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quently be had from the intensive cultivation of a very small field. Professor Smith has set himself to the single task of thoroughly investigating the topography of the route followed by Benedict Arnold and his forces on their march to Quebec during the autumn of 1775, and no one will gainsay the fidelity with which the author has performed his task.

The author begins by discussing the extent to which the route was known before Arnold's time. Attention is called to the fact that the French authorities in Canada considered it feasible in a proposed attack on Boston and that both Shirley and Pownall had it in mind as a practicable route whereby to menace Quebec. During the operations against Canada in 1759 despatches to Wolfe had been sent by way of the Kennebec and Chaudiere and a little later, General Amherst had had the route carefully examined by an engineer. Arnold, however, was the first to test its feasibility with any considerable force. Then follows an examination of "the witnesses" in the course of which the author passes sound judgment on each fragment of contemporary evidence. Of these there is, in truth, no dearth, and the main task lies in winnowing the wheat from the chaff. To this end the Journals of Arnold, Henry, Dearborn, Meigs and others; the orderly books, reports of engineers, accounts and correspondence are all scrutinized as to their accuracy and comprehensiveness. Next begins the main theme, an almost inch-by-inch tracing of the route followed.

A generous number of small maps is included in the volume, while in the matter of notes and citations the recognized canons of scientific historical writing are scrupulously observed. Indeed, the critical notes are models of their kind. Arnold's own journal is appropriately included in an appendix with explanatory notes. Bibliography and Index leave nothing to be desired. The author may rest assured that his work will never have to be performed again.12

SOUTH CAROLINA as a Royal PROVINCE, by Dr. W. Roy Smith, 43 is a welcome addition to the series of studies which present the results of research work initiated in the seminary of Colonial History of Columbia University. The present work is a most thorough and scientific study based upon contemporary sources, both printed and manuscript.

In distinction to the recent elaborate narrative history of this colony by the late General McCrady, this monograph selecting South Carolina as the type of a Royal Province essays, by means of a topical treatment to unfold its constitutional and administrative development, in the course of which many of the chief historical events are discussed in order to illustrate the political evolution. A comprehensive introductory chapter reviews the proprietary period, noting even in these early years the tendency of the Assembly to encroach upon the rights of the proprietors. Then logically follows three chapters of about fifty pages dealing with the land system. These present the relations between the king, who succeeded to the rights of the proprietors as landlords and the colonists who were the tenants, and the resulting controversies over land grants and quit rents, in

42 Contributed by William Bennett Munro.

43 Pp. xix, 441. Price, $2.50. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1903.

both of which the king was worsted. The main part of the volume, however, is devoted to the government, treating successively the executive, the legislative and judicial departments, with chapters upon the colonial agency, the military and financial systems, and finally presenting an extended review of the events between 1760 and 1776 leading to the downfall of the royal government.

Through a study of the political and institutional development of this typical colony, the author seeks to demonstrate the truth of “the thesis that the American Revolution was the climax" of the "continual conflict between two opposing tendencies," common to the colonies in general, represented by the party of the royal prerogative on the one hand, and the popular party on the other. The first, composed of the Governor, the Council and the other crown officials, as the agents of the imperial government and the representatives of the king, stood for the monarchical principle and British interests, while the House of Assembly, as the representatives of the people stood for democracy and for what they regarded as "the rights of Englishmen." When, after 1760, the English Government attempted to strengthen the administration and curb the Assembly, the effort came too late to be successful, and only excited the growth of the spirit of rebellion in the colony, while at the same time its general colonial policy developed the sentiment of union.

In conclusion it may be said without fear of contradiction, that there is no clearer presentation of the actual workings of the legislative branch and of the various administrative organs of the royal province than that found in this volume. 11


AMONG THE WRITINGS of the early French explorers in the Mississippi Valley none has received more attention than the works of Father Louis Hennepin.45 This has been due, not so much to their intrinsic merit, as to the barefaced mendacity of the author, who not content with vilifying La Salle with whom he was associated for a time, attempted to rob him of the credit of being the first European to explore the lower courses of the Mississippi. The love of adventure and the fascination of the unknown sentiments so deeply influencing the men of the 16th and 17th centuries, are nowhere better exemplified than in the experiences of this Flemish friar, but his actual contribution to the knowledge of North America consists in an account published by him in France in 1683 of a journey undertaken three years before at command of La Salle from the Illinois River north toward the source of the Mississippi, where he fell into the hands of the Sioux Indians and spent some months in captivity, wandering about with these savages. This account, which appeared under the title of "Louisiane," was translated into English by Shea in 1880. For this reason Mr. Thwaites has chosen to edit the latter, but in some respects more interesting, work of Hennepin, in which is incorporated, together with the "Louisiane," the apocryphal narrative of the friar's descent of the Mississippi and an account of the Indian tribes in its valley. Not

44 Contributed by Dr. Herman V. Ames. 45 Hennepin's A New Discovery in America. Reuben Gold Thwaites. Pp. lxiv, 711; 2 vols. 1903.

Edited with introduction, notes and index by
Price, $5.00. Chicago: A. C. McClurg & Co.,

withstanding the falsity of its claims the second part of the book contains much of interest, for it was drawn with few changes from Le Clercq's Etablissement de la Foi, which included the journal of Father Membre, who really made the descent of the river with La Salle in 1682. The editing of the reprint has been done with care. An introduction gives all that is known of Hennepin's life in Europe and a resumé of his American experiences.

The most valuable part of the critical apparatus is the careful and scholarly Hennepin bibliography appended to the introduction and prepared by Victor Hugo Paltsits of the Lenox Library, New York. Various attempts at such a list have been made before, notably by Harisse, Sabin, Shea, Winsor, Remington and Dionne, but they were all marked by great inaccuracy. We now have for the first time a complete and systematic bibliography of Hennepin's works. 18

THE HISTORY OF LIQUOR LICENSING IN ENGLAND, PRINCIPALLY FROM 1700 TO 1830, by Sidney and Beatrice Webb," is really a chapter from a larger study they are making of English Local Government. The volume has largely an historical interest for us, but for the English who are now seeking the best means of controlling the liquor traffic it will prove of greater value, for it shows that many of the present proposals were tried—and in vain-long years ago, while the more successful plans are also clearly described.


The United States in Our Own Time. A History from Reconstruction to Expansion. By E. BENJAMIN ANDREWS, Chancellor of the Univerity of Nebraska, and sometime President of Brown University. Pp. xxxvii, 961. Price, $5.00. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1903. This work is a continuation of the author's "History of the United States During the Last Quarter of a Century," which appeared several years ago. The plan and method of treatment of the earlier work are followed here without change. The history opens with an account of the industrial, social and political conditions in the United States at the close of reconstruction (1870) and ends with a reference to the postal frauds of 1903, embracing a period of thirty-three years and comprising a volume of nearly one thousand pages. Some of the many subjects which are fully treated are, frauds and scandals in the public service, beginning with the Tweed ring, and including the whisky frauds, the credit mobilier, the various scandals of Grant's second term, the Star route frauds, and ending with those of 1903 in the postal service. No other period in our history has been so fruitful of scandal in the public service and the uninformed reader of President Andrews' book is likely to get the impression that government frauds were matters of daily occurrence. Other subjects treated are, expositions and national anniversaries, so numerous that descriptions of them become tiresome; earthquakes, fires, floods, strikes, financial panics, Indian massacres, polar ex46 Contributed by Prof. A. C. Howland.

47 Pp. viii, 162. Price, $1.00. New York: Longmans, Green & Co., 1903.

peditions, anarchistic riots, etc. Entire chapters are devoted to Indian wars in the West, the agrarian movement in the seventies, Arctic expeditions, the World's Columbian Exposition, and the negro. The latter chapter, however, being based on the Eleventh Census, taken fourteen years ago, has little present value. The book contains a good deal of quotation and nearly one thousand illustrations, some of which add to its value as a popular work. It is, in fact, intended for popular readers and not for critical students for whom it can have little value. A serious defect consists in the inadequate treatment of political and constitutional questions which have too often been neglected for non-political matters, such as fires, floods, earthquakes, and other happenings, that have exercised no influence on the development of the country. To take an example: scarcely a page is given to our controversy with Great Britain in 1896 over the Venezuelan incident, while immediately following, the Lexow investigation in New York City and the A. P. A. controversy are each given four or five times as much treatment. Finally, the book is full of loose, inaccurate statements. To mention only two: the statement is made on page 917 that the Northern Securities Company was created with a capital stock approaching a billion dollars and on page 927 it is stated that the Elkins Act created the Department of Commerce and Labor. It should not be forgotten, however, that he who essays to write contemporary history must needs rely largely on newspaper reports for his materials and hence errors of inaccuracy are often unavoidable. In spite of all defects President Andrews' book is interestingly conceived and written and, being the only one that covers the later period of our history, it supplies a real want. JAMES WILFORD GARNER,

Getting a Living: The Problem of Wealth and Poverty-of Profits, Wages and TradePp. 769. Price, $1.50.

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New York:

Unionism. By GEORGE L. BOLEN. The Macmillan Company, 1903. "The purpose in writing this book ... is to give the connected and somewhat complete view that all intelligent citizens should have of the many economic divisions of the great problem of labor and life, but which . . . . is possessed now by perhaps less than a tenth of even college graduates." It is a rather inclusive study of the labor problem. The twenty-eight chapters deal with such topics as "Rent and Land Ownership,” “Interest, ," "The Employer and His Profits," Co-operative Industry," "Profit Sharing," "Wages," "Trade-Unions and Poverty."

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The author usually approaches the various problems from the point of view of a third party. The text and footnotes (of which there are entirely too many) constitute a veritable encyclopædia of miscellaneous facts. But it must be said that the author is more interested in stating what should be and what must be because of the unfailing operation of natural law, than in setting forth and explaining what actually is. In the course of his discussions Mr. Bolen gives us the results of some acute thinking and many common sense opinions. But the book brings with the good much that is bad.

In the first place, it is difficult to read. In some chapters perhaps half of

the matter is found in the footnotes, some of which must be read to get a proper understanding of the text. The style is also bad, and grammatical errors are numerous. In the second place, the material is not well organized. This makes much repetition necessary and adds to the difficulty experienced by the reader in getting at the author's thought. Again, some of the discussions are not very enlightening. The author is at such pains to justify interest and profits that little light is shed upon them. On page 52, wages, we learn, may not be higher than prices will justify, and because of the competition for laborers, they will usually be the maximum marginal employers can afford to pay. We are assured many times over that laborers will get all they produce. In the discussion of the principles determining the rate of wages, we are told that there is a "wage fund" (p. 130). "This fund consists of all that employers stand ready to spend in wages whether the money paid remains from the original starting capital, came from recent sales of product, or is yet to be obtained from sales, loans or additional investment (p. 131).

Another chapter in which the reader will be disappointed is that bearing the title: "Have Wage Workers Obtained their Share?" The average reader will expect to find information relating to what wage workers have as a matter of fact received. But of such information little will be found there or elsewhere. The author holds (p. 363) that they have obtained "a constantly increasing share of a constantly increasing product." This opinion is based upon the theory that competition among employers causes prices to fall with the diminished expense of production so that if laborers do not gain directly by obtaining higher money wages, they must gain indirectly as consumers. Inasmuch as many writers have expressed doubt as to the varying proportions in which the product has been divided, would it not have been better for the author to establish the truth of his opinion by citing facts rather than, in effect, by stating that it must be so?

But while much of the book is disappointing, it contains several very good chapters. Among others, those on "Co-operative Industry,' 'Profit Sharing," "The Shorter Work Day," "The Injunction in Labor Disputes,” and “Prison Labor."

Leland Stanford Junior University.


Militarism. A Contribution to the Peace Crusade. By GUGlielmo FerreRO. Pp. 320. Price, $3.50. Boston: L. C. Page & Co., 1903.

In the English version of this work the original text as published in 1898 has been modified to answer the objections of its critics, and enlarged so as to include new problems for consideration. The avowed purpose of the book is to encourage "the grand work of pacifying civilized nations," and to demonstrate that a "general European war . . . . would be a world calamity and would produce incalculable evils without recompense."

The author launches his theme with a general discussion of the principles and policies that actuate the conduct of nations in reference to peace and war at the end of the nineteenth century, devoting some attention to the significance of

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