the imperial régime of Napoleon III.; how "he had the power to reign only by abandoning himself body and soul to the policy of intervention;" how "like the illustrious founder of his race, he was obliged to war and condemned to a succession of victories." (p. i.) Contrasting the characters of Napoleon III. and the great Bonaparte, he sums up the two respectively in this phrase: "The one had genius; the other, ingenuity.” (p. 2.) In tracing the origins of the Franco-Prussian War he seems to spare the Empress Eugenie as much as he deals out blame to the Emperor. As to the events of the war itself, they are briefly passed over, and almost the entire book is taken up with the political complications ensuing after Sedan. Some of the facts which he discusses are of exceeding interest: notably, the early determination of Prussia to demand Alsace-Lorraine (pp. 18-19), and the evidence that Bismarck was opposed to this demand, but was forced into it by the Prussian general staff—a difference of opinion which resulted in a bitter breach between Bismarck and Moltke, (indeed, much of the writing of the book revolves around the divided sentiments of the great German minister and the German general, and the hostility existing between Thiers and Gambetta); the nature and extent of the Prussian domination in France, which was so complete that the elections of February, 1871, took place under the eyes of the enemy: "In forty-three departments postal communication was forbidden, and circulation in the departments under occupation was very nearly impossible. In that part of our territory the electoral decrees were posted up by the agency of the German authorities." (p. 30.) In passing it may be stated that the extent and efficiency of the Prussian administration of France here alluded to is a very interesting matter to follow up in M. Hanotaux's book.
Throughout the book admirable character sketches are to be found; the judgment of Bismarck, all things considered, is a moderate one. The book as a whole might just as well have been called a history of the ministry of Thiers under the Third Republic, for in reality he is the central figure. Readers of Mr. Andrew D. White's "Recollections," now appearing in one of the current magazines who read his biting criticism of Thiers, will be interested especially in the judgment of a compatriot of the little minister.
The present volume concludes with May 24, 1873, culminating in the fall of the government of Thiers. The succeeding volume, it is promised, will be devoted to the presidency of Marshal MacMahon and the founding of the Republic; while the third and fourth will deal with the history of the parliamentary republic. For the satisfaction of the interested reader the author assures us that "I have
made arrangements so that the four volumes may follow one another in rapid succession."
The English edition is not all that one might wish, for the reader who is sensitive either to good English or to good French will find much to pardon. Such slipshod phraseology as "woken up” (p. 5), "notoriety" used for fame (pp. 53 and 64), "He (Bismarck) was always on deck" (p. 115) are examples of the loose parlance that abounds. There is a curious literalness also in the translation of French abstract terms, for the translator continually translates the article with the noun; e. g., "the democracy," when speaking of democracy as a principle of government.
University of Chicago,
JAMES WESTFALL THOMPSON.
Autobiography of Seventy Years. By GEORGE F. HOAR. With portraits. Two volumes. Pp. ix, 434, and viii, 493. Price, $7.50. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1903.
Ex-Senator George F. Edmunds is reputed to have once credited Senator Hoar with being one of the half dozen men who did the whole work of the Senate. However this may be, Senator Hoar's continuous service in the Senate exceeds in length that of any other man now living, and he has represented Massachusetts in the Senate for a longer period than any of the other great men who have served that ancient Commonwealth in the Upper House. For thirty-six years he has been a member of one or the other House of Congress, and almost from his first entrance into the Senate he has occupied a position of leadership among the able men of that distinguished body. During twenty-two of his twenty-seven years in the Senate, he has been a member of the Judiciary Committee, and during about half of the time he has served as its chairman. The personal recollections of few public men, therefore, should be more entertaining and instructive than those of Senator Hoar. Of the volumes under review it truly can be said, that so far as genuine entertainment is concerned, they hardly can be excelled by the reminiscences of any of our public men. Senator Hoar's style has a certain charm about it that never fails to hold the interest of the reader. He possesses a rich fund of anecdotes which is frequently drawn upon to enliven the pages of his story, while his abundant illustrations from the classics give evidence of his wide reading and scholarship.
But to the serious student the autobiography is not all that could be wished for. It does not begin to approach Grant's Memoirs in compactness, information and dignity, while it falls below some of the latter military reminiscences in one or the other of these qualities. Trivial incidents and personal references, despite the author's disclaimer that he is not a vain man, abound altogether too frequently. Irrelevant matter, such as is found in the chapters on the "Saturday Club," the "Worcester Fire Society," the "Forest of Dean," etc., still further swells the compass of the "autobiography" Here and there chapters not exceeding two pages in amount and dealing with unimportant incidents are thrown in, thus giving the story a scrappy appearance.
The most valuable features of the autobiography are the portraitures of public men whom Senator Hoar has known. The more important of these are found in the chapters, entitled "Some Judges I have Known," "Some Orators I have Heard," "Some Southern Senators," and "Leaders of the Senate in 1877." It is somewhat surprising to note the high estimate which he has placed upon some of the Southern leaders whom he has known but always opposed uncompromisingly. Thus a whole chapter, entitled "President Cleveland's Judges," is in fact devoted to an appreciation of Justice L. Q. C. Lamar. Among Republican leaders Webster, Sumner, Chase and Henry Wilson are the subjects of extended eulogy. Conkling, he thinks, was not the equal of either Blaine, Sherman or Carl Schurz. Only in dealing with General Butler does the venerable Senator lose his moderation. An entire chapter is devoted to Butler's "record" and a severe judgment passed upon his public character. Aside from portraitures of public men there is an excellent chapter on Harvard sixty years ago; there are also chapters on "Four National Conventions," the "Credit Mobilier," the "Foundation of the Republican Party," the "Political History of Massachusetts," and many others of less importance.
J. W. GARNER
Lavisse: Histoire de France, Tome V, Part 1, Les Guerres d'Italie-La France
The co-operative Hsitoire de France has reached the sixteenth century. Part I of Volume V, M. Lemonnier describes the evolution in politics, administration and intellectual life from 1492 to 1547. About one-third of the volume is taken up by the Italian wars, which brought France into contact with all Europe. Excellent chapters describe the growth of centralism and absolutism. A large space relatively (about one-quarter of the volume) is devoted to the intellectual evolution. Finally, there is a compact account of the beginnings of the Reformation movement in France.
The transformation from feudal conditions is clearly marked in the government, in the finances, in the formation of the new nobility. In the Church, too, the Concordat of 1516 brought about a great change from medieval conditions. As a whole, the volume gives the impression of rapid evolution in all the spheres of national activity.
The economic situation under Francis I., the new literary and artistic movements, and the character of some of the chief actors, are especially well portrayed. Instead of being a confused mass of material, relating, sometimes to the political life, sometimes to the wars, sometimes to the intellectual and religious phases of the time, M. Lemonnier has succeeded in producing a well-proportioned narrative, in which each subject is described briefly but satisfactorily. He has paid greater attention than the authors of the preceding parts to the fine arts and to pedagogy.