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must lay aside all airs of superiority, condescension, etc., if they wish to retain the privilege of assisting her in any way.
The sick and the criminal have not been neglected. In many cities of the Union women have established hospitals and managed them with “admirable wisdom." The Woman's Prison Associaton and Home, in New York, incorporated in 1854, carries on its work faithfully, the members being to the front in every effort for the prevention and the reform of criminal girls and women.
On the principle that “justice is better than charity" various other organizations have been founded. The Illinois Woman's Alliance, for instance, declares its object to be: (1) To agitate for the enforcement of all existing laws and ordinances that have been enacted for the protection of women and children, as the factory ordinances and the compulsory education laws. (2) To secure the enactment of such laws as shall be found necessary. (3) To investigate all business establishments and factories where women and children are employed and public institutions where women and children are maintained. (4) To procure the appointment of women as inspectors and as members of boards of education and to serve on boards of management of public institutions." This Alliance has already been instrumental in procuring the passage of a compulsory education law and has secured the appointment of women factory inspectors. The Consumer's League is a similar organization which is promising good service.
The Woman's Club Movement is another striking illustration of the co-operative spirit this age has awakened. The General Federation, in 1897, consisted of nearly five hundred individual clubs, uniting in one body about a million women representing nearly every State in the Union. Each constituent State Federation has adopted immediately on its formation, in 1894, "a special line of work, always educational in character and embracing education from the kindergarten to the university as represented in the State systems * * * public and traveling libraries, art interchanges, village and town improvement associations and constructive legislation." ?
Women are taking an active part in all philanthropic organizations consisting both of men and women members who are aiming to increase the "greatest happiness of the greatest numbers" as well as the "perfection of the rational and spiritual nature of conscious personality."
The Jewish Chautauqua Association held its eighth annual session at Atlantic City, July 10-31. This is a national society, and its work is organized on the familiar lines of the parent association, consisting primarily in the establishment of local "circles," with prescribed courses of reading and study. The annual meeting is merely an incident, so that the small attendance of members is not regarded by its officers as a discouraging circumstance. It differs, however, from all similar organizations in having for its special aim the study of the Hebrew Scriptures, which our Jewish friends, who reject the New Testament, call “the
5 Meyers, p. 343.
Scribner's, 1897, pp. 486-7.
Croly, J. C.: "History of the Woman's Club Movement," p. ix.
Bible." The same complaint is made by Jews as by Christians of the growing indifference to the Bible, and the ignorance of its contents and spiritual significance manifested by young men and women, otherwise fairly intelligent and well informed. Accordingly, the official programme included courses of instruction, particularly designed for the benefit of clergymen and students of divinity in the Hebrew language, in the history of the Jewish Church and its ceremonial observances, and in archæology and the higher criticism. Few persons are aware of the fact that Hebrew is not a dead but a living tongue, with a contemporary literature unknown to the world at large, including poetry and fiction. It is believed that more persons are to-day able to converse freely on all subjects of current interest in this language than at any period in history since the "diaspora" or the dispersion of the Jewish people after the capture of Palestine by the Assyrians, in the eighth century, B.C. An interesting feature of this meeting was the presence of a colored man, of unmixed negro blood, said to be an Episcopal clergyman, who has now been a member of the Association for three years in succession and has earned a certificate of his acquired ability, to read, write and speak Hebrew-something that he could not have learned in any Christian school in the United States.
The Jewish Chautauqua must not be confounded with the National Conference of Jewish Charities, which is a separate organization, made up originally of delegates from the Hebrew relief associations, but whose scope has been enlarged to include representatives of all Jewish charitable institutions, and which confines itself to the discussion of the problems of general and specialized philanthropy.
The administration of charity by the Jews is noted, the world over, for its wisdom, humanity and practical efficiency. They carry into it their deep religious feeling and their keen business sense. It is both shrewd and liberal, and it is characterized by strict conformity to economic law. No other people is so deeply imbued with the sentiment of moral responsibility to care for its own poor and unfortunate members at its own cost, without resort to outside aid. In this country, however, prior to the recent extraordinary influx of Jewish immigrants, fleeing from the tyranny and oppression of Russia, there was comparatively small demand for the expenditure of money in this particular direction. The burden which American Judaism has now to carry is enormous, in comparison to the size and wealth of the Jewish population, and it is rapidly increasing. It is therefore not surprising to find, upon the Chautauqua programme, a week devoted to work in the "department of applied philanthropy."
If the Jews do not ask American Christians for money, they show a remarkable and praiseworthy willingness to accept help in the form of counsel by experts in charities and correction not of their own religious faith; and the selection of topics and speakers, during the final week of the session, by the Rev. Dr. Henry Berkowitz, of Philadelphia, was admirable. Dr. Edward T. Devine, the able Secretary of the New York Charity Organization Society, spoke on the value of special professional training for all charity workers, as now given in three American cities, New York, Chicago and Boston. Mr. Robert W. de Forest, President of
the N. Y. C. O. S., and recently Tenement House Commissioner under Mayor Low's administration, discussed the housing problem which is of peculiar interest to religionists who furnish so large a percentage of the dwellers in the overcrowded tenement districts of the East Side. He was followed by Miss Emily W. Dinwiddie, of Philadelphia. Mr. Marcus M. Marks, of New York, a manufacturer and large employer of labor, who is a member of the Civic Federation, was announced to speak on the labor problem in its relation to applied philanthropy, but confined himself in fact to a general statement of the nature of the labor problem and of the work of the Federation. He favored the "open shop." Mr. Sargent, U. S. Commissioner of Immigration, at an evening session which was attended by a large audience, held the undivided attention of his hearers for two full hours by a very happy talk on the immigration laws and their administration. He detailed the recent changes for the better at Ellis Island and other immigration stations; deplored the necessity under the law for so many reshipments to Europe, and said that the remedy consists in inspection and detention at the port of departure; and dwelt at length on the necessity for a more general distribution of immigrants, especially in the West and South, which he thought would be promoted by the creation of a free governmental bureau of information to be connected with the Bureau of Immigration. Dr. Frederick H. Wines, for thirty years the Secretary of the Illinois State Board of Public Charities, and more recently the Assistant Director of the United States Census, explained the relation which subsists between charity and correction, taking as the text of his paper the declaration of a leading Jewish Rabbi, that the Hebrew word t'sadekah is used to express the conception both of charity and of justice, since to Jewish thought charity which is not just is not charity, and justice which is not tempered by mercy is not justice. It is said that this was the first address ever delivered before a Jewish audience on the problems of crime and its treatment; and its inclusion in the programme was suggested by the fact that now, for the first time in our history as a nation, the number of Jewish offenders, adult and juvenile, in our prisons and reformatory institutions, is large enough to be appreciable. It is also said that few, if any, of them are natives; practically they are all recent importations. This is also true of Jewish paupers. Mr. Nibecker, Superintendent of the Pennsylvania Reform School, at Glen Mills, discussed the question of juvenile crime. Finally, Dr. Talcott Williams, of the Philadelphia Press, delivered a popular lecture on the oppression of the Jews and other subject races by the government of Russia.
All of the general sessions were held in the new assembly hall of the Royal Palace Hotel, which is the headquarters of the Association. It meets in Atlantic City year after year. The gathering is one marked by intense earnestness, and no provision is necessary for the mere amusement of the members. The "show" feature common to most Chautauqua assemblies is entirely eliminated.
III. NOTES ON COLONIES AND DEPENDENCIES
Hawaiian Finances.-In view of various conflicting and erroneous reports as to the status of the territorial finances, the statement given herewith has been furnished from an authoritative source in the Islands.
The finances of the Territory of Hawaii are in better shape to-day than they have ever been since the date of annexation by the United States. Prior to that time these Islands were in receipt of an annual revenue approximating one and one-half million dollars, derived from Customs and Internal Revenue sources. Since annexation this money has gone annually into the Federal treasury. Notwithstanding the loss to the Territory of this large amount of revenue, equal to ten dollars per capita of Hawaii's population, the expenses of the Territory had been maintained upon their former basis, that is to say there had been no reduction in the number of employees or the current expenses in any single department of the government. In an effort to supply the deficiency in the revenue the system of direct taxation was largely increased, but this was insufficient to meet the requirements and each financial year found greater deficiencies. The shortage of one year was made up by drawing upon the income for the subsequent year. At the beginning of 1904, conditions were such that Governor Carter, who had only been in office for five weeks, after a close examination of the Territory's condition, deemed it necessary to call an extra session of the Legislature. This session lasted only twelve days. Most effective work was accomplished in reducing the amount of expenditure which had been authorized by the previous Legislature and curtailing the disbursements which had been authorized on salary account. The result is that, beginning with the first day of July, 1904, appropriations for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1905, will be slightly under two million dollars, while a conservative estimate places the Territory's income for the same period at rather more than two and one-quarter million dollars. Upon such a working basis the Territory will soon be in a position to "make good" advances that have been furnished for the previous years' disbursements and will again be running on an absolutely cash basis.
It is true that the affairs of the Territory were in an unsatisfactory condition, but they have been satisfactorily adjusted. As the Territory is unable under its organic law to borrow money to cover any deficit in its income, it must pay as it goes. Bonds can only be issued for public improvements, with the approval of the President, the amount being limited by the Organic Act. At the present time the total bonded indebtedness of the Territory does not exceed two and one-half per cent. of the taxable property. By next November every item of current indebtedness will have been paid. The outlook for economic administration is decidedly more favorable than it was at the close of 1903.
The Territory's difficulty arose mainly through the habit into which the Legislature fell of passing large appropriations without regard to the public income, the previous administration not having placed any check upon them
or drawn the attention of the Legislators to the fact that they were exceeding the income.
Instances of the changes in revenue of the Territory can be shown by the fact that the customs receipts from these Islands in 1899 amounted to almost $1,300,000 and from the Post Office to $120,000-besides about $200,000 collected through the department of Public Works. These sums have since gone annually to the Federal departments in Washington. The receipts of the tax office from property taxes have increased from $1,072,000 in 1899 to $1,678,000 in 1903. This shows a gain of $600,000-as compared with the loss of $1,600,000-taken by the Federal Government. Revenues from the Water Works and Public Lands Offices also show some little gain during the same period, but it has been impossible to make up what the Federal Government has taken and no effort was made to curtail the expenditures. At the present time, however, the outlook is infinitely more satisfactory than it has been since annexation and under the present economic administration Hawaii should soon be working upon a cash basis, with only the small bonded indebtedness which has been incurred for public improvements of a permanent nature.
Filipino Students in the United States. The second quarterly report of Prof. Wm. Alex. Sutherland in charge of the Filipino students in the United States has been received by the Bureau of Insular Affairs, War Department; from it the following facts have been taken:
Upon their arrival in San Francisco in November, 1903, it was thought best to have the students remain in Southern California during their first winter in the United States, as they had never experienced any other than a tropical climate, and as their medical attendance for the first six months has cost on an average less than $2.50 per student, the wisdom of the plan has been proven.
The students have grown both in weight and height and the results obtained in bearing and general appearance are very noticeable. The people of Southern California have received the students into their homes and they have also participated in the social life of the towns where they have been attending school.
Many of the young men have taken part in the school entertainments using the English language, and a number have addressed teacher's institutes. They have also done well in school work as may be seen from a report made by Professor Gates, President of Pomona College where eight Filipinos had been located. He states, "I have made special inquiry at our faculty meeting about your boys. I find that they are without exception doing exceedingly well. It would be hard to the extent of practical impossibility to pick out any haphazard bunch of eight students of whom the same could be said.
"The only weak spot was in the English work, which of course was nothing against the boys. It was simply something that would happen to me if I were in a Spanish school. It is the one place where the language handicap specially shows, but in that their work is faithful and efficient."
The present plan is to collect the students at some suitable place after the school year is over and give them a special summer course along the lines