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tion. It must be observed that the philological parts of the book are, to say the least, subject to criticism.
THE EDUCATIONAL Conquest in the Far East," by Robert E. Lewis, M.A., reads more like a romance than a statement of facts. Perhaps the part relating to Japan is more interesting, and particularly since it shows in a very great measure the reasons for the marvelous development of this far East Empire during the past thirty years. The results accomplished in Japan as here portrayed are perhaps among the marvels of our past century's progress. The influence of the German, the English and the American school teachers in Japan is clearly portrayed, and presents such an array of interesting incidents as challenge the admiration and increase the convictions of all friends of education.
In China the results of the modern spirit at work in the educational system are not so apparent. Some good has been accomplished, partly from the heroic efforts and activities of missionaries from the enlightened parts of Europe and the United States, but China has not progressed as Japan did, and she is well nigh in the mist and shadows of her dominant and effete influences. We have in China the working out of its logical ends (for the Chinese mind is logical in a way) of a system of examinations, which in every application work riot and ruin to an educational system such as our present civilization has demonstrated to be most helpful and most useful. The effect of all this manifests itself in two directions. First, illiteracy predominates; as the possibility of passing this rigid examination is beyond the reach of the masses, and no other outlook or guidance being apparent, the children receive no education whatever. In the second place, the traditions of the Chinese religion are fastened indelibly upon the minds of each succeeding generation. There is nothing to prepare the child for this examination save the old commentaries which have been in use for the same purpose not only for centuries, but for thousands of years, and the whole culture of the people is rendered static by holding rigidly to these unchanged and involved commentaries on the State Religion. Evidently the need of China is the establishment of training schools under State control and the creation of a thoroughly distributed system of primary or elementary Public Schools, the function of which would be not primarily to breed rulers and office holders, but to put each individual in possession of elementary knowledge and a form of culture which would break up his contentment with present conditions and compel him to seek, through increased activities, the realization of the newer ideas imparted to him by these schools. Until China succeeds in accomplishing this, her outlook as a nation will continue to be what it now is. Mr. Lewis' book gives many interesting statistics. These are scattered over his pages at random. One cannot help but regret that these statistics are not used in a more helpful manner to the scholar, but the student is able to vision the conditions for which they stand. On the whole, the book is really readable, is full of information and suggestion and presents the advance in education in these two great Oriental nations in a suggestive and stimulating manner. Certain 24 Pp. 248. Price, $1.00 New York: Fleming H. Revell Co., 1903.
textual errors might be pointed out; for instance, on page 149, Chih should be Shih; and again, on page 152, the enumerating of mental acquisitions is set forth with evident carelessness. These minor matters are no doubt due to the haste in which the book seems to have been prepared, and perhaps to the fact that the author did not have the opportunity to make a final revision of his material. These typographical errors do not seriously mar the value of the book. Its general effect is helpful. It is a distinct contribution to the educational literature of the year.2 25
THE PROFESSIONAL TRAINING OF SECONDARY TEACHERS IN THE UNITED STATES,20 by G. W. A. Luckey, Professor of Education, University of Nebraska, is the most extensive work yet issued on this subject; and yet, as the preface well says, it is "at most, scarcely more than a beginning." The book proper consists of 258 pages, divided into five chapters. Chapter I gives a brief historical sketch of the "beginning and growth of the professional training of teachers in Germany;" Chapter II a much briefer treatment of the rise of the Normal School in the United States; Chapter III is devoted to the movement within colleges and universities, especially in the West, for the preparation of teachers chiefly for the elementary schools; in Chapter IV is given a fuller account, by selected types, of "the special movement”—likewise in colleges and universities—“for the professional preparation of secondary teachers," which began in the University of Michigan, about 1880, and within the next twenty years spread to almost all colleges and universities of prominence in the country. Chapters V and VI conclude the book proper. Of these, the former is devoted to an attempt to answer the questions: "What, When and Where?" of professional training for secondary school teachers; the latter discusses the questions, whether teachers of elementary and of secondary schools should have essentially the same sort of professional training, and whether this training should be given for each class in one and the same institution. The author reaches a negative conclusion to each question; he holds that elementary school teachers can be most advantageously trained in the Normal Schools, and teachers of secondary schools in the educational departments of colleges and universities. The whole book is marred by numerous slight inaccuracies and misprints; still, though the great book on this subject remains to be written, the present work is well worth reading."
THE MIDDLE AGES, by P. V. N. Myers, 28 is a revision of the first part of the author's "Mediæval and Modern History," which appeared in 1885. The revision consists chiefly in incorporating into the text the results of recent researches in the field of Mediæval History, and in emphasizing more the institutional side of history rather than the dynastic and military phases. The best chap
25 Contributed by Prof. M. G. Brumbaugh.
26 Pp. 391. Price, paper $2.00 net; cloth, $2.50 net. New York: The Macmillan Company 1903. (Columbia University Contributions to Philosophy, Psychology and Education.) 27 Contributed by W. S. Thomas.
28 Pp. x, 454. Boston and London Ginn & Co.
ters are those on Monasticism, Feudalism and Chivalry, the Papacy, the Towns, the Universities, and the Renaissance. Some of the dozen maps are new; others are the usual stock maps. A useful addition is the critical bibliography of sources and secondary works appended to each chapter. A quantity of good illustrative material is given in the footnotes, and references are made to the best modern authorities. The revision of the second part of the original text will appear later. 29
AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN LIFE IN TOWN AND COUNTRY, by Francis H. E. Palmer, 30 constitutes the ninth volume in the series, "Our European Neighbors," edited by William Harbutt Dawson. The excellence of the earlier volumes has given the series a well-merited popularity, and to this Mr. Palmer's appreciative study of the life in Austria-Hungary will add materially. It gives us a glimpse of contemporary conditions; the daily life, manners and customs of the people of this polyglot kingdom. The German Austrians are treated in four chapters, the Hungarians in two. In the latter sufficient distinction is not made between the two strata of society, the Magyar and the Slav. A chapter each devoted to the northern Slavs, the southern Slavs and the minor nationalities brings out the strange diversity of races and customs of the Hapsburg lands. The last part of the book, in five chapters, is devoted to the political, industrial, intellectual and religious conditions of the monarchy, while a special chapter is devoted to the two capitals Vienna and Buda-Pesth.
A POSTHUMOUS BOOK by Fernand Pelloutier, 31 who for seven years was the Secretary of the General Federation of Labor Exchanges in France, gives a wellwritten account, from the standpoint of a socialist, of the so-called "bourses du travail," or labor exchanges. These exchanges, which have had the rare fortune of meeting with the approval not only of radical socialists, but also of hidebound liberal economists such as M. de Molinari, are centers where laborers may discover the opportunities for employment that exist in their own and in other localities, in order to profit by this knowledge in offering their labor for sale in the best market. They resemble stock exchanges, except that instead of regulating the market for the sale and purchase of securities, they regulate it for the sale and purchase of labor, and with a view to improving the condition of labor. They furnish laborers, like the corporations of the middle ages, with the means necessary for traveling to such places as offer better conditions of employment. They provide help in cases of loss of work or in case of illness. They attempt to establish trade schools and to collect statistical data of importance to the laboring classes. Since 1892 their development in France has been rapid, and now they may be found in all parts of France, bound together into a national federation. The whole movement in France, however, is strongly influenced by socialistic doctrines. 32
29 Contributed by Walter L. Fleming, Ph.D.
30 Pp. 300. Price, $1.20. New York and London: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1903.
31 Histoire des Bourses du Travail. Origines, Institutions, Avenir. By Fernand Pelloutier. Pp. xx and 232. Price, 3.50 francs. Paris: 1903. Schleicher Frères.
32 Contributed by Dr. C. W. A. Veditz.
NORTH CAROLINA: A STUDY IN ENGLISH COLONIAL GOVERNMENT, by Charles Lee Raper, Ph.D.,33 embodies the results of a critical study of the struggle between the representatives of the crown in North Carolina and the popular party.
There are chapters on the Governor, Council and Assembly and on the territorial, fiscal, judicial and military systems. He shows us how inevitable it was that the Governor and Council should have been arrayed against the lower house of the Legislature. Many of the controversies are discussed in detail. The last two chapters summarize the chief questions in dispute, explain their constitutional significance, and trace the immediate steps which led to the downfall of royal government.
Few writers on Colonial History have emphasized sufficiently the fact that the king was the landlord as well as the head of the government in the royal province. Dr. Raper's work is hardly open to this criticism. He describes the administrative side of the land system and calls attention to the incessant quarrels over the payment of quit rents, which served to embitter the feelings of the colonists against the crown.34
VOLUME VII. of the "Publications of the Mississippi Historical Society," edited by Franklin L. Riley, Ph.D., surpasses in bulk, if not in quality, all of the previous volumes of the Society. The present volume contains twenty-nine papers, including the address of welcome delivered before the Society at its annual meeting, by Hon. John Sharp Williams. Most of the papers are chiefly of local value, although there is hardly one that cannot be read with interest by the general student of American history. There are several papers on local phases of the Civil War and Reconstruction periods, one on makeshifts during the war, one on historic homes in Mississippi, one on the cholera epidemic of 1849, and one on British West Florida. There are a number of biographical sketches, those of most general interest perhaps being sketches of the noted Indian, Greenwood Leflore, the late Senator George and Colonel Claiborne, the historian of the State. The second annual report of Mr. Dunbar Rowland, the State Director of History and Archives, shows encouraging progress in the collection and arrangement of the historical records of the State.
Decidedly above the average doctor's disseRTATION in scholarship and practical usefulness is Dr. George L. Scherger's "Evolution of Modern Liberty," a study of the genesis and development of the political theory embodied in the American Bills of Rights and in the French Declaration of Rights. The work is divided into four parts: (1) the history and development of natural law from the earliest times to the present; (2) the history of the doctrine of the sovereignty of the people; (3) the American Bills of Rights with particular reference to their origin and development; and (4) the French Declaration of the Rights of Man.
33 Pp. xiii, 260. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1903.
34 Contributed by W. Roy Smith, Ph.D.
35 Pp. 531. Printed for the Society. Oxford, Miss., 1903.
30 Pp. x, 284.
Price, $1.10. New York: Longmans, Green & Co., 1904.
Especially valuable is the author's discussion of the influence of the American Bills of Rights upon the French Declaration.
EIGHTY YEARS OF UNION, by James Schouler, 37 is made up of extracts taken bodily from the author's larger work, and hence any criticism upon the subject matter would only be to pass judgment anew upon disconnected parts of a work which has gained a permanent place in the bibliography of American history. It was prepared, so says the author, "at the request of some eminent educators for the special use of students and the casual reader." The full presentation of some of the more important events of our history may be of service to students using only the smaller texts, and the "appreciations" of the prominent characters, from Washington to Lincoln, will interest the casual reader. The claim of the publishers that it "comprises a consecutive narrative of our United States history" for the period 1783-1865 can hardly be substantiated. When one finds that the Louisiana treaty, the head of which has been cut off, is disposed of in a little more than two pages, mostly rhetoric that makes not unpleasant reading, and nearly four pages given to the Burr-Hamilton duel and a eulogy upon Hamilton, who has already occupied considerable space, he is inclined to doubt if a due sense of proportion has been preserved. 38
“THE INTERESTS OF THE LABORING CLASSES," says Leon de Seilhac in his book on French labor organizations, "have been defended in two different ways: (1) By strikes, which are industrial wars; (2) By trades-unions, which mean armed peace." Thereupon he discusses the raison d'etre of trades-unions, the obstacles which stand in the way of their formation and effectual operation, and their development in France since the law of 1884. He describes several types of trades-unions, and sketches the federative tendency among large numbers of these unions. Two federations already in existence-the French Federation of Bookworkers and the Glassmakers Federation of France -are described in considerable detail.
The second part of the book discusses the so-called labor exchanges (bourses du travail), which are rapidly becoming an important factor in the French industrial situation. Throughout the entire book the author's attitude is one of sympathy toward labor organizations. He regards trades-unions "as a sole basis upon which it is possible to establish a rational organization of industrial society.
ARNOLD'S MARCH FROM CAMBRIDGE TO QUEBEC, by Justin H. Smith," Professor of Modern History, Dartmouth College, is a monograph which bears striking and conclusive testimony to the satisfactory results which may fre
37 Pp. 416. Price, $1.75. New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1903.
38 Contributed by D. Y. Thomas, Ph.D.
89 Syndicats ouvriers, Federations, Bourses du Travail. By Leon de Seilhac. Pp. 341. Price, 3.50 fr. Paris: Armand Colin.
40 Contributed by Dr. C. W. A. Veditz, Lewiston, Me.
41 Pp. xix, 486. Price, $2.00. New York and London G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1903.