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IN HIS WORK, "How England Averted a Revolution by Force," Mr. B. O. Flower presents a study of the anti-Corn-Law movement in England, or, to put it more broadly, "a survey of the social agitation of the first ten years of Queen Victoria's reign." But his purpose is deeper than to present a mere historical statement. He says we have come to depend on Old World precedents for our action as a nation to a greater degree than in our earlier history. And he tells his story to show how the rights of the people may be successfully asserted, and how the ends of justice may be reached by peaceful, orderly means. The book deals with the causes of popular unrest, the origin, progress and result of chartism, the history of the Corn Laws, and of the movement which culminated in their repeal.10

IT HAPPENS BUT SELDOM that an American student is able to anticipate or to supersede the indefatigable Germans in the study of the history of their own country. In a monograph, entitled "Hanover and Prussia," Dr. Guy Stanton Ford" has established for himself a strong claim to this distinction. His study is a careful account based upon a critical use of the sources, printed and in manuscript form, of the relations of Prussia and Hanover to each other, and to the epoch-making international events set in motion by revolutionary France at the end of the eighteenth century.

By the treaty of Basel in 1795 Prussia withdrew from the first coalition against France and for eleven years she maintained a strictly neutral policy, during which her running-mate in Germany, Austria, suffered defeat in three disastrous wars with the French. Little wonder then that Prussia has been accused of bad faith, and of indifference to the interests of the fatherland, though it can scarcely account for the fact that even German historians, like Treitschke, treat the period as altogether inglorious, one of "unrelieved weakness and disgrace." It is against this attitude that Mr. Ford protests by a vigorous array of well marshaled facts. That he establishes the case for making the period the really critical one of modern Prussia can scarcely be admitted, but his main contention against the German point of view he clearly proves. Mr. Ford shows conclusively that had neutrality been made effective by an adequate military force, as the author of the policy urged, the whole result and therefore also the aspect of the period would have been changed. That it was not must be attributed to King Frederick William III. (not King William III., page 131). Prussia lost a golden opportunity and prepared the way for her own disasters.

Another feature of the study is the clear case made out for the practical identification of the interests of Hanover with those of Prussia, notwithstanding the personal union of the former with England. This Mr. Ford shows to have been inevitable because of the geographic position of Hanover, its proximity to Prussia on the one side, and to Holland, then occupied by France, on the other.

Pp. 288. Price, $1.25. Trenton: Albert Brandt, 1903.

10 Contributed by C. T. Wyckoff, Ph.D.

11 Hanover and Prussia, 1795-1803. A Study in Neutrality. Pp. 315. Price, $2.00. New York: Columbia University Press, 1903.

The style and manner of presentation are excellent. There are occasional slips as for example one cited above, the identification of Count Hardenberg with the Prussian statesman, the undue importance attached to the acquisition of the title of King of Prussia (p. 21), and one might prefer to see the form Tsar in place of Czar in a monograph on modern European affairs. But these are minor matters scarcely to be noticed in a work so generally meritorious. 12

GERMAN STUDENTS preparing for the degree of "Doctor of Political Sciences" now conferred by two or three universities of the Empire are required, among other things, to prepare and publish an original essay on some economic subject. In this requirement the term "original" is taken rather seriously, for the essay must not duplicate previous contributions to the literature of economics. The result of this requirement, combined with the almost universal attitude of opposition, among economists of the German historical school, to the present further development of economic theory pure and simple, is an annually increasing output of "Doktordissertationen" treating, with the greatest possible care and minuteness, of some narrowly confined field or period of economic history. These microscopic investigations, universally prompted by the kind suggestion of some "verehrter Lehrer," are piled higher and higher from year to year. Their greatest service of course consists not so much in the instruction they convey to possible readers as the profit (of a purely scientific nature) which they bring to the respective authors themselves.


From time to time, however, an essay is deemed worthy of a wider circulation and is incorporated in the "publications" of one of the great German seminaries of economics. Five essays of this class recently received by the ANNALS for review bear the following titles: "The Industries of Silesia under the Influence of Caprivi's Commercial Policy," "The Industries of the Rhine Provinces from 1888 to 1900," "The Commercial Interests of the German Cities on the Baltic Sea," Financial Trust Societies," and "The Westphalian Community of Eversberg. The first of these essays is an appeal, based on data drawn from recent experience, for a foreign commercial policy which shall not curtail but, if possible, extend the foreign markets of Silesia, whose geographical position makes foreign commerce especially desirable and important. The second essay, somewhat more interesting to the American economist, is an investigation of the effects of the protectionist policy on certain trust-made commodities. The third contains a discussion of the present imperial policy with regard to the coast trade on the

12 Contributed by W. E. Lingelbach.

13 Schlesien's Industrie unter dem Einflusse der Caprivi schen Handelspolitik, 1889-1900. By Arthur Friedrich. Pp. ii and 192. Price, 4 marks. Die Industrie der Rheinprovinz, 1888-1900. Ein Beitrag zur Frage der Handelspolitik und der Kartelle. By Theodor Vogelstein. Pp. x. and 112. Price, 3 marks.

Handelspolitische Interessen der deutschen Ostseestaedte, 1890-1900. By Stephan Jonas Pp. vi and 92. Price, 2 marks. Pp. xii and 160. Price, 3 marks,

60 pf.

Finanzielle Trustgesellschaften.

By Maz Joergens.

Die Westfaelische Gemeinde Eversberg. Eine Wirtschaftliche Untersuchung. By August Engel. Pp. iii and 144. Price, 3 marks and 30 pf.

All of these essays belong to the Muenchener volkswirtschaftliche Studien and are pubpublished by J. G. Cotta (Stuttgart and Berlin), 1902 and 1903.

Baltic. The fourth is a study of so-called investment trusts in England and Germany-their economic function and legal organization. The last is an economic history, from the middle ages down, of a little town in eastern Westphalia. 14

PRESIDENT HADLEY'S BOOK ON "The Relations Between Freedom and Re


sponsibility in the Evolution of Democratic Government” grew out of the Yale lectures on "The Responsibilities of Citizenship." The object of the lectures was "to show what the ethical basis of democracy is, how it has arisen and what happens if we try to ignore it." The seven papers included in the volume discuss the working of democratic institutions in the United States, and the basis of individual liberty. There is also an analysis of freedom as a religious conception, as a legal institution, and as a foundation of ethics. The limits of individual freedom are pointed out, and the outlook for the future is discussed.

The book has the clearness, conciseness and humorous touches characteristic of President Hadley's writings. The industrial and political dangers threatening democratic institutions in the United States are well presented, but the outlook for the future is optimistic. The author believes we shall succeed in developing ethical standards regarding business and politics, that will enable us to perpetuate personal liberty and democratic institutions.


OUTLINES OF COMPARATIVE POLITICS, by Prof. B. E. Hammond, of Trinity College, Cambridge, 1o is a volume designed to serve as a textbook for beginners in the study of Comparative Politics. The work is the outgrowth of the author's experience as a teacher of this subject, and is founded, he tells us, on the lectures of the late Professor Seeley. It contains a general survey of the more important states and their governments, their beginnings, growth and present political organization. Something like two-thirds of the volume is devoted to the politics of the ancient and mediæval states, thus leaving the constitutions of modern national states very inadequately treated. Twenty pages are given to the United States, two of which, strangely enough, are devoted to a description of Tammany Hall and its methods.

CHARLES JAMES Fox: A Political Study, by J. L. LeB. Hammond,12 is not a biography of the brilliant but erratic Whig leader. It is merely a series of essays dealing with various phases of his public career, as, for example, his attitude on the Irish question, on the Indian question, on the French Revolution, on Parliamentary Reform, on religious toleration, and the like. It is a philosophical study of Fox the statesman, written by a man who is thoroughly in sympathy with his subject. There are few facts presented which cannot be found in the pages of Russell, Trevelyan, or Lecky, but Hammond's conclusions sometimes differ from theirs. He shows us what Trevelyan might have shown if he

14 Contributed by Dr. C. W. A. Veditz, Lewiston, Me.

15 Pp. 175. Price, $1.00. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1903.

16 Pp. 485.

17Pp. xii, 370.

London: Rivingtons, 1903.

Price, $2.00. New York: James Pott & Co., 1903.

had not been diverted from his subject, that Fox's place in history has been very much underrated. Unfortunately, he rather weakens his argument at times by making invidious comparisons between Fox and Pitt. Hammond's defense of

him is interesting if not quite convincing (pp. 57-60). In his opinion it was North rather than Fox who sacrificed his opinions, for the primary object of the coalition was to limit the power of the crown.

Among so many pages of unalloyed praise it is a relief to find an occasional note of disapproval. Mr. Hammond admits, quite unnecessarily, it seems to the reviewer, that Fox was wrong on the Regency Bill of 1788.

MR. CHARLES WALDO HASKINS was at the time of his death easily the best known accountant in the United States. Within the short space of eight years he had developed the largest accounting business in the world. Conspicuously successful in his profession, and, therefore, largely preoccupied with the duties which it laid upon him, Mr. Haskins yet found time to do much for the cause of business education in which he was deeply interested. In bringing together in permanent form the scattered papers and addresses of Mr. Haskins upon the subject of "Business Education and Accountancy, "'18 Dr. Cleveland has performed a meritorious service.

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The principal chapters in the book are those entitled: "Business Training," "The Scope of Banking Education,' The Possibilities of the Profession of Accounting as a Moral and Educational Force, "The Growing Need for Higher Accounting," "The Place of the Science of Accounts in Collegiate Commercial Education," "History of Accountancy," "Accountancy in Babylonia and Assyria," and "The Municipal Accounts of Chicago."

Mr. Haskins' plea was constantly for greater definiteness in economic work. He argued strongly that the economy which did not succeed in interpreting the movements of the business world was a useless science, if indeed it properly deserved the title of science at all. He urged upon the economists of the country the importance of taking into account business facts and business problems, and of relating their science to the activity of the business world.

In a word Mr. Haskins advocated that every business presented a fund of knowledge which can be reduced to law and system, and which can be imparted in class-room instruction, and that it was to the interest of every man contemplating a business career to first provide himself as far as possible with what might be termed the scientific principles of his business. He believed that busines education was as necessary to success in business as an engineering education was essential to success in that profession. It is to be hoped that the work which Mr. Haskins inaugurated and which he developed to such a considerable extent will be carried on to success by those who were fortunate enough to come within the scope of his influence. If this book should prove to be an anticipation of the future development of scientific accounting Mr. Haskins could wish for no more lasting memorial.

18 Business Education and Accountancy. By Charles Waldo Haskins, C. P. A., late Dean of the New York University School of Commerce, Finance and Accounts. Edited by Frederick Albert Cleveland, Ph.D. Pp. 239. Price, $2.00. New York: Harpers, 1904.

THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE AND THE EXPLORATION, EARLY HISTORY AND BUILDING OF THE WEST, by Ripley Hitchcock, 19 is one of the numerous volumes evoked by the St. Louis Exposition. It contains a very readable account of the discovery and settlement both of the Mississippi Valley and of the Far West region. Part I (86 pages) is devoted to a rapid review of the coming of the Spanish and the French, and of the occupation of Louisiana down to the transfer to the United States in 1803. Part II (87 pages) gives a spirited narrative of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, while Parts III and IV (197 pages), tell the story of the explorers that followed in the wake of Lewis and Clark, with a rapid survey of the winning of the West by sturdy pioneers. As a result of the haste in which the book was doubtless written, a number of minor errors have crept in. For example, on page 4, the Rio Grande and the Rio Bravo are given as separate rivers; page 27, La Salle is represented as exploring the whole course of the Mississippi; page 87, the treaty of Ildephonso is said to contain a clause denying the right of alienating Louisiana; page 94, Louisiana is said to have seceded in the spring of 1861. However, the work was not written for critical scholars, and perhaps in no other volume of so small and so convenient a compass, can a busy American find so much interesting information about the central and western portion of the United States, 20

IN LES ORIGINES DIPLOMATIQUES DE L'INDEPENDANCE BELGE, by l'Abbe Fl. de Lannoy,21 we have an interesting narrative of the London Conference of 1830-1831, a sub-title sufficiently comprehensive. To a general review of the antecedents and the preliminaries of the Conference, which has been so fully treated by Rene Dollot, in his recent work on the origin of the neutrality of Belgium, about fifty of a total of more than three hundred pages are given. Independence, neutrality, the search for a king, the regency, the election of Leopold and the Eighteen Articles, and the campaign of ten days and the Twenty-four Articles serve as chapter headings. The author quotes freely from the published writings of the several plenipotentiaries, especially from the correspondence of Prince Talleyrand with Mme. Adelaide. We note that omissions in the "Memoires" have occasionally been supplied (see pages 122, 133). The repeated misspelling of such common English words as "foreign" is indicative of undue haste, 22

PROF. ANDRe Lefevre's little book 23 on the Teutons and the Slavs is clear and well-written. The thirty-two maps it contains, showing the migrations of these peoples, are especially instructive. The author treats, principally, of the origins of the Germanic and Slavonic peoples, their invasions of Europe, and their mythologies. The purpose of the volume is merely one of populariza19 Pp. xxii, 349. Price, $1.25. Boston: Ginn & Co., 1903.

20 Contributed by Prof. John R. Ficklin.

21 Pp. xiii, 309.

22 Contributed by Samuel B. Crandall, Ph.D.

23 Germains et Slaves. Origines et Croyances. By Andre Lefevre. Pp. 247. Price, 3.50 francs. Paris, 1903. Schleicher Freres. (Bibliotheque d'Histoire et de Geographie Universelles.

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