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of distribution, however, at least as regards essentials he places himself squarely on the same footing with those adherents of the productivity theory to whom the above classification of the factors of production seems to be especially objectionable. To his view, as to theirs, under normal or static conditions each factor gets what it produces. In the development of the theory the mathematical method with its use of the marginal and differential concepts is employed throughout. In his treatment of the rent of land gradations between different kinds of land and the different powers in each kind are regarded as so far from being infinitesimal as to warrant a classification analogous to the author's classification of labor groups—which, it may be added, is modeled after Cairns' theory of noncompeting groups. From a pedagogical standpoint the whole discussion of distribution is full of difficulties, for except under the most skillful exposition at the hands of a thoroughly equipped teacher the average student will fail to eliminate the frictional forces from his view of normal economic processes and will not acquire the habit of reasoning in marginals and differentials. On the other hand, frequent, thorough and accurate summaries of arguments here as elsewhere in the book, and unambiguous and consistent use of terms (e. g., in the distinctions between capital and capital goods, between cost and expense and between painful effort and sacrifice) ought to do much to neutralize these difficulties.

In conclusion it ought to be said of the work as a whole that the author's manifest attempt to make it at once concise, comprehensive and authoritative, although adding to its merit as a treatise on economics, is likely to detract from its usefulness as a text-book with students of immature mind. But even when this has been said the reviewer cannot avoid the opinion that the book is altogether the best introduction to the study of economics that has yet been written. ROSWELL C. MCCREA.

Bowdoin College.

The Expansion of Russia, 1815-1900.


viii, 386. Price, 6s. Cambridge: University Press, 1903.

A concise historical account of the expansion of Russia in the nineteenth century, relating not only to the military and diplomatic events connected with it, but also exposing the underlying racial and economic causes, would be a welcome addition to the ever increasing literature on the Eastern situation. Mr. Skrine's book, however, only partially meets this need. The title which he has chosen is not a true index of the contents. The work is in reality a general history of Russia written after the style of the Oxford series of European History, edited by Hassall. The author has not made the salient features of Russian expansion the central theme of his book, but has simply grouped the events of foreign and domestic importance under the reigns covering the period with which he deals. True to English precedent, he treats politics and diplomacy with great detail. Considerable attention is devoted to the part played by Alexander I. in the European settlement of 1815, to the Russification and government of Poland, to the Turkish question, and to the advance in Asia. One of the most interesting features of the book is the attitude which the author, a retired Indian

civil servant, takes toward Anglo-Russian relations in the East. While believing that the true interests of Russia lie in the Asiatic rather than in the European advance, Mr. Skrine scouts the idea of Russian designs upon British dominions. Quite rightly he regards the successive stages of Russian advance into the southeast as the result of unforeseen and inevitable circumstances rather than of a farsighted and conscious policy. The Russian movements in the direction of India he considers merely as menaces to England in case the latter power attempts to thwart her real purpose in the Asiatic advance which is the opening of Eastern trade routes through the ice free ports. The author condemns British foreign policy in the East as “one of undignified protest and panic,” and pleads for a modus vivendi and cordial relations between the two countries. This view is held by a large number of Englishmen-even Lord Beaconsfield thought Asia wide enough for both Russia and England—but the logic of recent events may alter their opinion. Had Mr. Skrine written his book after the outbreak of the Russo-Japanese War, he might not have been so optimistic, even though he regards Japan as intoxicated by the "lust of dominion"—a species of intoxication not peculiar to that people. In the competition for the land-borne Indian trade and predominance in Persia, the author considers Germany "a more subtile antagonist than England." On the Finnish question, Mr. Skrine takes middle ground, holding that "perfervid patriotism has led the Finlanders to forget past favors and the wisdom of conciliating their mighty neighbor," while Russia "might probably have secured all her aims by adopting strictly legal methods and appealing to the steadfast loyalty of the Finnish people." Russian social and economic questions are not neglected in the book, although their interesting character makes one wish that more space had been devoted to them. Domestic reforms in civil and military administration, abolition of serfdom, extension of the railway system and, especially, the industrial developments of the last quarter of a century are treated somewhat at length. Mr. Skrine believes in the "intrinsic soundness" of the new capitalist undertakings, notwithstanding some apparent instability. He points out the imminence of the social revolution which must follow the shifting of economic forces and classes brought about by the industrial revolution. The book closes with a brief account of the Tsar's peace circular and The Hague Conference, which is held to be "not devoid of solid results." The value of the work is enhanced by a full and well-selected bibliography, a carefully prepared index, and three maps-two of which are of special importance, showing step by step the extension of the frontiers and the present expanse of the Empire with all its important railway trunk lines. ! CHARLES A. BEARD.


Annuaire-Almanach l'Action Populaire; Guide Social, 1904. Paris: Lecoffre.

Bayot, A., Le Roman de Gillion de Trazegnies. Louvain: Chas. Peeters. 4 fr.

Beard, C. A., The Office of Justice of the Peace in England in its Origin and Development. Macmillan. $1.50.

Béchaux, A., La Réglementation du Travail. Paris: Lecoffre. 2 fr.

Blondel, G., La Politique Protectioniste en Angleterre. Paris: Lecoffre. 2 fr.

Bourguin, M., Les Systèmes Socialistes et l'Évolution Économique. Paris: Armand Colin.

10 fr.

Brussels: Polleunis & Ceuterich.
Louvain: Chas. Peeters.

de Bray, A. J., La Belgique et le Marche Asiatique.
Chavée, F., Propriétaires et Fermiers en Angleterre.
de Coubertin, P., La Chronique de France, 1903. Auxerre-Paris: A. Lanier.
Curtis, F., The Republican Party, 1854-1904. 2 vols. Putnams. $6.00.
Doherty, H. L., Editor, Ohio Gas Light Association, 1904.

Dopp, K. E., The Tree-Dwellers. Chicago: Rand, McNally Co. $0.45.

Du Bois, W. E. B., Ed. by. The Negro Church. Atlanta, Ga.: Atlanta University. $0.50. Duguid, C., The Stock Exchange. London: Methuen & Co. 2s. 6d.

Elson, H. W., History of the United States of America. Macmillan.

Ensor, R. C. K., Ed. by. Modern Socialism, as set forth by Socialists in their Speeches, Writings and Programmes. Harpers. $1.50.

Freund, E., The Police Power. Chicago: Callaghan & Co. $6.00.

Gilman, N. P., Methods of Industrial Peace.

Houghton, Mifflin & Co. $1.60.

Halsey and Dale, The Metric Fallacy. New York: D. Van Nostrand Co. $1.00.
Hamilton, A., Korea. Scribners. $4.00.

Hammond, B. E., Outlines of Comparative Politics.

Haskins, C. W., Business Education and Accounting.

London: Rivington.
Harpers. $2.00.

Hatch, L. C., The Administration of the American Revolutionary Army. Longmans, Green & Co.

Howard, G. E., A History of Matrimonial Institutions. 3 vols. Chicago: University Press, $10.00.

Les Industries Insalubres. Jena: Gustav Fischer.
Jellinek, G., L'Etat Moderne et son Droit. Paris: Albert Fontemoing.
Johnson, W. F., A Century of Expansion. Macmillan.
Jones, T. J., The Sociology of a New York City Block.
Ladoff, I., American Pauperism and the Abolition of Poverty. Chicago: C. H. Kerr & Co.

Macmillan. $1.00.

de Lannoy, Fl., Les Origines Diplomatiques de l'Independence Belge. Louvain: Chas. Peeters.
Lavisse, E., Histoire de France. Tome V, pt. 2. Paris: Hachette & Cie.
Liégeois, C., Gilles de Chin, l'Histoire et la Légende. Louvain: Chas. Peeters. 4 fr.
Luckey, G. W. A., The Professional Training of Secondary Teachers in the United States.
Macmillan. $2.00.

Marx, K., A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy. New York: International
Lib. Pub. Co. $1.50.

von Mayr, G., Allgemeines Statistisches Archiv. Tübingen: H. Laupp 'sche Buchhandlung. McDermott, E. R., Railways. London: Methuen & Co. 2s. 6d.

Miltoun, F., Ships and Shipping. London: Alexander Moring. 5s.

Moody, J., Truth About the Trusts. New York: Moody Pub. Co. $5.00. *

Müller, D. H., Die Gesetze Hammurabis und ihr Verhaltnis zur mosaischen Gesetzebung sowie zu den XII. Tafeln. Wien: Alfred Hölder. 10 M.

Müller, D. H., Uber die Gesetze Hammurabis Vortrag gehalten in der Wiener Juristischen Gesellschaft am 23 März, 1904. Wien: Alfred Hölder. 1 M.

Municipal Problems in Michigan, Papers and Discussions at the joint Meeting of the Michigan Political Science Association and the League of Michigan Municipalities held at Ann Arbor, Feb. 11-12, 1904. $1.00.

Murphy, E. G., Problems of the Present South. Macmillan.


Osgood, H. L., The American Colonies in the Seventeenth Century. 2 vols. Macmillan. $5.00. Owen, D., Ports and Docks. London: Methuen & Co. 2s. 6d.

Peirce, P. S., The Freedmen's Bureau-A Chapter in the History of Reconstruction. Iowa City: University of Iowa.

de Peralta, M. M., Costa Rica y Costa de Mosquitos. Paris: Generale Lahure.

de Peralta, M. M., Expose' des droits territoriaux de la Republique de Costa Rica. Paris: Generale Lahure.

Platter, J., Grundlehren der Nationalökonomie, Kritische Einführung in die soziale Wirtschaftswissenschaft. Berlin: J. Guttentag.

Post, L. F., Ethics of Democracy.

New York: Moody Pub. Co.

Rivière, L., La Terre et l'Atelier, Jardins ouvriers. Paris.: Lecoffre. 2 fr. Robinson, C., A History of Two Reciprocity Treaties. New Haven, Conn.: Tuttle, Morehouse & Taylor Press.

Rowe, L. S., The United States and Porto Rico, with Special Reference to the Problems Arising out of our Contact with the Spanish-American Civilization. New York: Longmans, Green & Co. $1.30.

von Schierbrand, Russia-Her Strength and Her Weakness. New York: Putnams. Scott, S. P., History of the Moorish Empire in Europe. 3 vols.


Philadelphia: Lippincott Co.

Shaler, N. S., The Neighbor-The Natural History of Human Contacts. Houghton, Mifflin & Co.


Shambaugh, B. F., Ed. by. Messages and Proclamations of the Governors of Iowa. Vols. I-IV. Iowa City: State Historical Society.

Strachan, W., Cost Accounts: The Key to Economy in Manufacture. London: Stevens & Haynes. 3s. 6d.

Straker, F., The Money Market. London: Methuen & Co. 2s. 6d.

Strong, J., Social Progress: A Year Book and Encyclopedia of Economic, Industrial, Social and Religious Statistics. New York: Baker & Taylor Co. $1.00.

Talbot, E. A., Samuel Chapman Armstrong: A Biographical Study. New York: Doubleday, Page & Co. $1.50.

Tenement House Department of the City of New York. 2 vols. New York: Martin B. Brown Press.

Terlinden, Ch., Le Pape Clément IX. et la Guerre de Candie (1667-1669). Louvain: Chas. Peeters. 5 fr.

Thomas, D. Y., A History of Military Government in Newly Acquired Territory of the United States. New York: Columbia University Press,

Thorndike, E. L., Heredity, Correlation and Sex Differences in School Abilities. Macmillan. $0.50.

Le Travail de nuit des Femmes dans l'Industrie. Jena: Gustav Fischer.

3.50 fr.

Gröningen, P. Noordhoff.

Van Roey, E., De Justo Auctario ex Contractu Crediti. Louvain: Van Linthout.
Verhoeven, L. G., Des Effets de Commerce. Louvain: Chas. Peeters.
Vermaut, R., Les Grèves des Chemins de Fer en Hollande en 1903.
Vermaut, R., Les Régies Municipales en Angleterre. Paris: Victor Lecoffre.
Vidal, Georges, Considerations sur 1 État Actuel de la Criminalité en France. Paris: Librairie
Nouvelle de droit et de Jurisprudence.

Ward, A. W., Prothero, G. W., and Leathes, Stanley, Ed. by. The Cambridge Modern History.
Vol. VIII. Macmillan. $4.00.

Washington, B. T., Working with the Hands.

New York: Doubleday, Page & Co. $1.50.

Wilson, A. J., The Business of Insurance. London: Methuen & Co. 2s. 6d.



Denver.-Home Rule for Cities. The Twentieth Article-better known as the Rush Amendment—to the Constitution of Colorado, was, on the 18th day of March, 1901, submitted to the electors of the State and, by them, ratified at the general election in November. The Governor, by proclamation, declared the amendment in force December 1. Immediately the courts were asked to pass on the constitutionality of the amendment. The decision of the Supreme Court, sustaining the constitutionality of the amendment, was handed down February 27, 1903.

While the amendment was intended, principally, to create the "City and County of Denver," and give it home rule, there was added a section extending the privilege of home rule to cities of the first and second classes if they desired it. But not one of these cities has taken advantage of the opportunity to adopt a charter and govern itself under organic laws of its own creating.

The charter adopted by the First Charter Convention of Denver, in session from June 9 to August 1, 1903, was rejected by the people. A second Charter Convention has been held and a new charter, radically different from the first, is now before the people. If it is rejected, March 29, a new election for members of a third Convention must be held within thirty days, and the members elected must proceed to the making of a new charter. In the meantime the organic laws of Denver remain the same as they were when the Twentieth Article went into effect. If the people ratify the present proposed charter, it becomes the organic law of the "City and County of Denver" as soon as the City Clerk files two duly certified copies of the same with the Secretary of State. The legislature has no authority in the matter.

The question of most serious import is, Is the City and County of Denver entirely without the jurisdiction of the State Legislature.

The amendment declares that Denver "shall have the exclusive power to amend its charter, or adopt a new charter, or to adopt any measure," and further declares that "no such charter, charter amendment or measure shall diminish the tax rate for State purposes fixed by an Act of the General Assembly," or interfere with the collection of State taxes. In the case of State of Colorado, ex rel Elder vs. Sours, in which the constitutionality of the Twentieth Article was determined, Justice Campbell declared Denver to be "absolutely free from all constitutional restraint and from any supervision by the General Assembly." But Justice Steele declared: "The provision that every charter shall designate the officers who shall, respectively, perform the acts and duties required of county 1 Communication of Professor Frank H. Roberts, University of Denver, March 15, 1904.

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