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where special work is needed, and then after a short visit to the St. Louis Fair, to place them in schools and colleges in the Central States.

The students, as far as they have expressed themselves, desire to pursue a variety of callings upon their return to their island homes. Twenty-five per cent. of them expect to become teachers, some desire to become civil engineers, others to pursue a commercial course, a few wish to study medicine, two are eager to enter the Naval Academy at Annapolis, and then find employment in the coastwise service of the Philippines. One of these is reported to converse in Spanish, English, Japanese, French, Tagalo and Visayan languages. A few expect to study scientific agriculture and they will probably be placed in some Southern Agricultural College, in order to secure practical training in the cultivation of rice, sugar and cotton as well as acquaintance with modern agricultural instruments.

If the present high standard of students is maintained and the original plan of sending a hundred students each year to the United States for a four years' course, is continued, their influence should before long be felt in the islands and should become a powerful factor in the development of their native land.

How Yellow Fever May Be Introduced Into The Philippines.-Dr. Richard P. Strong, Director of the Biological Laboratory at Manila, P. I., has a paper in the fourth annual report of the Philippine Commision, about to be published by the Bureau of Insular Affairs, showing how the Panama Canal may become a factor in introducing yellow fever into our Eastern possessions and the entire Orient. He shows that the Hawaiian Islands, Guam, and the Philippines, will be exposed to the importation of cases of yellow fever or of infected Stegomyia fasciata (the mosquito which carries the fever), unless the disease can be banished from Panama.

The paper states: "One need glance only for a moment at the map and then at the statistics of cases of yellow fever in numerous seaport towns during the year 1902 to be again impressed by the relationship existing between commerce and yellow fever. During the past year among the seaport towns of the eastern coast of the Western Continent, Port Limon, Progress, Vera Cruz, Tuxpan, Tampico, Rio de Janeiro, Bahia, Manaos, Pernambuco, Para and Paramaribo and among those on the western coast, Panama and Guayaquil have all been frequent sufferers from this scourge. It does not seem improbable, therefore, that unless extreme precautions are taken against vessels passing from these regions and bound for ports in the Far East, infected ships, and even actual cases of yellow fever will be conveyed from the above-mentioned cities to Honolulu, or even directly to Guam, Hongkong and the Philippine Islands.

"Mail steamers from Panama should reach Honolulu in thirteen or fourteen days, and the Philippine Islands by a direct route in about twenty-eight days. Vessels, even though leaving Panama with no cases of yellow fever on board, and reaching Honolulu without a history of sickness en route, yet might obviously be most serious agents of infection to the Hawaiian Islands, for if Stegomyia


which had recently bitten persons suffering with yellow fever were taken on board the ship at Panama, they would not be capable of conveying the disease until about twelve days later, which at the earliest would be one or two days before the arrival of the ship at Honolulu. * * It has been shown that the Stegomyia is capable of conveying the germs at least as late as fifty-one days after biting a person suffering with the disease. * Should a case of yellow fever (or even infected Stegomyia) reach Manila, without quarantine, the chances would seem to be in favor of its not falling upon barren soil. Humidity and heat, which seem to be the ideal coefficients for the preservation of the disease, are always present in Philippine ports. The Stegomyia fasciata is found abundantly throughout these islands, and one may at any time readily obtain in a few minutes a number from any of the dwelling houses in Manila. * * * However, the matter has not altogether a dark side. For example, Wood and Gorgas, stimulated by the work of the late Walter Reed, have recently shown us that it is possible by proper sanitation to entirely stamp out yellow fever from its natural endemic home, Havana. * * Why then should not the same be accomplished along the entire route of the Panama Canal?”

Trade in the Philippines.-The statement of Philippine commerce for the calendar year 1903, made public through the Bureau of Insular Affairs of the War Department, gives complete statistics for the past five years in graphic and tabular form according to the leading articles of commerce, together with a brief review of the trade, and reference to recent measures that may have a bearing on the future industrial development of the islands. By comparison the general result indicates a steady advance in the volume of business transacted.

In 1902 the foreign commerce of the archipelago amounted to $62,014,070 as compared with $66,203,130 in 1903, imports aggregated $33,342,166 and $33,811,384, respectively, and exports $28,671,904 as against $32,396,746 in 1903, which figures are exclusive of gold and silver and government supplies. Ten years ago, 1893, the total value of imports and exports was but $38,073,725, the increase in the decade being 75 per cent.

The effect of adverse agricultural conditions is shown from the fact that the item of food supplies during the past year has been considerably larger than manufactured articles, in the distribution by classes being valued at seventeen million dollars or more than one-half of the total imports, a material increase over 1902 when the proportion approximated two-fifths.

With the exception of those producing rice all the principal countries, United States, United Kingdom, Spain and Germany show a falling off in imports, the rice purchases from Asiatic territory more than making up the loss in trade with Europe and the United States.

Under exports the figures on hemp and copra, products that are in great demand and require but little attention in cultivation, show a continuance of the improvement characteristic of this branch of the island's commerce. Hemp shipments reached $22,000,000, or two-thirds of the outward trade in 1903, an increase of $3,000,000 over 1902 returns, considerably more than one

half being destined for markets in the United States. An increase of more than a million dollars is noticed in the copra trade, 1903 shipments aggregating $3,800,000 in value, nearly all of which went to France. Sugar to the amount of $3,000,000, and tobacco $1,900,000, fell slightly below the exports during 1902. In the early months of 1903 several fair-sized sugar cargoes left Philippine ports for the United States, but the returns subsequent to June indicate a complete cessation of trade doubtless in the hope that favorable action would be taken on the effort for tariff reduction.

The trade between the United States and the Philippines, incoming and outgoing, for 1903, was $16,908,526, or about 25 per cent. of the latter's total trade. Imports from the United States for the past year were $3,387,100 against $4,153,174 in 1902, a slight falling off in value. The exports to the United States for 1903 were $13,071,426 against $11,475,948 for 1902, an increase of $1,595,478. The balance in favor of the Islands in 1903 was $9,234,326.

Notwithstanding a net loss over 1902 in the value of shipments from this country the amount of merchandise received at Philippine ports in American bottoms doubled in value. Philippine products exported to the United States show even greater improvement in the carrying trade, but while the increase is noticeable in each case it will be observed that eighty-eight per cent. of the cargoes either way is still confined to foreign bottoms. Of the $4,118,660 worth of imports (coin shipments included) coming from the United States last year sixty per cent. was brought in British vessels, a million dollars less in value than was shown in 1902 when all but one-fifth of our shipments entered the Islands under that flag. Nearly three-fourths of the $13,000,000 return trade reached United States ports through the same channel.

Disposition of Friar Lands.-The Bureau of Insular Affairs of the War Department has just received a copy of an enactment of the Philippine Commission, providing for the administration and temporary leasing and sale of certain haciendas and parcels of land, commonly known as "Friar Lands," for the purchase of which the Government of the Philippine Islands recently contracted.

This enactment provides that a careful examination is first to be made to ascertain the sufficiency and soundness of the titles to the land, and the Chief Engineer of the Philippine Government is directed to have careful surveys made of all haciendas and tracts of land, in order to determine with accuracy and certainty the amount of land in each hacienda. After the determination of these points payment is to be made for the lands, whereupon they are to be placed under the immediate control and direction of the Bureau of Public Lands of the Philippine Islands, the Chief of which, subject to the approval of the Secretary of the Interior of the Philippines, is to administer the land. He is enjoined by the enactment to ascertain the names and residences of the actual bona fide settlers and occupants in possession of these lands, or any portion of them, together with the extent of their holdings, and the character and value thereof; and to ascertain whether or not said occupants desire to purchase or lease their holdings. In case the present occupant does not desire

to purchase, but does desire to lease, he may do so for a term not longer than three years, at a reasonable rental, to be fixed by the Chief of the Land Bureau.

If the present settler or occupant of any portion of these Friar Lands desires to purchase, he is entitled to do so at the actual cost to the Government, and shall be allowed ten years from the date of purchase, within which to pay for the same in equal annual installments if he so desires; all deferred payments to pay interest at the rate of four per cent. per annum.

The present settler or occupant is to be given a refusal either to buy or lease, as above set forth, but all unoccupied lands, or lands which the present occupants do not desire to lease or buy, the Chief of the Bureau may lease, or offer for sale to other parties, as may seem for the best interests of the Government.

The Act also provides that all canals, reservoirs and other irrigation works, common to all the properties, shall remain under the exclusive control of the Government of the Philippine Islands, and the Government reserves, as a part of the contract of sale, the right to levy an equitable contribution or tax for the maintenance of such irrigation works, based upon the amount of benefits received.

The Philippine Government is authorized to designate any of these lands as non-alienable, if it so desires, and reserve the same for public use.

All money derived from the leasing or sale of these lands is to be promptly deposited in the Insular Treasury, to be held separate and apart from general Insular funds, and is to constitute a trust fund for the payment of the principal and interest of the bond issued by the Philippine Government for the purpose of raising money to pay the purchase price of these Friar Lands.

Philippine "Official Gazette."-The annual report of the Philippine Commission for 1903, which has lately been published, contains the report of the editor of the Official Gazette, a publication printed in English and Spanish, and issued weekly in Manila, under the general direction of the Secretary of Public Instruction of the Philippine Islands.

This publication was authorized by an Act of the Philippine Commission, approved September 2, 1902, and the first number is dated September 10, 1902. It contains the acts of the Commission, executive orders, important decisions of the Supreme Court, the Court of Custom Appeals and the Court of Land Registration and other material designated for publication by the Secretary of Public Instruction or which may be recommended by the editor and approved by the Secretary.

A copy of each number of the Official Gazette is deposited with the Civil Governor, the Secretaries of the several executive departments, the members of the Philippine Commission and several other high officials of the Government in the Philippines and is sent to the President of the United States, each member of his Cabinet and other officials resident in this country. Each provincial and municipal government is required to subscribe for one copy of the Gazette which is safely kept with the public records of the provinces or municipalities for reference.

In this way the prominent officials of the Philippine Government as well as those of the provinces and municipalities are kept in close touch with the laws and other matters affecting governmental affairs.

Philippine Forests and Forest Reserves.-Among the recent enactments of the Philippine Commission is one to regulate the use of the public forests and forest reserves in the Philippine Islands, the short title of which is "The Forest Act."

The public forests are made to include all unreserved public lands covered with trees of whatever age and are placed under the jurisdiction of the Chief of the Bureau of Forestry, his actions with reference thereto being subject to the approval of the Secretary of the Interior of the Philippine Islands. The Civil Governor upon the recommendation of the Chief of the Bureau of Forestry is empowered to set apart forest reserves from the public lands and is required to declare by proclamation the establishment of such reserves and their boundaries.

After the reserves have been set apart they cannot be entered, sold or otherwise disposed of, but must remain as such for forest use until the Civil Governor may see fit to revoke his proclamation at which time the reserve covered thereby becomes a part of the public lands.

The Chief of the Bureau of Forestry prescribes such regulations as may be necessary for the protection, management, reproduction, occupancy and use of the public forests and forest reserves in such manner as to insure for the future a continued supply of valuable timber and other products. For the purposes of the Act the several provinces in the Islands are divided into two classes and the various native trees into four groups.

The Chief of the Bureau of Forestry is given authority to issue licenses for the cutting, collection and removal of timber, firewood, gums, resins and other forest products from the public forests and forest reserves, each of the licenses specifying in detail the right to which it entitles the holder and providing for the selection of the timber before cutting. No officer or employee of the Bureau of Forestry is permitted to have any pecuniary interest in any forest or in any business in lumber or other forest products.

The Chief of the Bureau of Forestry estimates that there are about 40,000,000 acres of forest lands on the public domain of the Islands.

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